****** Full text of
Ont.,_from_the_earliest_settlement_to_the_present._--" ******


Ctinadlan History HISTORY ... OF THE . . .  COUNTIES OF . .






Entered according to Act of Parliament of Canada, in the year one thousand
eight hundred and ninety-six, by C. THOMAS, in the office of the Minister
of Agriculture and Statistics at Ottawa.



In a volume of ordinary size it would be impossible, of course, to
give a sketch of all the pioneers in a district of much extent ; in
the outset of the present work, therefore, it was the intention of the
writer to give biographi cal sketches of only the very early pioneers
and those who, in different ways?  had become prominently identified
with the history of the two Counties. It was in pursuance of this plan
that a few of the longer sketches were written ; but among so many of
the early settlers who arrived in the country about the same time,
it was no easymatter to decide which was the more justly entitled
to notice. To obviate this difficulty, and to avoid the very common
complaint against Local Histories that they mention only the rich and
fortunate it was determined to notice, by giving shorter sketches, all
who evinced sufficient interest in the work to subscribe for it. But
in pursuing this plan, we have by no means neglected to mention any
individual or event whose history is at all likely to add interest
to the work. Numbers of individuals, therefore, who have passed away,
leaving no descendants in the country, have been accorded quite as much
space as those surviving. In ou r desire to do justice to all, and record
every incident brought to our notice which seemed worthy of preservation,
we have enlarged the book considerably beyond our intention at first,
and, beyond the size stated in the prospectus.  In a book of so many
and varied subjects, it would be scarcely less than a miracle should not
errors be found and, especially, when the writer in several instances has
discovered serious mistakes in notes which the individuals who gave them
regarded as perfectly correct. It is believed, however, that what ever
errors may yet be discovered, if any, will be of so trifling a nature that

they will not seriously affect the value of the work.

That the work has been a very laborious one, the reader will at once
perceive, indeed, the writer, from ill health, has more than once almost
despaired of completing it ; but He who tempers the wind to the shorn lamb
has enabled him to persevere through many discouragements and bring it
to completion. He would acknowledge himself profoundly grateful for the
assistance rendered by the different clergymen whose contributions appear
in these pages, as well as for that extended by W. J. Simpson, M.P. P. ;

v jii PREFACE.

G. W. Parmelee, Secretary of the Council of Public Instruct ; G^F. Calder
Esq. Cols. Shields and Higginson, Sheriff Hagar, G. J.Walker, Esq., Dewar,
Esq., Duncan Dewar, Esq., T. T. Higginson, Esq., and several others.

" He that writes

Or makes a feast, more certainly invites

His judges than his friends ; there s not a guest

But will find something wanting or ill-drest."

However true the above lines, the value of local history increases with
the progress of culture, and its benefit no one will deny. This volume^
i presented to the public with the belief that it will be accorded a
recepti sufficiently cordial to save the author the unpleasant reflection,
that his lal

has been performed in vain.

Page 109, line 6, the legal right of any protestant clergyman except
those of he established churches of England and Scotland to keep re gl
sters of civil status or

to officiate at marriages.

Page 123, Hue 8, The late James Middleton.

Page i2S, 4th line from bottom, Lord Reay.

Page 147 * 19, For Catherine McLean, read Catherine McLaunn.

Page 222, last line, read Mr. Walker s present dwelling.

Page 223, line 25, for an Elder read Manager.

Page 461, ist line, for Western read Eastern.

Page 466, line 19, for this company, read their company.

The Ottawa 9

Champlain s Astrolabe ,,....... 1 1

The Heroes of the Long Sault 15

The Indians descent of the Ottawa with furs 20

do do do 21

Opening of the fur trade on the Pacific.... 21

Mr. Philemon Wright s ascent of the Ottawa 24

Navigation on the Ottawa 26

Places of interest on the Ottawa 32

County of Argenteuil 34

Census of 1891 34

Geology of Argenteuil 35

Representatives 39

Sir J. J. C. Abbott 42

Agricultural Society 45

County Council 48

Argenteuil Rangers 48

Fenian raids ,.,... 51

The Schools of Argenteuil 58

Inhabitants of Argenteuil 60

Scotch settlers of Argenteuil 63

Seigniory of Argenteuil 66

Sir John Johnson 67

St. Andrew s Parish 70

do Village 70

Churches , 103

Anglican Church 103

Presbyterian Church 104

Roman Catholic Church 114

Baptist 117

Congregational 119

Methodist.... 122

Bible Society 1 23

C. E. Society 123

W. C. T. U. Society 123

Woman s Missionary Society 123

Masonic Lodge 1 24

Mercantile 131

Cote du Midi and the Bay 1 38

River Rouge 147

Beech Ridge 151

Geneva 156

Carillon 162

Employees on Carillon Canal 1 86

Municipal Council 190

The Dam 191

Isle aux Chats 193

Town of Lachute 194

Reminiscences of early days , 213

Professional 227

Rise and Progress of Education 232

Lachute Academy 233

Rise and Progress of Religion 237

Presbyterian Church 238

Henry s Presbyterian Church 242

Anglican Church 243

Baptist ; 244

Methodist 246

Roman Catholic Church 248

W. C. T. U. and C. E. Societies 248

Mechanics Institute 249

Manufactures 250

Paper Mills 253

Newspapers 262

Bridges and railroads 263

Mercantile establishments 263

Hotels 266

Parish of St. Jerusalem d Argenteuil 269

East Settlement 272

Bethany 277

Videsac 278

Hill Head 279

Chatham 280

Gushing 297

St. Mungo s Church 302

Greece s Point 307

Stonefield 309

St. Phillip 313

Roman Catholic Church 316

Staynerville 322

Brownsburg... 324

Dominion Cartridge Factory 326

Mount Maple 333

Dalesville 336

Baptist Church 343

Edina 365

Grenville 366

Grenville Village 367

Anglican Church 378

Presbyterian t 379

Roman Catholic 379

Methodist 383

Baptist 384

Mercantile , 388

La Belle Falls 396

Calumet 398

Augmentation of Grenville 403

Point au Chene 404

Avoca 407

Harrington 4

Lost River.... 416

Lake View . . 418

The Glen 4 21

Wentworth 422

Louisa 424

Wentworth Glen 4 2 5

Laurel 428

Montfort 4 2 **


INDEX. Continued-

Gore 43

Lakefield 432

Shrewsbury 436

Mille Isles 438

Cambria 441

Morin 444

Morin Flats 445

Arundel 447

Montcalm 460

Howard . . 460

Prescott 461

Census of 1 89 1 461

Representatives of Prescott , 462

Inhabitants 464

Militia officers of 1838 467

l8th Battalion of Militia 467

Schools of Prescott 468

Progress of the timber industry 471

Agricultural Society 475

Point Fortune 477

The H. B. and N.W. Companies 485

A Canadian Heroine 495

Longueuil . 502

L Orignal 513

Methodist Church 515

Presbyterian 517

Roman Catholic 520

Anglican Church 520

Professional Men and Officials 520

Mercantile and Business Men 524

Newspapers 528

Cassburn 529

Hawkesbury Mills 533

Churches 542

Presbyterian Church 542

Anglican Church 543

Manufactures 547

Mercantile 549

Evandale , 551

Green Lane 553

West Hawkesbury 554

Henry 563

Vankleek Hill 564

Presbyterian Church 570

Anglicau Church 571

Methodist Church , 572

Baptist Church 573

Roman Catholic Church 5 74

Schools 575

Hotels 577

Manufactories 578

Newspapers 580

East Hawkesbury 588

Chute au Blondeau 588

Little Rideau 597

Stardale 604

St. Eugene 609

do R.C. Church 6o

Barb 615

Caledonia 621

Fenaghvale 622

do St. Paul s Church 625

St. Amour 627

Caledonia Springs , 628

Alfred 630

do R. C. Church 630

Lafaivre 631

Holmes Settlement 635

Alfred Village 635

James Settlement 638

North Plantagenet 6 38

Plantagenet Mills 638

do Churches 641

do Hotels 642

Treadwell 6 44

Hughes Settlement 645

Jessup s Falls 6 45

Curran 646

Ceuterfield 6 47

Rockdale 6 49

Pendleton 6 5 J

Smith Settlement 6 53

do Prest. Church 654

South Plantagenet 6 55

Riceville 6 5 6

Franklin s Corners 662

Lemieux 663

Fournier 663



this noble river is the dividing line between the two Counties to the
history of which this volume is devoted, and, moreover, is the stream upon
which thousands of their inhabitants have toiled for the maintenance of
them selves or families, it naturally deserves more than a passing notice.

Fine, charming, beautiful, lovely, wonderful river, are expressions any
one or all of which may be heard daily on the steamers which ply its
waters ; and ex travagant and ridiculous as seem these adjectives when
applied to many objects, no one ever regards them inappropriate when
applied to the Ottawa.

Coming from the far North, from regions almost unknown, there is a
certain mystery about it, which awakens our curiosity and engenders
a spirit of romance.  While its beautiful islands and the picturesque
scenery of its shores are continually demanding our admiration, as we
ascend its current, its breadth is an ever- present source of wonder.

From the moment we leave Lake St. Louis, where it unites with the St. Law
rence, till we have passed two hundred miles beyond the Dominion Capital,
we look in vain for any perceptible decrease of its breadth and volume ;
there is the same oft-recurring change from river to lake, from lake to
river. The Ottawa is

emphatically a river of lakes, and of the last fifty miles of its course,
they form no small proportion.

Scarcely have we left Lake St. Louis, ere we enter the beautiful Lake
of Two Mountains, every square rood of whose shores is replete with
historic interest.  Leav.  ing this, we are soon on the expansive
bosom of St. Placide Bay, and anon on Rigaud Bay, each vying with the
other in beauty and area, as well as in the importance of its historic
associations. And thus we may sail, seeing river after river, and some of
them large in size, adding their waters to those of the mighty Ottawa,
without causing the slightest apparent difference in its size ; indeed,
it is said that it is broader 280 miles from its mouth than it is after
Deceiving twenty tributaries, and several of them such streams as the
Gatineau, the Li^vre, the North and South Nations, the

Rouge and the River du Nord. Wonderful indeed ! But our interest increases
as we cast our eyes along the history of the past, and see the important
events with which the Ottawa has been connected. It was the highway of
the early French explorers,



traders and missionaries who brought the first tidings of the Gospel
to the natives of New France. It was traversed by the red man when he
first in peace bartered the

products of the chase with the whites at Montreal; also, when he stole
stealthily upon them to dye his tomahawk in their blood. This was the
route pursued by the coureurs du bois, as they went to and from their
far-off haunts for game, and many decades later the Ottawa bore the
canoes ^of the Nor Westers, and returned them with rich

cargoes of peltries.

The earliest event with which the Ottawa is associated, which we find
mentione< Canadian history, is its ascent by Champlain, in 1613, on a
wild goose chase, to discover the North Sea. A person named Vigneau had
accompanied him on several visits to the Indians, and spent a winter among
them. He reported that the river of the Algonquins (the Ottawa) issued
from a lake connected with the North Sea ; that he had visited the shores
of this sea, and there witnessed the wreck of an English vessel. The
crew eighty in number had reached the shore, where the inhabitants had
killed and scalped them all except a boy, whom they offered to give
up to him, with other trophies of their victory. Champlain had this
declaration made in writ ing, and signed before two notaries, at the
same time warning Vigneau that if it were false, he would be liable to
punishment by death. Vigneau adhered to his statements, and Champlain,
having learned that some English vessels had been wrecked on the

coast of Labrador, no longer doubted, and prepared to depart for the
North to explore that section of the country.

With two canoes containing four Frenchmen including Vigneau-and one
Indian, he proceeded up the Ottawa, during which voyage he experienced
severe hardships

and encountered many difficulties. Owing to frequent rapids and cataracts,

were obliged, often, to carry their canoes and stores overland, and
sometimes this was impossible, on account of the dense forests and
undergrowth. The latter diffi culty was overcome only by dragging their
boats through the rapid current, where their lives were in constant
jeopardy. Another danger, also, continually menaced them, that of meeting
wandering bands of Iroquois, to whose ferocity they would

doubtless have fallen victims. At last they were obliged to abandon
their corn and trust entirely to their success in hunting and fishing
for provisions.

They finally reached the habitations of Tessonat, a friendly chief,
whos country was eight days journey from that of the Nipissings, where
the shipwreck was said to have occurred. He received them courteously ;
but in a council which was held later, he promised, only on the most
earnest entreaty, to comply with Cham- plain s request for an escort of
four canoes. Finding the Indians still reluctant t fulfill this piomise
and averse to accompany him, he demanded another meeting, u which he
reproached them with their intended breach of faith; and to convince
them that the fears which they expressed were groundless, referred to
the fact of Vigneau having spent some time among the Nipissings.

Vigneau being then called on to state whether such was the case, after
some hesitation and evident reluctance replied in the affirmative. The
chief immediately


called him a liar, asserted that he had never been beyond the limits
of their own country, and declared that he deserved torture for his
dishonesty. Being submitted to a rigid examination by Champlain, Vigneau
was obliged to admit that what the Indians said was true, and that his
tale, by which Champlain had been led to encounter such hard ships,
and neglect matters he had so much at heart, was a fabrication. Leaving
him with the Indians as punishment for his perfidy, Champlain returned
to Quebec, and soon afterward to France.

In 1867110 little interest was awakened among antiquarians by the finding
of an Astrolabe, which there very is good proof was lost by Champlain
on his trip up the Ottawa which is described above.

We are indebted to Mr. Colin Dewar, of Ottawa, for the account which
follows.  He says :

I have a distinct recollection that an article appeared in the Montreal
Witness, in the summer of 1867, giving an account of the finding of an
Astrolabe near Portage du Fort, on the Ottawa.

This was a most interesting relic, on account of its being (as was
conjectured) the one used by Champlain on his voyage of exploration
up the Ottawa in 1613. In order to ascertain the truth of the report,
and to obtain, if possible, the fullest information regarding it, I
instituted a vigorous search (for a time with very little prospect of
success) ; but considering that no trouble would be too great to secure
the proper information icgarding such a valuable relic, I persevered
in my endeavors, a ultimately was rewarded by finding a very complete
account in pamphlet form, from the pen of the W A.J. Russell, Esq., Crown
Timber Agent in Ottawa, whose son, John Alex.  Russell, Esq., of the
Public Works Department, has also contributed some exceedingly valuable
information. The account given by Mr. Russell is so very interesting,
and deals with the subject in such a scientific manner, that it will be
both pleasing and profitable to the readers of these sketches to have
it faithfully transcribed.


and FOUND IN AUGUST, 1867.

In the preface, Mr. Russell says : " This brief treatise was not
originally wiitten with a view to " publication ; but as the subject
is connected with the early history of Canada, and throws a little "
additional light on an obscurity in a part of Champlain s journal of his
first voyage up the Ottawa.  " I have been induced by the flattering
recommendations of a few friends to have a very limited edition " of
it published, trusting it may be in some degree interesting to Canadian

Mr. Russell now goes onto say ; "The Astrolabe which is the subject
of this treatise was " shewn to me by Captain Oveiman of the Ottawa
Forwarding Co. lie afterwards gave it to R. W.  " Cassells, Esq., then
President of that Company, now of Toronto, who obliged me with the loan of
" it. Knowledge of the Portage on which it was found led me to believe
that it was the one that " Champlain s journal contains evidence of his
having lost there, in 1613.


"This Astrolabe, of which a photo is prefixed, was found in 1867, on
the rear half of lot 12, in the "second range of the township of Ross in
the county of North Renfrew, Province of Ontario, on the "river Ottawa,
by Captain Overman s people in cultivating apiece of ground, at a small
lake near the


road from the Ottawa to Muskrat Lake, and is believed to have been lost
by Champlain in traver- sing that portage on his way up the Ottawa in the
year 1613."-" 1 he following particulars respect- ing it, and reasons
for believing it to be Champlain s, may perhaps be found interesting
to Cana- dian readers. Its diameter is S tt inches, of plate brass,
very dark with age, and / 8 of an inch thic.  i above increasing to 6&
of an inch below, to give it steadiness when suspended, which apparently "
was intended to be increased by having a weight on the ring at the bottom
of it, in using it on ship < board. Its suspending ring is attached by
a double hinge of the nature of a universal joint. Its circle isdivided
into single degrees, graduated from its perpendicular axis of suspension.
ble blade d index, the pivot of which passes through the centre of the
Astrolabe, has slits and eyelets " in the projecting sights that are on
it, and by turning the index directly to the sun at noon, so that . ,
h e same ray may shine fully through both eyelets, while the Astrolabe
hangs freely. The sun s Meridian altitude, and thereby the latitude of the
place of observation, can be taken to within "about % of a degree, or even
less, which is as close as Champlain s latitudes generally were taken.
"The date of 1 603 is engraved on the face of the Astrolabe.

" Champlain made his first voyage up the Ottawa in 1613, and his journal
contains conclusive " evidence that he lost his Astrolabe on the 6th or
7 th June of that year, in passing through the por- , a ge on which this
Astrolabe was found. It is singularly remarkable that this evidence lies
chiefly in an error in Champlain s latitude of what is now the village
ofPembroke, which attracted the spe- cial attention of our Canadian
historian, Mr. Ferland, and is the subject of a copious note on page
" -07 of the splendid illustrated edition of the works of Champlain,
edited with copious and interesting " poles by Abbe Laverdiere of
the Laval University, and published by Mr.  Desbarat in 1870, while "
it is equally worthy of remark that the loss of his Astrolabe accounts
sufficiently for Champlain not afterwards detecting and correcting this
error of his by subsequent obseivations, and his having "lost it accounts
also for his having made no more observations for latitude on that voyage,
which he < certainly otheiwise would have done. It will be seen on
examination that Champlain s error in ob- "servation of latitude took
place near Gould s Landing, below Portage duFort (which seems to have
escaped the notice of Mr. Ferland and others), and that his error in
speaking of the latitude of Pem- " broke is simply a continuation of his
first error, arising from its being merely an estimation or rough dead
reckoning of his Northing from Gould s Landing, in consequence of his
not having the means of " determining it by actual observation owing to
his having lost his Astrolabe.

"This will be more clearly apparent by following the course of Champlain,
and noting what he says about his observations for latitude.

" He left the Island of Ste. Helene, where his barque lay at anchor,
on the 271*1 May, 1613, with " a party of four Frenchmen and one
Indian. (There was no Montreal in those days.) Being delayed "by bad
weather, he did not leave Sault St. Louis till the 2 9 th. On Vhe 3
oth he took an observation "for latitude at Lachine. His words in the
French of his time are : Je prius la hauteur de ce lieu, " qui est par
les 45 degrez 18 minutes de latitude, which is only about five minutes
less than the true "latitude of the place, a very insignificant error
when it is taken into consideration that the Verniers we now have on all
scientific instruments for reading the sub-divisions of degrees were not
then in "common use, though invented about that time. Giving a brief but
vivid and highly interesting " description of the danger he experienced
in towing his own canoe up the Long Sault Rapids, of the "fair and
spacious tributary rivers, the beautiful islands and magnificent woods
as he passes along, "and exchanging one of his Frenchmen for an Indian
of a war party that he met at an island near what is now the site of the
antique-looking and picturesquely situated manor house of the late Hon.
Louis Joseph Papineau, and passing the Rideau Falls, which excite his
admiration, he reaches the "great Asticon, as his Indians called it,
and which in their language meant < Chaudiere, and des cribes that
great waterfall of the Ottawa, in all its native grandeur, which all
old Bytonians so well "remember, though now impaired and desecrated. On
passing it on the 4th June, he took an obser-


"vation for latitude at what is now the overgrown busy village of
Hull. He says ; Je prius la hauteur du lieu, et trouvay 45 degrez 38
minutes de latitude, that is only about 12% minutes in excess of the
"true latitude, which is 45 25 33" N. Passing the Chaudiere Lake and
the Eardley mountains on " the 5th, and the gre|it falls of the Chatts,
where, singularly enough, they left their provisions and part " of their
clothing, to avoid the fatigue of carrying them, he ascends the Chats
Lake and camps on an l island at the head of it, where he first meets
the Ottawa red pine trees, and admires their beauty. He " there erected a
cross made of one of them with the arms of France cut upon it. Leaving it
on the " 6th he paddled up the Cheneaux Rapid. The reader who has passed
that way will remember the " narrow passage between the rocky islands and
(he lofty precipitous rocks, whose shadows darken "the swift and surging
waters through which the steamer sways and struggles before entering
the pic- " turesque reach of smooth water leading to Portage du Fort.

" Here Champlain says he crossed to the west side of the river, where
it turns to the north, " and landed for the purpose of taking the route
by the Muskrat portage and lake to Pembroke, by 11 the advice of his
Indians, to avoid the many rapids and falls on the main river. The place
of his " landing is very [definitely apparent on the sketch with this,
which is copied from the plan of the " Ottawa canal survey, and here
he says he took an observation of the latitude : Nous traversames "
done 1 ouest la riviere qui courait au nord, et pris la hauteur de ce
lieu qui estoit par 46 2 3" " de latitude.

" It is here that he makes the error of a full degree, in addition to
the usual amount of error due, " to the imperfection of the instrument,
for the latitude of his landing place is only about 45 35 , and " this,
it is to be observed, is the last observation that he says he took during
the voyage. He then " says: We had much hardship in making our way by this
land route, being loaded, for my own " part, only with three Arquebuses,
as many paddles, my capot and some little bagatelles. I " encouraged
my people, who were a little more heavily loaded, and more harassed by
the mosquitoes " than by their burdens. Thus after having passed four
small lakes or ponds (petits e tangs), we were " so fatigued that it
was impossible for us to go further, as for nearly 24 hours we had eaten
nothing " but a little roasted fish without sauce, for, as I have said,
we had left our provisions; we rested on " the banks of a little lake,
which was pleasant enough, and made a fire to drive away the mosqui-
" toes. The next day, June 7th, we passed this pond, which may be a
league in length, and then made " our way by land for three leagues
through a more difficult country than any we had yet seen, owing "
to the wind having blown down the pines one over the other, which is
no small inconvenience, " hiving to pass sometimes over and sometimes
under these trees. Thus we came to a lake 6 " leagues long (Muskrat Lake).

" The four little lakes that he passed on the 6th are shown on the sketch,
and his distance made " that day of 2^ leagues from ihe Ottawa is very
nearly correct, so also is the length of the lake he " traversed on
the morning of the 7th, but the distance from it to the Muskrat Lake
is estimated by " him at nearly double what it really is, but that is
exactly what might be expected from any person " little accustomed to
the woods in struggling through windfalls. The small lake near which,
I was " informed by Capt. Overman, the Astrolabe was found, and which is
most accessible at th.it end, "would be a most suitable halting place. He
reached Muskrat Lake early enough in the diy to " be entertained formally
with the pipe of peace and friendship in Indian fashion, followed by a
" speech and refreshments from Nebachis, the chief of the Indians, who
cleared and cultivated land " there, and had fields and gardens which
they took him to see.

" Nebachis had a couple of canoes equipped, and took him down Muskrat
Lake, and across the " short portage of three miles by a well beaten easy
path (now the stage route to Pembroke), to see "the Chief Tessonat. He
arrived there on the 8th June, so early that after visiting Tessonat,
and " making some nrrangements with that chief, he had time to go over
to Allumette Island, the chief " abode and stronghold of that branch of
the Algonquins called the Kichsipim (men of the Grand


river), characterized in Les Relations des ^suites as extrcmcmcnt suptrbe.
There examin- ing at leisure their land and burying grounds, he conferred
with their chiefs and prmc.pal men, and invited them to attend the feast
or public dinner that the bon vieux Capilaine Tessonat was to "oiveonthe
9 th at Pembroke, on which day, after Tessonat s formal state dinner
had come off its various courses, such like as they were, attended by
the chiefs and great men, each bringing with him his own wooden bowl
and spoon, and after solemn smoking and speechification, Champlain,
to pass the rest of the day, walked about in their gardens. But neither
during this time nor the day after, nor indeed during the remainder of
the voyage, does he speak at all of takmg any more -observations for
latitude. What he says of Pembroke is simply that it is about the 47th
degree of -- latitude : Elle est par les 47 degrez ^ ] *^e, that is,
in speaking of Allumetle Island and foot of Allumette Lake. In noticing
this as an error of fully a degree in the absence o any other means
obvious to him of accounting for it, M. Ferland, in page 164 of his
Cours d Histo.re du Canada says: Pnreille erreur n a rien qui doive
surprendre. dans une expedition ou ,1 lu, deva.t etre " difficile de
faire des observations exactes. But we cannot accept of this explanation
as adequate to account for the difference between the true latitude of
Pembroke, which ,s about 45 5 o W- and that of 47 given by Champlain,
for in examining his errors in latitude in the cases quoted, and those
made on his voyage to Lake Huron two years later, after having been
again in France it be right to designate as errors differences, his
instruments were not graduated minutely enough t indicate), we find
that they are comparatively insignificant, seldom amounting to the
third part " of a degree, which corresponds closely with the ctpacity
of the Astrolabe found. \\ e see there- < fore that this error of a
degree in the latitude of Pembroke could not arise from imperfect power
c his instrument, as M. Ferland s explanation seems to suggest. In fact,
a little further consi tion enables us to see that .he circumstance of
this great error of a degree having been originally "made below Portage
du Fort, demonstrates conclusively that he took no observation at all at
Pembroke. For we all know, especially those of us who are accustomed to
the use of .nstruments for the observation of altitudes, or have even the
ordinary knowledge of the doctrine of chances, that, as Champlain knew
well that he was travelling northward, the certainty is, that if he had
mad observation of Pembroke at all, he would have assuredly detected his
e.ror made on the 6th, fi it he would be necessarily made to appear to
have been going south. We are not at liberty suppose he would have made
the error of a degree a second time accidentally, for we know that "the
common principle of chances, the probability as more than ten thousand
" would not make the same accidental error twice in succession. Also,
as we see that he was habit of taking observations for latitudes of
less important points, as he went along, and formally noticing his
observations, we may be very well assured that he would not have failed
determine, by actual observation as usual, the latitude of a position so
important as point he had reached, if he had had the means of doing so,
and no other cause that can I " accounts sufficiently for his not having
the means of doing so, and for his having taken no " tion on this voyage
after the 6th of June, excepting the loss of his Astrolabe on th, po "
this one was found.

Taken altogether, therefore, there is strong circumstantial evidence
that this was his Astrola < and that his loss of it, there and then,
was the cause of the extraordinary error m his " Pembroke which attracted
I he attention of his commentators.

While we look upon this Astrolabe as a relic of the founder of civilized
society in Canada, her greatest man and most daring explorer, the
founder of her most ancient cities, of her gre mercial metropolis ;
and while we regard it with additional interest as a memento < ture
on what was even then Canada s great interior highway of commerce, and
is by the sar tiny now the site for her great Pacific Railway, we may
also look upon it as a reh " even pie-historic science and civilization.


" The day of Astrolabes, like that of the men who used them, has
long gone by.  This was pro- * bably one of the la^t of them that were
used. One of the last works on them is Clavius Treatise on * Astrolabes,
printed at Miyence in 161 1. They were soon after superseded.  Vernier,
the inventor " of the Vernier scale now in use on the indexes of all
scientific instruments for reading subdivisions " of degrees, published a
tract on La Construction, 1 Usage et les Proprietes du Quadrant "Nouveau
de Mathe"matique at Brussels en 1631. In it the nature and use of the
Vernier is " explained, and it had indeed been known for a number of
years bafore. It will be readily under - " stood by all acquainted
with scientific instruments that the Quadrant Nouveau with its Vernier
" would speedily supersede so imperfect an instrument as the Astrolabe
before us. The Astrolabe " was found in general use among the Southern
Arabians by Vasquez de Gama, when he discovered * as it is commonly held,
the way round the Cape of Good Hope to India, known in the days of "
Pharaoh Necho. The origin of the use of it by them is 1 >st in the
remote past. From the days " of de Gama back to the earliest notices
of commerce in existence, the commerce of the Arabians " and their
predecessors, the Cushite Arabians, extended to every coast, and almost to
every island of " the Indian Ocean from India to Abyssinia, as Rawlinson
says in his work on Herodotus. Our " Alchemy, Arabic figures, Almanac
and c Algebra, indicate the channel through which our " sciences came."

Champlain returned to Canada in 1815, and the same year, in company
with his Huron and Algonquin allies, once more ascended the Ottawa,
and explored the country towards Lake Nipissing, and thence to Georgian
Bay and Lake Huron.

The most important event, however, associated with the Ottawa is the
brave defence on its shores by the "Heroes of the Long Sault." The exact
site of this

heroic fight is unknown different parties locate it in different places,
and all sup port their opinions with arguments equally good. But there
are strong reasons for believing that the fight occurred in what is now
known as Greece s Pt., or at a spot nearly opposite, in the township of
Hawkesbury, Ont., tradition, and the finding of many Indian weapons there,
strongly sustaining the claims of ths latter place to this honor.

The following account is taken from " The Old Regime in Canada " by
Francis Parkman :


In April, 1660, a young officer named Daulac, commandant of the garrison
at Montreal, asked leave of Maisonneuve, the Governor, to lead a party
of volunteers against the Iroquois. His plan was bold to desperation. It
was known that Iroquois warriors in great numbers had wintered among the
forests of the Ottawa.  Daulac proposed to waylay them on their descent
of the river, and fight them with out regard to disparity of force; and
Maisonneuve, judging that a display of enter prise and boldness might
act as a check on the audicityof the enemy, at last gave his consent.

Adam Daulac was a young man of good family, who had come to the colony
three years before, at the age of twenty-two. He had held some military

in France, though in what rank does not appear. He had been busy for
some time among the young men of Montreal, inviting them to join him in
the enterprise he



meditated. Sixteen of them caught his spirit. They bound themselves by
oath to accept no quarter ; and having gained Maisonneuve s consent,
they made their wills, confessed, and received the sacraments.

After a solemn farewell, they embarked in several canoes, well supplied
with arms and ammunition. They were very indifferent canoe-men, and it
is said that they lost a week in vain attempts to pass the swift current
of Ste. Anne, at the head of the Island of Montreal. At length they were
successful, and entering the mouth of the Ottawa, crossed the Lake of
Two Mountains, and slowly advanced against the current.

About the ist of May they reached the foot of the formidable rapid
called the Long Sault, where a tumult of waters, foaming among ledges
and boulders, barred

the onward way. It was needless to go farther. The Iroquois were sure
to pass the Sault, and could be fought here as well as elsewhere. Just
below the rapid,

where the forests sloped gently to the shore, among the bushes and stumps
of a rough clearing made in constructing it, stood a palisade fort,
the work of an Algon quin war-party in the past autumn. It was a mere
enclosure of trunks of small trees planted in a circle, and was already
in ruin. Such as it was, the Frenchmen took possession of it. They made
their fires, and slung their kettles, on the neighboring shore; and
here they were soon joined by forty Hurons and four Algonquins.  Daulac,
it seems, made no objection to their company, and they all bivouacked to
gether. Morning, noon and night, they prayed in three different tongues ;
and when, at sunset, the long reach of forest on the farther shore basked
peacefully in the level rays, the rapids joined their hoarse music to
the notes of their evening hymn.

In a day or two their scouts came in with tidings that two Iroquois
canoes were

coming down the Sault. Daulac had time to set his men in ambush among
the bushes at a point where he thought the strangers likely to land. He
judged aright.  Canoes, bearing five Iroquois, approached, and were
met by a volley fired with such precipita tion that one or more of
them escaped, fled into the forest, and told their mischance to their
main body, two hundred in number, on the liver above. A fleet of canoes
suddenly appeared, bounding down the rapids, filled with warriors eager
for revenge. The

allies had barely time to escape to their fort, leaving their kettles
still slung over the fires. The Iroquois made a hasty and desultory
attack, and were quickly repulsed.  They next opened a parley, hoping,
no doubt, to gain some advantage by surprise.  Failing in this, they
set themselves, after their custom on such occasions, to building a rude
fort of their own in the neighboring forest.

This gave the French a breathing time, and they used it for strengthening

defences. Being provided with tools, they planted a row of stakes within
their pal isade, to form a double fence, and filled the intervening
space with earth and stones to the height of a man, leaving some twenty
loop-holes, at each of which, three marks men were stationed. Their work
was still unfinished when the Iroquois were upon

them again. They had broken to pieces the birch canoes of the French
and their allies, and kindling the bark rushed up to pile it blazing
against the palisade ; but so


brisk and steady a fire met them that they recoiled, and at last gave
way. They

came on again, and again were driven back, leaving many of their number
on the ground, among them the principal chief of the Senecas.

This dashed the spirits of the Ircquois, and they sent a canoe to call
to their aid five hundred of their warriors, who were mustered near
the mouth of the Richelieu.  These were the allies whom, but for this
untoward check, they were on their way to join for a combined attack on
Quebec, Three Rivers and Montreal. It was madden ing to see their grand
project thwarted by a few French and Indians ensconced in a paltry redoubt
scarcely better than a cattle-pen ; but they were forced to digest the
affront as best they might.

Meanwhile, crouched behind trees and logs, they beset the fort, harassing
its defenders day and night with a spattering fire and a constant menace
of attack.

Thus five days passed. Hunger, thirst, and want of sleep wrought fa tally
on the strength of the French and their allies, who, pent up together
in their narrow prison, fought and prayed by turns. Deprived as they
were of water, they could not swallow the

crushed Indian corn, or "hominy," which was their only food. Some of
them, under cover of a brisk fire, ran down to the river and filled such
small vessels as they had ; but this pittance only tantalized their
thirst. They dug a hole in the fort, and were rewarded at last by a
little muddy water oozing through the clay.

Among the assailants were a number of Hurons adopted by the Iroquois,
and fighting on their side. These renegades now tried to seduce their
countrymen in the fort. Half dead with thirst and famine, they took the
bait, and one, two, or three at a time climbed the palisade, and ran
over to the enemy, amid the hootings and exe crations of those whom they
deserted. Their chief stood firm, and when he saw his nephew join the
other fugitives, he firedhis pistol at him in a rage. The four Algon-
quins, who had no mercy to hope for, stood fast with the courage of

On the fifth day an uproar of unearthly yells from seven hundred savage
throats, mingled with a clattering salute of musketry, told the Frenchmen
that the expected reinforcement had come ; and soon, in the forest and
on the clearing, a crowd of war riors mustered for the attack. Knowing
from the Huron deserters the weakness of

their enemy, they had no doubt of an easy victory. They advanced
cautiously, as

was usual with the Iroquois before their blood was up, screeching,
leaping from side to side, and firing as they came on ; but the French
were at their posts, and every loop hole darted its tongue of fire. The
Iroquois, astonished at the persistent vigor of the defence, fell back
discomfited. The fire of the French, who were themselves com

pletely under cover, told upon them with deadly effect. Three days
more wore away in a series of futile attacks, made with little concert
or vigor, and during all this time Daulac and his men, reeling with
exhaustion, fought and prayed as before, sure of a martyr s reward.

The uncertain, vacillating temper common to all Indians now began to
declare itself. Some of the Iroquois were for going home. Others revolted
at the thought, and declared that it would be an eternal disgrace to
lose so many men at the hands


of so paltry an enemy, and yet fail to take revenge. It was resolved
to make a general assault, and volunteers were called for, to lead the
attack. No precaution was neglected. Large and heavy shields, four or
five feet high, were made by lashing to gether, with the aid of cross
bars, three split logs. Covering themselves with these mantelets, the
chosen band advanced, followed by the motley throng of warriors.

In spite of a brisk fire, they reached the palisade, and crouching below
the range of shot, hewed furiously with their hatchets to cut their way
through. The rest followed close, and swarmed like angry hornets around
the little fort, hacking and tearing to

gel in.

Daulac had crammed a large musketoon with powder and plugged up the
muzzle.  Lighting the fuse inserted in it, he tried to throw it over the
barrier, to burst like a grenade among the crowd of savages without ;
but it struck the ragged top of one of the palisades, fell back among
the Frenchmen, and exploded, killing or wounding

several of them, and nearly blinding others. In the confusion that
followed, the Iro- quois got possession of the loop-holes, and thrusting
in their guns fired on those within. In a moment more they had torn a
breach in the palisade ; but, nerved with the energy of desperation,
Daulac and his followers sprang to defend it.  Another breach was made
and then another, Daulac was struck dead, but the survivors kept up the
fight. With a sword or a hatchet in one hand and a knife in the other,
they threw themselves against the throng of enemies, striking and stabbing
with the fury of madmen ; till the Iroquois. despairing of taking them
alive, fired volley after volley, and shot them down. All was over,
and a burst of triumphant yells proclaimed the dear-bought victory.

Searching the pile of corpses, the victors found four Frenchmen still
breathing.  Three had scarcely a spark of life, and, as no time was to
be lost, they burned them on the spot. r lhe fourth, less fortunate,
seemed likely to survive, and they reserved him for future torments. As
for the Huron deserters, their cowardice profited them little. The
Iroquois, regardless of their promises, fell upon them, burned some at
once and carried the rest to their villages for a similar fate. Five
of the number had the good fortune to escape, and it was from them,
aided by admissions made long

afterwards by the Iroquois themselves, that the French of Canada derived
all their knowledge of this glorious disaster.

The story of the Heroes of the Long Sault has been admirably told by
Mr. George

Murray, B.A., F.R.S.C., in his celebrated poem, How Canada was Saved.

Daulac, the captain of the fort in manhood s fiery prime,

Hath sworn by some immortal deed to make his name sublime ;

And sixteen soldiers of the Cross, his comrades true and tried,

Have pledged theii faith for life and death, all kneeling side by side.

And this their oath, on flood or field, to challenge face to face

The ruthless hordes of Iroquois the scourges of their race

No quarter to accept or grant, and loyal to the grave,

To die, like martyrs, for the land they had shed their blood to save.


* Sofc was the breath of balmy Spring in that fair month of May,

The wild flower bloomed the Spring bird sang on many a budding spray

A tender blue was in the sky, on earth a tender green

And peace seemed brooding, like a dove, o er all the sylvan scene,

\Vhen loud and high, a thrilling cry dispelled the magic charm,

And scouts came hurrying from the woods to bid their comrades arm.

And bark canoes skimmed lightly down the torrent of the Sault,

Manned by three hundred dusky forms th; long expected foe.

" Eight days of varied horror passed ; what boots it now to tell

How the pale tenants of the fort heroically fell ?

Hunger and thirst, and sleeplessness, Death s ghastly aids, at length

Marred and defaced their comely forms, and quelled their giant strength ;

The end draws nigh they yearn to die one glorious rally more,

For the sake of Ville-Marie, and all will soon be o er ;

Sure of the martyr s golden crown, they shrink not from the cross,

Life yielded for the land they love, they scorn to reckon loss."

The fort is fired, and through the flame, with slippery, splashing tread,

The Redmen stumble to the camp o er ramparts of the dead.

There, with set teeth and nostrils wide, Daulac, the dauntless, stood

And dealt his foes remorseless blows, mid blinding smoke and blood,

Till, hacked and hewn, he reel d to earth, with proud unconquered glance,

Dead but immortalized by death Leonidas of France !

True to their oath, his comrade knights no quarter basely ciaved

So died the peerless twenty-two So Canada was saved.

A visit by the French to the scene of this obstinate fight confirmed the
story of those Hurons who had escaped, and for many years, subsequently,
Daulac was re membered by his countrymen in Canada as their deliverer,
and his name was rever

enced as that of a hero and martyr.

The fact that the Iroquois, after this fight, returned to their homes
without mak ing their contemplated attack on the cities, also confirmed
another report of the Hurons, viz., that the Iroquois were completely
disheartened with their victory, and had no relish for another contest
with the French. If twenty of the latter without support or comfort
almost without food and water could perform such a prodigy of valor,
what might they expect when confronting hundreds supplied with abundant
stores of food, arms and ammunition ? Such was the question pondered
by the Iroquois, and the consideration of which induced them to abandon
the war path and seek their homes.

But to the shame of Canada, be it said, no monument marks the spot
of this memorable defence, and even its location is now a subject of
conjecture.  Indeed, it is surprising to find how great the number,
even in this section of Canada, who declare that they never heard of
the event. We can well understand why Daulac s contem poraries failed to
mark the spot with an appropriate monument, as they were few in number,
and waging incessant warfare with poverty, as well as Indians. For a cen-


tury after this event, also, its site was remote from civilization, in
an unbroken wilder ness; and anything of the kind erected there would,
doubtless, have been destroyed by the savage. But for a century past, no
such obstacle to a proper recognition of this gallant band has existed,
and every patriotic Canadian should desire to show to the foreign visitor
who passes up and down the Ottawa, that Canada has her Ther mopylae.

Let him read on enduring material, the fact, that on the shores of this
beautiful river, long ago, died twenty heroes, as brave as ever Spartan
mother nursed, as patrio tic as those of whom Roman or Grecian poet
ever sung.

The French are proverbially proud of their heroes, and ever ready to

the fame of their honored dead. They point with pride to the statues
adorning their galleries of history, and gladly expatiate on the deeds
performed by their great and good. But let the patriot Frenchman, when
he points to the monuments of Maison-

neuve, Montcalm and Chenier, remember that Daulac and his nineteen
comrades, deserving the highest niche in the temple of fame, have never
been duly honored ;- that for nearly two and half centuries, the only
reminder of the hallowed spot where these martyrs fell has been the swift,
roaring, turbulent waters of the Long Sault.

We are indebted to Parkman, also, for the account of the two following
incidents with which the Ottawa is connected.

During the second administration of Frontenac as Governor of Canada,
he left Quebec for a visit to Montreal, at which place he arrived July
3151, 1690.

A few days after his arrival, the officer commanding the fort at La
Chine sent him a messenger in hot haste, with the startling news that
Lake St. Louis was "all covered with canoes." Nobody doubted that the
Iroquois were upon them again.  Cannon were fired to call in the troops
from detached posts ; when alarm was sud denly turned into joy by the
arrival of other messengers, to announce that the new comers were not
enemies, but friends. They were the Indians of the upper lakes descending
from Michillimacinac via the Ottawa to trade in Montreal. Nothing so
auspicious had happened since Frontenac s return. The messages he had
seat them in the spring by Louvigny and Perrot, reinforced by the news
of the victory on the Ottawa and the capture of Schenectady, had had the
desired effect ; and the Iro quois prisoner, whom their missionary had
persuaded them to torture, had not been sacrificed in .vain. Despairing
of an English market for their beaver skins, they had come as of old to
seek one from the French. On the next day all came down the rapids and
landed near the town. There were fully five hundred of them- Huron-,
Ottawas, Ojibway?, Pottawtamies, Crees, and Nipissings, with a hundred
and ten canoes laden with beaver skins to the value of nearly a hundred
thousand crowns. Nor was this all, for a few days after, La Durantaye,
late commander at

Michillimacinac, arrived with fifty-five more canoes manned by French
traders, and


filled with valuable furs. The stream of wealth dammed back so long
was flowing

upon the colony at the moment when it was most needed. Never had Canada
known a more prosperous trade than now, in the midst of her danger and
tribulation.  It was a triumph for Frontenac. If his policy had failed
with the Iroquois, it had found a crowning success among the tribes of
the Lakes.

Four or five years later, when the country was again in a great state of
destitution on account of the frequent raids of enemies, which compelled
the settlers or colonists to neglect the implements of agriculture for
those of war, another arrival of furs quickly changed the country from
misery and destitution to happiness and plenty.

It was shortly after the repulse of Phipps at Quebec, and some other
successes of the French, that " the Governor achieved a success more
solid and less costly."

The indispensable but most difficult task of all remained : that of
opening the

Ottawa for the descent of the great accumulation of beaver skins which
had been

gathering at Michillimacinac for three years, and for the want of which,
Canada was bankrupt. More than two hundred Frenchmen were known to be
at that remote post,

or roaming in the wilderness around it; and Frontenac resolved on an
attempt to

muster them together, and employ their united force to protect the
Indians and the traders in bringing down this mass of furs to Montreal. A
messenger, strongly es corted, was sent with orders to this effect,
and succeeded in reaching Michillimacinac, though there was a battle on
the way in which the officer commanding the escort was killed.

Frontenac anxiously waited the issue, when, after a long delay, the
tidings reached him of complete success. He hastened to Montreal, and
found it swarming with Indians and coureurs du bois. Two hundred canoes
had arrived filled with the coveted beaver skins. It is impossible,
says the chronicle, to conceive the joy of the people when they beheld
these treasures. Canada had awaited them for years. The mer chants and
the farmers were dying of hunger. Credit was gone, and everybody was

afraid that the enemy would waylay and seize this last resource of
the country.

Therefore it was that none could find words to praise and bless him by
whose care all this wealth had arrived. Father of the People, Preserver
of the Country, seemed terms too weak to express their gratitude.

Few, comparatively, are aware of the fact, that the Ottawa was the route
pur sued by one of the partners and his voyageurs, in the great enterprise
of opening up the fur trade on the Pacific. The following account jof
this enterprise is of interest to the citizens of Argenteuil, from the
fact that Capt. McCargo, a pioneer of Beech Ridge, St. Andrews, before
settling here was connected with one of the expeditions to the Pacific,
described below.

In 1810 articles were entered into between John Jacob Astor of New York,
and four other gentlemen Alexander McKay, Duncan McDougal, Donald McKenzie
and Wilson Price Hunt for the purpose of prosecuting the fur trade on
what was


then almost a terra incognita the Northwest coast of the United States ;
the company was chartered under the name of " The Pacific Fur Company."

In prosecuting his great scheme of commerce and colonization, two
expeditions were devised by Mr. Astor, one by sea, the other by land. The
former was to carry out the people, stores, ammunition and merchandise
requisite for establishing a forti fied trading post at the mouth of
the Columbia river.

The latter, conducted by Mr. Hunt, was to proceed up the Missouri,
and across the Rocky Mountains to the same point, exploring aline of
communication across the continent, and noting the places where interior
trading posts might be established.

A fine ship called the " Tonquin " was provided, carrying an assortment
of mer chandise for trading with the natives of the seaboard and the
interior, together with the frame of a schooner to be employed in the
coasting trade. She was commanded

by Jonathan Thorn, a lieutenant in the United States Navy, on leave
of absence.

The " Tonquin," after a long voyage around the Cape, and much trouble
between the captain and his passengers, and an interesting though
dangerous visit to the Sand wich Islands, arrived at the mouth of the
Columbia. Several days were spent in.

attempting to cross the bar and effect an entrance into this river,
and some of the crew were lost.

The object, however, was finally accomplished, the men and stores landed,
and then the " Tonquin," according to instructions, put to sea with
the purpose of sailing to other more northern coasts to obtain furs,
before returning to the mouth of the Columbia and thence to New York. She
arrived in a few days at Vancouver Island,

and very much against the advice of his Indian interpreter, who warned
him against the perfidious character of the natives of that part of
the coast, Captain Thorn anchored in the harbor of Neweetee. He was
a very harsh, headstrong, conceited man, though brave and a thorough
seaman, and regardless of the cautions to him by Mr. Astor, that he
should never allow but a few of the Indians on shipboard at a time,
he allowed boat-load after boat-load with furs to approach and come
on deck.  Nor was this all he spread his wares before them, making a
tempting display of blankets, cloths, knives, beads, fish-hooks, etc.,
expecting a prompt and profitable sale. But the Indians were not so eager
and simple as he had supposed, having learned the art of bargaining and
the value of merchandise from the casual traders along the coast. Finally,
angered at the insolent way in which they reproached him for not trading
with them according to their ideas of the value of articles, he kicked
their furs to the right and left, and ordered them from the vessel. They

accordingly left, scarcely concealing their vengeful feelings for the
indignity with which Captain Thorn had treated their chief. The next
morning they returned, apparently in a pleasant mood, seemingly unarmed,
and soon the deck was once more swarming with them. The interpreter
noticed that many of them wore shot mantles

of skins, and intimated his suspicions that they were secretly armed ;
l>ut ihe captain, pointing to his cannon and muskets, merely laughed
and made light of any intimation of danger from a parcel of filthy
savages. A brisk trade was opened, and the Indians


were soon all supplied with knives. Meanwhile the crowd had been
constantly increas ing, and seeing that other boat-loads were putting
off fiom the shore, Captain Thorn became alarmed, and ordered the vessel
to be cleared and put under way. At this, a yell from a savage gave the
signal ; the Indians fell upon the crew with knives and war clubs, and
a terrific fight ensued. But greatly out-numbered and taken unawares,
the latter were soon nearly all slaughtered.

Capt. Thorn fought bravely, and being a powerful man he laid several
dead at his feet, but at length, weak from his wound?, he was stabbed in
the back and then thrown over the side of the vessel, where the squaws
dispatched him with knives and hatchets.  Four of the sailors had the good
fortune to escape into the cabin, where they found Mr. Lewis, the ship
s clerk, badly wounded, and barricading the cabin door, they broke holes
through the companion way, and with the muskets and ammunition which were

at hand, opened a brisk fire that soon cleared the deck. The survivors
now sal lied forth and discharged some of the deck guns, which did great
execution, and drove all the savages to the shore.

After this, the four who were still alive endeavored to persuade Mr. Lewis
to attempt with them to escape in a boat to their friends at the mouth of
the Columbia.  He refused, saying that his wounds would not permit him,
and that he was deter mined to entice as many savages as possible on
board and then blow up the ship.  They left him, therefore, but they
were captured the next day, and put to death with the most terrible
tortures. The following morning after the tragedy on the "Tonquin,"
everything appearing quiet on her, a boat-load of the Indians drew
near. Mr.  Lewis was on deck, and made friendly signs for them to come
on board.

After a considerable interval of time, other canoes having joined them,
they did so ; the decks were soon crowded and the sides covered with
clambering savages, all intent on plunder. No one was to be seen on
board, for Mr. Lewis, after inviting them, had disappeared. In the midst
of their eagerness and exultation the ship blew up with a tremendous
explosion. Arm?, legs and mutilated bodies were blown into

the air, and dreadful havoc was made in the surrounding canoes. Upwards
of a hundred savages were destroyed by the explosion ; many more were
shockingly mutilated, and for days afterward, the limbs and bodies of
the slain were thrown upon the beach. The fate of the " Tonquin," and
all the details connected therewith, were made known to the whites by
the interpreter, who, being an Indian, had been spared by the natives,
and was therefore a witness of the destruction of the vessel and her crew.

As before stated, the land expedition of the Pacific Fur Company was
in charge of Mr. Wilson Price Hunt. About the end of July, 1810, he,
in company with his coadjutor, Mr. Donald McKenzie, an experienced Nor
wester, and a capital shot, repaired to Montreal, the ancient emporium
of the fur trade, where everything requi site for the expedition could
be procured. One of the first objects was to recruit a complement of
Canadian voyageurs from the disbanded herd usually to be found loitering
about the place. The Northwest Company, however, who maintained a


long established control at Montreal, and knew the qualities of every

secretly interdicted the prime hands from engaging in this new service ;
so that, although liberal terms were offered, few presented themselves
but such as were not worth having. From these Mr. Hunt engaged a
number sufficient for present pur poses, and having laid in a supply of
ammunition, provisions, and Indian goods,

embarked all on board one of these great canoes at that time universally
used by the fur traders for navigating the intricate and often obstructed
rivers. The canoe was between thirty and forty feet long and several
feet in width, constructed of birch bark, and capable of sustaining a
freight of upward of four tons, yet it could be readily carried on men
s shoulders.

The expedition took its regular departure as usual from St. Anne s, near
the extremity of the island of Montreal, the great starling place of
the traders to the interior. Here stood the ancient chapel of St. Anne,
the patroness of the Canadian voyageurs, where they made confession
and offered up their vows previous to departing on any hazardous
expedition. Mr. Hunt with the crew made his way up the Ottawa river,
and by the ancient route of the fur traders, along a succession of small
lakes and rivers to Michillimacinac. Their progress was slow and tedious.

Mr. Hunt was not accustomed to the management of " voyageurs," and he had
a crew admirably disposed to play the old soldier, and balk their work,
and ever ready to come to a halt, land, make a fire, put on the great pot,
and smoke and gossip and sing by the hour. It was near the end of July
when they reached Mackinaw, the old French trading post. Here Mr. Hunt
spent some time in obtaining recruits for the expedition, and when
supplied, they followed the Fox and Wisconsin rivers to the Mississippi,
descended to St. Louis, thence up the Missouri, crossed the plains, went
over the Rocky Mountains, and after many months of the severest trials
reached the members of the other expedition at the mouth of the Columbia.

For a detailed account of these expeditions the reader is referred to
" Astoria," a long and intensely interesting narrative to be found in
the works of Irving.

The approach of the war of 1812 prevented the carrying out of the
plans of Mr.  Astor, and he lost heavily in this first effort; but
with characteristic energy, he subse quently pushed his plans to a
successful issue.

The following sketch of Mr. Philemon Wright s ascent of the Ottawa,
and his pioneer labors, together with the comments of the editor, is
taken from The Ottawa Free Press :

" The north shore of the Ottawa river deserves more than a passing
glance or reference as we gave at the outset. It was the beginning, the
centre, the very soul and life of the whole settlements of the Ottawa
Valley. The belt of table-land be tween the river and the mountain range
is perhaps not surpassed in beauty and fer tility on this continent. The
rich deep alluvial soil with its clay bottom, protected on the north
by the Laurentian hills, 1,750 feet above the sea level, with easy
available passes into the back country, so likely to reward the toil of
the cultivators, must have appeared to one brought up in the hills and
narrow valleys of New England as the


shadow at least of an agricultural paradise. It was an untouched, unbroken
forest of the finest samples of lumber; \vhitepine, oak, elm, ash, white
walnut, spruce, cherry, poplar, basswood, with vast groves of maple,
bird s eye and curly, must have delighted the eyes and filled the mind of
a sharp lumberman with dreams of wealth absolutely incalcul able. This
was the enchanting scene presenting itself to the eye and mind of Mr.
Philemon Wright, a man of mature judgment, and in the very prime of life,
verging towards 40. His practised eye, his keen intellect, took in the
whole as equalling the broad acres of an English dukedom. The value
of the timber on the stump was equal to twice the expense of clearing
the lands. The ashes of the refuse to be burned, when converted into
potash, would realize enough in Montreal to cover the erection of the
necessary buildings for all farming purposes in those days. There were
many obstacles in the way, all to be got over, that would have appeared
fatal to many a man.

" But a descendant of heroes that followed Harold the Second to the
defeat of so many foes, and made such a stand on the field of Hastings,
giving so mighty a work to the Normans yielding at last, it is admitted,
but not so much vanquished as wearied out with slaughtering was not to be
deterred by difficulties and trials, and Wright was of Kentish descent,
though now Americanized. The courage has not been lost in his posterity,
as everyone knows the late M.P., the Gatineau s monarch, if exposed,
would sway his sceptre with as undaunted unconcern as any other, in calm
defiance of his foes.

" The squire had made several explorations of the St. Lawrence on both
sides and above and below Montreal, but pitched on Hull and the Chaudiere
Falls, at last, as the field of his future operations, delighted equally
with its forests, its soil and its river.  It was not easy to induce men,
even for a large reward, to enter his employ and settle down to labor
in the woods 75 or 100 miles from civilization of any kind. In October,
1799. Mr. Wright is said to have reached Hull with two trusty neighbors
from Woburn, Mass., and having explored the township returned and reported
progress. Four fami lies united with his own, and with twenty-five men,
seven span of horses, four yoke of oxen, and probably a cow or two,
sleighs, implements and provisions, began their jour ney to Montreal on
and February, 1800, and passed through it and the settlements above it,
cut their way in the woods and deep snows for some days, camping out at
night, till they met an Indian, who, becoming their guide, took them by
the ice on the river till they reached the Chaudiere Falls on the 7th
March, 33 days. It is said that every man took a hand chopping down the
first tree.

" Thus the clearing away of the woods commenced and continued. The
sounds of the axes and the falling trees brought the Indians from their
sugar-making on the sunny slopes of the hill sides, to wonder and ask
themselves what brought these

destroyers of the forest into their hitherto quiet and silent retreats
? This led to a long pow-wow. Mr. Wright had plenty of the Jamaica spirits
on hand, treated them all to a good horn, as Conroy would have said,
and they returned some full, others glorious. Gifts blind the eyes. A
season was spent in friendly intercourse, exchanging



presents, and there being no old Anchises to interpose his Timeo Danaos
et dona

ferentes, the Indians continued to come with sugar and venison and get
in return

what rare things to them the new comers freely gave them. The unlimited

forests ran sugar for the evaporation, and deer flocked in plenty to be
shot for the

occasion. This pleasant condition of things was not.of long duration,
for the Indians,

beginning to see that their sugar groves would disappear, and the deer
probably follow,

took an interpreter, Geo. Brown, who was a Nor wester, and had married
a squaw, and

marched in grand procession to demand the reason for all these new
things. The

negotiations began, and the proceedings were sometimes amusing, at
others threat

ening. Mr. Wright, as the chief of his party, was up to the exigency,
and gave his

authority for everything. They expressed their amazement that their
Great Father,

King George, would permit, without consulting them first, any men to
cut down their

sugar plantations and chase away their game. They were assured that all
was done

by & authority ; that if any harm came to his men, Sir John Johnson,
the Indian agent,

would hold back their rations; so with firm maintenance of his dignity,
as well as his

rights, using soft answers, the Indians were brought to terms on payment
in cash being

promised for all the sugar they could spare, and they would not have to
carry it to


"The nearest market had its attractions for the Indians, as well as for
the Grit, who hates to portage to England, and compete there with the
whole world ; so to

save their backs and limbs, and especially their rations, they agreed. So
they were plied once more with the Jamaica, and went back happy. They soon
brought im mense quantities of sugar, and asked only $5.00 for what was
perhaps worth 50, They were promptly paid, treated again, and returned
home in high good humor after a long palaver. Afterward they demanded
a small payment for their lands, but that was refused till Sir John of
Montreal would be consulted. They regarded their lands as merchantable
as the sugar. Mr. Wright on coming from Montreal delivered them Sir John
s reply that they must not disturb the colony.

"The redskins now took a new turn, made Mr. Wright their chief, and we
suppose put him through all the ceremonies of a barbarous coronation
the squaws are said to have all kissed him. The chroniclers do not say
how much Mrs. Wright herself

admired the ceremony. But the braves buried the hatchet, and feasted
Mr. Wright

and party for a week on all the delicacies of an aboriginal cuisine,
from roast dog and muskrat to boiled rattlesnake and skunk."

The author of this extract must have been an expert in natural history,
or the tribes, like St. Patrick, must have exhausted the stock, as
rattlesnakes have never been very common in the Province of Quebec,
since or before, as far as we are aware.

For the following history of navigation on the Ottawa we are indebted to
the lale R. W. Shepherd, sr., president of the Ottawa River Navigation
Company :

The first steamer on the route between Lachine and Carillon was the "
William King," Captain De Hertel. This steamer began to run about the
year 1826-27. A


2 7

year later, the " St. Andrews " was built Captain C. J. Lighthall who
had been captain of one of Judge McDonnell s Durham boats, that were
employed carrying freight and passengers between Montreal and Point
Fortune. I renumber one of the old settlers named Parsons saying to me,
a few years since, that his family came to Montreal from the north of
England, having sailed from Mary Port in the county of Cumberland in
the year 1829. They were going to join friends in Cote St.  Charles,
county of Vaudreuil, not far irom where the village of Hudson is now. The
family, after landing in Montreal, took passage by Captain LighthalPs
Durham boat, and were landed in a couple of days at Harvey s Point near
the village of Hudson. The steamers " Wm. King " and "St. Andrews" were
owned by merchants in Montreal and St. Andrews ; during high water they
ran between Lachine, Carillon and St.  Andrews, and during the low water
season the "St. Andrews" ran between Lachine and St. Ann s, and the "
Wm. King " between St. Ann s and Carillon. In the year

1833, the Carillon and Grenville canal was opened for traffic, and in the
meantime a company was formed, called " The Ottawa & Rideau Forwarding
Company." The stockholder numbered among others Hon. John Molson, father
of the present Mr, John Molson, Thomas Phillips the brewer, John Redpath
and Emery Gushing, who formerly owned the stages that formed a line to
St. Andrews by St. Eustache.

This company, knowing the difficulty of the St. Ann s channel in low
water, had

arranged with Hon. R. N. Howard of Vaudreuil for the right to build a
lock near

where the Grand Trunk R. R. now passes. This lock was finished and
ready for work in the spring of 1833. In the meantime, the new company
had built the steamer " Ottawa," Captain Lyman, who came from Lake
Charnplain. About this time the company built a steamer called the "
Shannon," to ply between Grenville and

Ottawa with other small steamers forming a through line to Kingston
via the Ottawa River and Rideau Canal. Stages from Montreal to Lachine,
boat from Lachine to Carillon, thence to Grenville by stage, and from
Grenville to Ottawa and Kingston by steamer. The trip to Ottawa occupied
two, and from Ottawa to Kingston about three days. The freight was
generally carried in barges towed by these steamers.

Previous to 1833, the steamer " Union " plied on the route between
Hawkesbury and Ottawa; this boat was built in the year 1819 and was
commanded by Captain Grant ; Thomas Johnson, afterwards M.P., an extensive
merchant at Vankleek Hill, was the purser. This steamer was owned by some
Montreal and Hawkesbury mer chants ; she had two heavy marine engines,
side leveis that had been imported by the Hon. John Molson, grandfather
to J. H. R. Molson of this city (Montreal). Emery

Gushing was the first agent of the Ottawa & Rideau Forwarding Company. In
1837 Messrs. MacPherson and Crane became the managers. In 1835 Captain
Light- hall from the Island of Arran commanded the steamer "Ottawa,"
and Archie Stewart was pilot ; Kenneth McLeod, an old man-of-wars man,
was second pilot both good men.

In 1836 John Grossman was captain of the " Ottawa ; " in 1837,
R. S. Robins was promoted to the command of this steamer. He had been
captain on one of the


Rideau Canal steamers in 1835-36- In 1834 the Company built a steamer
called the Non-Such" ; and she was well named, for there never was one
of the sort I since She was built square, with recess in the stern for
the wheel to ply. This boat was built at Ottawa, and was taken through
the Rideau canal to Kingston, and down the St Lawrence. It was supposed
she would draw less water and be able to take the route in low water. The
engines of the " Union " were placed in this boat, need hardly be said
she proved a failure. After being kept in commission three or four years,
she was used as a boarding house for the men, in spring. A few years
later she was laid on the beach near the present house of the late Sir
Antome Donon at Vaudreuil, and served as wharf for some years under the
management of McPherson and Crane. Nearly all the carrying trade passed
by the Ottawa, the barges being

towed by the steamers of the Ottawa & Rideau Forwarding Company. I may
men tion that the "Non-Such" was commanded by Capt. J ames Greaves,
afterward chief

of Rural Police at Vaudreuil, whose headquarters were in the old
seigniorial Manor House on the site of the W. Lotbiniere hotel, lately
destroyed by fire.

Captain Robins continued to command the Ottawa." The writer joined that
steamer under him in 1838, and remai ned three years in the service. In
the year 1841 I engaged with Messrs. H. & S. Jones, and Hooker &
Henderson, as captain c

one of their steamers. In April of that year I was appointed to the
steamer "St.  David " then being built at Brockville, and was ordered
early m May to proceed to Brockville to superintend the finishing of the
steamer. Late in the month of June we made a trial trip to Prescott and
back. We had no regular crew, but picked up some men for the purpose. One
Russell, a clerk in Messrs. Jones store, insisted enacting as pilot
We managed to get to Prescott all right, and went alongside the steamer
Canada," property of the late Hon. John Hamilton of Kingston. This steamer
was about finished, and intended to ply between Dickinson s Landing and
Kingston, was afterward commanded by Captain Lawless. On our way back
to Brockvil Russell was steering and taking the Maitland steam mill for
a steamer, he kept to the right hand side, and I only discovered the
mistake just in time to save the boat from running high and dry on the
Maitland shore. I made up my mind never to start on a trial trip again
without having a proper crew.

In the month of July we left Brockville, this time with a full crew from
Lachme.  Mr. Sidney Jones, one of the owners (a fine old gentleman of the
olden times), was on board. After "running all the rapids successfully,
we arrived at Lachlne same evening. The next day, I started for Ottawa
by the St. Ann s route, and picked up all the barges belonging to the
different owners, and made the first trip by steamer with barges through
the Grenville canal. After this, the company placed steamer " Albion "
on the route between Grenville and Ottawa, so that we were em ployed on
the route between Lachine and Carillon.

Early in September, 1841, I towed the first raft on the Lake of Two
Mountains, belonging to Messrs. Hamilton and Low. John Waddel, who managed
that part of their business, acted as pilot, as I had no pilot on board
that knew the route towards the " Dutchman s (raft) Channel."


Towards the middle of August the water became so low at St. Ann s that
we had to get another steamer, the " Grenville," Captain John Fraser,
of Prescott, com mander. The "Grenville" towed the barges between
Lachine and St. Ann s ; the steamer "St. David " between St. Ann s and
Carillon. However, the water became so low, by the end of August or
beginning of September, that we could not get an empty barge up through
the gap that had been left outside the dam by Mr. H. Wil

kinson, who had the contract for the lock. The New Company was at a
stand still; the barges and steamer were idle. I had an idea that there
was a channel outside of the old lock at Vaudreuil, so, after waiting
for a day or two, I decided to run my boat over there and try to find
a channel. After a hard day s work sounding and

buoying out the passage, I became convinced there was a good
channel. While we were delayed at St. Ann s, a barge from Perth came
along, Captain McQueen, I think.  After we left for Vaudreuil he sailed
over there and begged of me to run his barge over the rapids ; she was
drawing three feet of water. I replied that I would not run the risk
but if he would assume the responsibility, I would do mybest. He agreed
to this

arrangement, and I steered the barge over ; we nearly touched on one
side, but did no damage. Of course, the channel was an accomplished fact,
and that evening I left for Mcntreal to inform my employers. I called
on Mr. Sidney Jones at the Exchange Coffee House, then one of the best
hotels in Montreal, kept by Doolittle & Mayo

This was on a Sunday morning, just as Mr. Jones was getting ready for
church ; he attended the old church Cathedral on Notre Dame street. After
telling him of my dis covery, he seemed n.uch pleased, and invited me
to dine with him at six o clock, which I did, and returned on Monday
moming to Vaudreuil. Mr. Jones and Mr.  Holton were to leave on Tuesday
with the steamer " Grenville " and two barges for Vaudreuil ; the barges
were not to draw over three feet of water. They reached Vaudreuil in
the afternoon. I had attached a rope to an anchor dropped at the head
of the rapids with a buoy attached to a rope at the foot, to be ready
to fasten to the capstan of the barge. I got all my crew and the crews
of the barges on the one barge, attached rope to the capstan, and in
less than half an hour had the barge safe alongside the "St. David," and
within another half hour had the second barge up also. This, of course,
showed that we could take barges up outside, with same depth of water
that they had in the lock, which was private property. Within a few days,
airangements were made between the old and new companies to allow the new

company s barges to pass the lock by the payment of a toll of eight
dollars for each barge, and further, that the old company should tow
all barges with the steamer

"Ottawa," between Vaudreuil and Carillon, and the new company would
have all the towing between Lachine arid Vaudreuil. A few days later,
I received a letter from Messrs. H. & S. Jones, saying that I had been
promoted to the steamer "Oldfield."

This, I considered the greatest promotion 1 ever had. I was ordered to
take the

steamer "St. David "to Lachine, which I did without delay, and transferred
my crew to the " Oldfield," Captain John Chambers taking command of the
"St.  David."


We continued to tow between Lachine and Vaudreuil, the remainder of the
season of 1841. In the winter of 1841-42, I was employed fitting up the
" Oldfield " as a

passenger boat. In the spring of 1842, we began a regular passenger
line between Montreal and Ottasva ; the " Oldfield " plying on the lower
reach between Lachine and Carillon, and the steamer " Albion," Captain
Johnson, on the upper reach between Grenville and Ottawa a daily line
(Sunday excepted). This was the first regu lar passenger line on the
Ottawa ; steamers running without barges. This continued till 1846, when
the St. Lawrence canals were opened, and the old proprietors wanted to
carry on their business by the St. Lawrence route. I with other friends
pur chased the " Oldfield " in 1846, and began business on my own account.

The St. Ann s locks were opened 1111843. J ne proprietors of the steamer
"Oldfield" were Sir George Simpson, A. E. Montmarquette, J. J. Gibb and
the writer, who was appointed captain and manager; this was not a joint
stock company, but the ship owners registered at the Customs Department
as to their respective


The business continued profitable, and, in the autumn of 1847, jt
was decided to build a new steamer for the route between Lachine and
Carillon. A contract was made with Mr. Merritt, shipbuilder of Montreal,
for the hull of a new steamer, 150 feet keel and 26 feet beam. We
also made arrangements with Mr. George Brush (father to the present
G. S. Brush) for a beam engine 34 inch diameter cylinder and 10 feet
length of stroke. This steamer, a very fast one, was called the "Ottawa

Chief," and made a trial trip to Carillon in November, 1848. This
boat after a trial was found to draw too much water for St. Ann s
channel. The contract called for 3 feet 3 inches, and instead it was 4
feet 8 inches, much to the disappointment of all the proprietors, as well
as the travelling public. In the spring of 1849, we decided to sell or
charter this boat and build another one suitable. In March of that year,
the Hon. John Hamilton of Kingston came to Como to see the Ottawa Chief"
5 he was much pleased with her, and made us an offer to charter her for
five years, but would not buy her. Arrangements were finally completed,
and a charter was passed between our company and the Hon. John Hamilton
of Kingston, who then controlled

the steamers of the mail line between Montreal and Kingston.

The next thing to do was to arrange for the building of another steamer
for the

route. On the nth of April, 1849, * started from Como for Montreal on
horseback, the only way to travel at that time of the year, owing to the
bad state of the roads.  I had to cross two ferries, viz., Vaudreuil
and St. Ann s. It took me all day to reach Lachine, where I called
on Sir George Simpson to arrange the finances for the new boat. This
done, I proceeded to Montreal, and bargained with Mr. A. Cantin for the
building of a hull of a steamer to draw only 3 feet of water, with wood
and water on board ; also, with Mr. George Brush for an engine of 32
inch diameter cylinder and 8 feet stroke, all to be ready by the month
of August of the same year.  However, we made a trial trip in October,
1849. Tllis boat was ca ^ e & tne " Lad y Simpson," after the wife of
Sir Geo. Simpson. She was laid up for ihe winter at


Como, and the joiner work was finished and the boat furnished during
the winter of 1849-50 ; the joiner work was all done by hand, by the
day, and Mr. James Shearer, the well-known manufacturer of Montreal,
was the foreman. This boat, the " Lady

Simpson," answered every purpose. She drew 2 feet 10 inches aft, and 2
feet 6 inches forward, and could run during the lowest water, and was
a great favorite with the travelling public.

In the spring of 1850 the " Lady Simpson " too k the route between Lachine
and Carillon, and the " Oldfield " was put on the Lake of Two Mountains
to tow rafts, which at that time was a profitable business. In 1852,
I contracted with Mr.  Cantin for a new hull to take the place of the "
Oldfield," 150 feet long, 25 feet beam ; and with Mr. Geo. Brush for
a new engine, 32 inch cylinder, 8 foot stroke ; this boat came out
in 1853, when we sold the " Oldfield " to Captain St. Louis. The new
tow boat was called the " Atlas," and proved to be a splendid boat ;
Captain Jos.  Blondin, formerly of the " Oldfield," was her captain,
and a good faithful man, excellent pilot and good manager for the towing
business. Mr. A. E. Montmarquette, one of the owners, acted as agent
for the towing business at Carillon. I continued to command the "Lady
Simpson " till the fall of 1853, when I retired, partly from ill health
and partly from a wish to visit my native country, which I did in 1854. My
brother William, who still commands the " Sovereign," was appointed to the
command of the " Lady Simpson "; having served nine years under me on the
different steamers, he was qualified for the promotion. He has now been
forty years commander, and a very popular and exceedingly fortunate one.

After my return from England, in the fall of 1854, I had to undertake the
management of the estate of my late father-in-law, P. F. C. Delesdenier,
as well as the "homestead farm. Between the farm and the estate I
was fully occupied. In the year 1857, Sir George Simpson, who was the
financial agent of the company, asked me if I would take charge of the
company as general manager. We had now become owners of the upper portion
of the route, by the purchase of the steamer

" Phoenix," formerly the property of MacPherson & Crane.

I agreed to undertake this work, which I performed until the spring
of 1882.  In 1859, we began to build the steamer " Queen Victoria," to
replace the Phoenix ; " also to build the steamer " Prince of Wales "
to replace the " Lady Simpson."  Captain Bowie, who had been purser on
the " Prince of Wales " since 1854, was in 1857 or 1858 promoted to the
captaincy of the "Phoenix," afterward to the "Queen Victoria," and in
1873 to the " Peerless," now called the " Empress." In 1865 the market
business became so important a factor in our business, that we built the

steamer " Dagmar " for the trade. Captain Peter McGowan was promoted from
the "Prince of Wales," where he acted as pilot to the command of the "
Dagmar." A few years later, we built the steamer " Maude " as an extra
boat ; Thomas Ryan,

formerly engineer of the " Prince of Wales," was appointed captain. In
the year

1864, we purchased the shares of the Carillon & Grenville Railway
from Hon.  John J. C. Abbott, afterward Sir John J. C. Abbott, Judge
Cross and Courtland


and Freer, and formed a joint stock company under an act of
Parliament. The Hon.  John Rose, afterward Sir John Rose, took charge
of the Act, and procured the char ter. The company was, and is to
this day, called The Ottawa River Navigation Company. On my giving
up the management of the company, my son, R. W.  Shepherd, jr., was
appointed general manager, and has continued as such until the present
time. Mr. John McGowan was appointed manager of the Carillon & Grenville
Ry., in 1860 or thereabout ; and has continued so to this day, and has
been a faithful servant to the company) as I may say of all our present
captains and officers.

The principal boats for the Ottawa River Navigation Company, which
have been in use in recent years, are the " Sovereign," " Empress,"
" Princess " and "Maude," and during the summer 1895 a new boat, the "
Duchess of York," has been constructed.

The "Sovereign," which succeeded the "Prince of Wales," has been running
but a few years. She is a fine boat commanded by Capt. Wm. Sheppard, and
during the season of summer travel plies between Montreal and Carillon.

Passengers are conveyed from Carillon to Grenville by rail and thence
to Ottawa

by the commodious steamer " Empress," commanded by Capt. A. Bowie. Capt.
Bowie was born in Montreal ; his father was a railway contractor, and
besides many other railroads, he constructed that from St. Johns to
Laprairie, the first one built in Canada. The Captain engaged as Purser
on the "Lady Simpson" in 1854, and has held the position of Captain
since 1859.

The "Princess," commanded by Capt. Peter McGowan, has been both a market
and passenger boat for many years. Under the present arrangement for the
Fall of 1895, the " Princess" makes a weekly return trip from Montreal
to Ottawa, and the " Duchess of York," commanded by Capl. John McGowan,
makes a semi-weekly trip between Montreal and Carillon.


Brief mention is here m ide of a few places along the lower Ottawa,
besides those described in the succeeding pages, which are located in
Argenteuil and Prescott.

The first point of interest after leaving Lachine is St. Ann s, which
contains many beautiful residences and is a favorite summer resort. Rapids
in the river at this point necessitated the- construction of a canal
and lock. The canal is about an

eighth of a mile in length, and was constructed in place of one built
early in the pre sent century. It was rebuilt by the Ottawa Forwarding
Company, but, as they claimed the right of use. thus causing much
inconvenience, the Legislature of Upper Canada took the matter in hand,
and constructed the present canal. At St. Ann s, also, are the costly
and imposing iron bridges of theC.P.R. and G.T. Railway Com panies. Here,
too, is the chapel of St. Anne, the patroness of the Canadian voyageur,
where, as stated above, they made confession and offered up their vows
before start ing on a dangerous expedition.


o 5

The shrine formerly, it is said, was decorated with relics and votive

ing up by the voyageurs to propitiate her favor, or in gratitude for
some signal deliverance.

It was here that Tom Moore witnessed enough of the fur-trading vocation
and 5 voyageurs to gam inspiration for the writing of the " Canadian
Boat Song."  Under the French rigime, a fortification was erected here,
which did service in

ihng the attacks of the fierce Iroquois. A brief account of one of their
raids be found in this volume, in the history of Calumet. The remains
of this fortification are still to be seen here.

Some distance farther up the river is Oka, celebrated not only for being
the ence of the Oka Indians a remnant of the Iroquois and Algonquin
tribes but ilso of the Trappist monks. An imposing Roman Catholic church,
with beautiful unds and stately trees, is in the foreground, and at a
short distance in the rear rises Mount Calvary, whose summit has several
shrines to which devout Catholics

en make a pilgrimage. The occupation of these monks is the cultivation of
a large farm and orchard; their life is one of seclusion, and their rules
are of the strictest char- Females are not admitted to the monastery,
nor are the monks permitted to Averse w lt !i each other. They rise at
2 a.m., and soon afterward breakfast, this mg their only meal during
the day ; and they retire at sunset.

Many of the Indians at Oka are Protestants, and have a chapel in which
they attend divine worship.

Still further up the Ottawa, and on the opposite side from Oka, is
Rigaud its mountain at a little distance from the village forming a
prominent landmark far up own the river. Rigaud College, also, which is
an institution of considerable note xupies an elevated plateau, and can
be seen from a long distance.

On the slope of this mountain is a lusus natune of great interest
to visitors and tists. This is a spot embracing two or three acres,
entirely destitute of soil, and an unknown depth with stones about the
size of a man s head, and smaller i said that certain parties, prompted
by curiosity, explored this singular spot to the epth of forty feet,
and finding nothing, still, but stones, abandoned their undertaking
What is st.ll more remarkable, the stones, chiefly, are of a character
entirely different am the mountain rock. Geologists class this curiosity
with Moraines, but it is generally known as Devil s Garden," and it is
often visited by picnic parties and others.

The next place of interest after passing beyond the counties of Argenteuil
and Prescott is Montebello, the town of the great patriot, Louis Papineau.

County of Argenteuil.

The territory embraced by this county was formerly included in the county
of York, subsequently in the county of Two Mountains; but, in 1855, the
county of Argenteuil was formed, which is bounded on the north by the
county of Terrebonne 5 on the east, partly by the county of Terrebonne
and partly by the county of Two

Mountains ; on the south by the Ottawa River, and on the west by Ottawa

It comprises the following municipalities :

Villages. Grenville and Carillon.

Parishes. St. Andre d Argenteuil, St. Jerusalem de Lachute, Mille Isles.

Townships. Arundel, Chatham, Gore, Grenville, Howard, Montcalra, Went-
worth and Harrington.

Part of a Township. Morin.

Chef-Lieu.^. Jerusalem de Lachute.


Roman Catholics.


o ~z

, rf

a "So

3 C

5 W

Presby terians.

6 2 5






Congrega- tionalists.

o U5

tn u *


















Carillon (Village) Chath am

217 i, 62 3


1 66





5 1






3 4









1 08












5 2




418 828

3 159

34 8

25 1





Mille Tslps



I cn




Ivlo rin .. ...

5 1







St Andrew s .







St. Jerusalem








Wentworth and Montcalm

5 ! 4

2 5 *



J 3





i ui -

6 % 2

3 S - -i "5 g

if o

13 o










c u



Argenteuil .... 15 158





Arundel , 743

,/ *4






"49 16


Carillon (Village) 255



/I C


Chatham , V37 1












^/ j Q I


Grenville . 2 183




i j


Grenville (Village).. 1:02



3 3

7 T


i >

Harrington 720


I 22

/ 1 121




Howard 448





j y


/ /


2 1

Mille Isles ciq

JH t






f o


Morin 4.71








St. Andrew s I 702


^ i


C 7


St. Teiusalem., 1.062






I 7


Wentworth and Montcalm 898

I ^O

I sO





o .  4.U-5 Sug

4 ^ C3

rt 3 -j < ,o 5 o

tn hi




2,121 114 I I

442 1 06

2 7S 42


77 193 8?  94

233 1 86


i -



tsi 4> .  O



rt D

-, O O


C .

z .5 n


3 s 1

,0 S 0.

r^ cj

u S, 1) O



u c

3 w; 3


Woodland & Forest.

Gardens & Orchard.







54 132

78 304 88

95 274 198









6 i in i i 40


666 40





. .

4 8 23

4 49 2 5 65 80 62






55 19

2t 2



39 3

140, 04!  5.928 450 39,093

8,505 15,426

812 7,086 2,803


7-079 4,981

18,325 22,136


85,404 4,029



4,364 10,389

495 5,27 1,953 879

4,929 2,864

12,968 11,416


53, 6 33


196 16,5:9 4.089

4,9^3 312 i,79 2 83.?

335 2,142






1 6. 533 215


9-354 26,089

, 324 12,414



8,379 6,281


5,417 14,632


37 1 1 308

52 74 5 23 17





94 33


Carillon (Village) ....




Grenville (Village)

Harrington. .


Lachute (Town) Milles Isles


St. Andrew s

Wentwoith and Montcalm.


From the Geological Snri cy of Sir ll illiani Lrgan, 1863.

The intrusive masses of the Laurentian series consist chiefly of syenite
and greenstone. They occur in many parts of the country, hut their
relative ages have been ascertained almost altogether by investigations
in the counties of Ottawa and Argenteuil. What appear to be the oldest
intrusive masses are a set of dykes of a rather fine-grained, dark,
greenish grey greenstone or clolerite, which


weathers greyish white, and consists of greyish-white feldspar mixed
with pyroxene, occasional scales of mica, and grains of pyrites. Their
width varies from a few feet to a hundred yards, and they possess a well
marked columnar structure. Their general bearing appears to approach east
and west, but the main dykes occasionally divide, a branch striking off
at an angle of from twenty to forty degrees.

One of these dykes cuts crystalline limestone on the thirteenth lot of the
fourth range of Gren- ville. Its breadth is about thirty yards, and it has
been traced across the limestone and gneiss for a mile and three-quarters,
in which, with a few moderate zig-zags, it maintains a course of N. 85
E., until it is interrupted by a mass of syenite on the eighth lot of
the range already mentioned. Across the limestone it forms a ridge ;
but across the gneiss it is usually found in a depression, sometimes a
very dtep one. When it mounts the side of any hill which runs with the
stratification, the columnar structure gives it the aspect of a flight
of gigantic steps, well presenting the character from which the Swedish
name of trap is derived. The columns are so truly at right angles to the
plane of the dyke, that they are a sure means of determining the under
lie, which is towards the north. A branch strikes off from the dyke on
the eleventh lot of the range, and, after proceeding about a quarter of
a mile in the direction S. 30 E., it turns S- 50 E., and continues for
three-quarters of a mile move, chiefly across limestone, in a remarkably
straight line, to the eighth lot, where, having giadually diminished from
the width of eighteen yards to five, it seems to split up into a brush-
like arrangement of small dykes, and is lost. In a westerly direction from
the thirteenth lot of the fourth range, the main dyke has been traced
between four and five miles, and in its whole course from the syenite,
the bear ing is about five degrees north of west.

Another dyke of the same character, with a width of twenty- five yards,
occurs in the eleventh lot of the fifth range of Grenville, and runs
for about a mile in the bearing N. 67 E., when it is inter rupted by the
same mass of syenite as before, on the eighth lot of the same range. A
probable con tinuation of the dyke in an opposite direction is seen
crossing the gneiss on the fifth range, reaching the seventeenth lot,
with a bearing N. 75 W., and thence crossing the River Rouge.

From the sixth lot of the fourth range of Chatham Gore, where it cuts the
crystalline limestone, another of these dykes has been traced for upwards
of two miles to the first lot of the third range of Wentworth. Its width
varies from fifty to a hundred yards, but it appears to maintain a very
uniform course, and though an interval of seven miles is a long one at
which to recognize it again, yet an exposure of greenstone on the front
of the first lange of Wentworth, in the division between the twentieth and
twenty first lots, is sufficiently near the line to make it probable that
it is a continuation of the same dyke. At the latter spot it is from 1 10
to 120 yards wide, and about eleven chains to the westward it is cut off
by the syenite. It has been met with again, however, on the western side
of it, and traced acsoss the northwest comer of Chatham into Grenville,
and is probably continued to the twelfth lot of the ninth range of the
latter township, where there is a dyke of the same character.  The whole
distance from Chatham Gore is about fifteen miles, and the bearing about
five degrees south of west. Still another of these dykes has been observed
in the seigniory of Argenteuil-. about a mile and a half from the North
River, on the road from Lachute to Chatham Gore.  It appears to be about
twenty-five or thirty yards wide, and it bears N. 80 W., for about a
mile and a half to the town line of Chatham, which it crosses towards
the rear of the ninth range ; and although it would require a change in
its course to bring it to a dyke seen on the road between the seventh
and eighth ranges on the ninth lot, it appears probable that the two
will be found to be the same. Running west ward from the latter spot,
it comes against the syenite in the eleventh lot of the seventh range,
and is there cut off. These greenstone dykes being always interrupted
by the syenite, when they have been found to come in contact with it,
it is plain the syenite must be of posterior date. This mass of intrusive
syenite occupies an area of about thirty-six square miles in the townships
of Grenville, Chat ham and Wentworth ; and a glance at the accompanying
m?p, showing the distribution of the crys tal line limes- tone, in the
counties of Ottawa and Argenteuil, will show its shape and distribution.


In its lithological character, the rock is very uniform, being composed
for the most part of orthoclase either of some tinge of flesh-red or
a dull white, with black hornblende, and a rather sparing quantity
of greyish, vitreous quartz. The red tinge prevails more on the west
side, the white on the east. In the spur which runs into Wentworth,
mica is occasionally found accompanying the hornblende.  The rock is
rather coarse-grained in the main body, but dykes of it are sometimes
observed cutting the limestone and gneiss, in which the grain is finer ;
these have not as yet been traced to any great distance from the nucleus.

The syenite is cut and penetrated by masses of a porphyritic character,
which are therefore of a still later date. These masses belong to what has
been called felsite porphyry, hornstone porphyry, or orthophyre, having
a base of petrosilex, which may be regarded as an intimate mixture of
ortho clase and quartz, coloied by oxyd of iron, and varying in colors
from green to various shades of black, according to the oxydation of
this metal. Throughout the paste, which is homogeneous and conchoidal in
its fracture, are disseminated well-defined crystals of a rose- red or
flesh-red feldspar apparently orthoclase, and, although less frequently,
small grains of nearly colorless translucent quartz. The larger masses
of this porphyry have a fine-grained, reddish-buff base, in which well
defined crystals of flesh-red feldspar of various sizes, from one-eighth
to three-eighths of an inch are thickly disseminated. In addition to the
crystals of feldspar, the base often contains a multitude of ragments
of gneiss, greenstone and syenite, varying in size from small grains to
masses several feet in diameter. These are occasionally so abundant,
as to give to the rock the character of a breccia.  When the base is
green, it is rather more compact, and it does not usually contain so
many imbedded crystals of feldspar.

The principal nucleus of this porphyry occupies a pear-shaped area,
the small end pointing south, on the thud and fourth lots of the fifth
and six ranges of Grenville, from which, on the eastern side, a portion
projects into the second lot of the fifth range. This mass is wholly
surrounded by syenite, and a large part of it constitutes a mountain or
group of hills intersected by one or two ravines. In about the centre of
the mass on the summit of one of the hills, there is a circular depression
of about a hundred yards in diameter, nearly surrounded by a tufaceous
porphyritic rim, of about thirty feet in height. In this depiession there
is a turf bog, supporting a grove of good sized evergreen trees. On
sounding the depth of the bog with a boring rod, the rock beneath was
found to present the shape of a cup, with the depth of twenty-five feet
in the centre ; so that, including the rim, the depression would be
about fifty feet deep, with the exception of a break down to the level
of the bog on the east side. The nature of the rock constituting the rim
gives to the depression, in some degree, the aspect of a small volcanic
crater. But if it be the remains of one, it can only represent some deep
seated part of the vent ; for there can scarcely fail to have been here
a great amount of denudation of the ancient Laurentian surface, while
the ice groves in the neighborhood shew that there has been much erosion
over the whole country in comparatively recent times. In this vicinity,
some entangled beds cf gneiss occur, one of which, running N. 80 W. for
upwards of a hundred yards, is completely surrounded by the porphyry.

From this poiphyrilic nucleus, one or two porphyritic dykes can be traced,
cutting the syenite for short distances ; and some of a similar character
are met with at such a distance as to make K.  probable that there are
other porphyritic nuclei. One of these dykes, about seven yards wide,
con taining beautiful red feldspar crystals set in a black base, occurs
on the south side of the road between the seventh and eighth ranges of
Chatham, on the eighth lot. Its bearing S. 85 W. would carry it to the
south of the porphyritic mass above described, from which the position
in which flie dyke cuts the gneiss is removed seven miles, though it is
not more than one mile from the syenite.

Another dyke of this aspect is seen in the ninth range near the
line between the thirteenth and fourteenth lots ; but in addition to
the elements mentioned, it holds disseminated grains of transparent,
colorless quartz. Its course appears to be S- 44 \V.,and it intersects
a mass of porphyritic rock of


the same color and texture as the porphyry of the pear-shaped nucleus,
which, however, like the dyke, contains grains of vitreous quartz. Grains
of this mineral are also observed in another porphyritic mass, whose
course is N. 10 W., about a quarter of a mile from the front of the
twenty-fifth lot in the seventh range. A porphyritic dyke is observed on
the road between the sixth and seventh ranges on the twenty-third lot. It
encloses grains of quartz and crystals of flesh-red feldspar, some of
them half an inch in diameter, in a reddi.h, finely granular base. Of
tre tufaceo porphyritic rock a lenticu lar mass crosses the seventh and
eighth lots, close upon the rear of the fifth range ofGrenville. It has
a lengih of nearly half a mile by a breadth of about 150 yards in the
middle, and lies between gneiss on the north and syenite on the south.

In the vicinity of the pear-shaped porphyritic intrusion, there are met
with two veins of a special character, cutting the syenite, that deserve
to be noticed. They consist of a white, yellowish-brown or flesh-red
cellular chert, the colors in some cases running in bands parallel to one
another, and sometimes being rather confusedly mingled, giving the aspect
of a breccia. The cells are unequally distributed, some parts of the veins
being nearly destitute of them, while in other?, they are very abundant,
and of various sizes, from that of a pin s head to an inch in diameter. On
the walls of some of these cells, small transparent crystals of quartz
are implanted, and in some there aie the im pressions of cubical foims,
resulting probably from crystals of fluorspar which have disappeared.
The stone has the chemical characters and the composition of flint
or chalcedony.

One of these veins is on the north half of the first lot of the sixth
range of Grenville, where it was traced for about a hundred yards, running
about east and west, and the other in the south half of the first lot of
the sixth range, belonging to Mr. James Lowe, who was the first person
who drew atten tion to it as affording buhrstone. On his ground, the
vein has been more examined than elsewhere ; it appears to run in a very
straight nearly east and west bearing, and stands in a veitical attitude,
while its breadth varies from about fourto .seven feet. Where the vein
is banded, the colors run parallel with the sides. The attitude and
associations of the mass clearly show it cannot be of sedimentary origin,
and Us composition, taken in connection with the igneous character of the
district, suggests the probability that it is an aqueous deposit which
has filled up fissures in the syenite, and is similar in its origin
to the agates and chalcedony which, in smaller masses, are common in
various rocks.

For a distance of perhaps 200 yards on each side of these veins of chert,
while the quartz of the syenite remains unchanged, the feldspar has been
more or less decomposed, and been converted into a sort of kaolin. As
this process involves a separation of silica from the feldspar, it is
not improbable that it has been the source of the veins of chert.

The intrusive rocks which have been described have a date anterior to the
deposit of the Silurian series. None of a similar character have been met
with breaking through this series, and the rela tions of the base of the
Lower Silurian group along the foot of the hills composed of the syenite
are such as to make it evident that the Silurian beds in some places
overlie eroded portions of the intru sive rock. But all these intrusive
masses are cut by a set of dykes whose relations to the Silurian series
are not so ceitain. These dykes are composed of a fine granular base,
withan earthy fracture, consisting of feldspar and pyroxene, and having
a dark, brownish-grey color. In this base are imbedded rounded masses
of black cleavable augite, varying in size from a pin s head to several
inches in diameter. These are associated with various size 1 nodules of
calcspar filling cells that do not attain the diameter of the largest
masses of augite, and with small scales of mica, grey in fresh frac tures,
but weathering brass yellow on the sides of cracks and joints. Small
crystals of sphene and grains , of titaniferous iron occur in the rock.

One of these dykes, having a width of from three to ten feet, is traced
from the first lot of the sixth range ofGrenville, near Mr. Lowe s
buhrstone , where it cuts the syenite, to the third and fourth lots
of the same range, where it cuts the pear-shaped mass of porphyry ;
thence, it crosses to the eighth lot of the fifth range, where it cuts
both syenite and porphyry, and farther to the tenth lot of



the same range, where it intersects the quartzite and the limestone. The
whole distance is upward of two miles and a half, and the bearing S. 82
W. Another dyke of this description intersects the limestone on the
thiiteenth lot of the same range, and is traced for half a mile running
east. These dykes bear a striking resemblance to some of the dolerites
which intersect the Lower Silurian group in the neighborhood of the
mountain of Montieal, and may possibly be of the same age, but none of
them have yet been traced, continuously, from the Laurentian into the
Silurian rocks.


Names of the members of the Legislative Assembly of the County of York,
Two Mountains and Argenteuil the latter having been detached from
the former.

From 1792

" 797 1801

" 1805

From 1811



From 1820

" 1825 " 1827

I. COUNTY OF YORK, 310 Geo. Ill, Chap. 31.

to 1796, Mr. C. de Lotbiniere, Mr. P. A. de Bonne,

to 1800, Mr. H. Lacroix, Mr. Hetien (J.).

to 1805, Mr. J. Bedard, Mr. L. C. Foucher.

to 1808, Mr. J. Mure, Mr. E. L. Dumont.

1809, Mr. J. Mure. Mr. J. J. Trestler.

1810, Mr. J. Mure, Mr. St. Julien.  to 1814, Mr. F. Bellet,
Mr. St. Julien.

to 1816, Mr. E. L. Dumont, Mr. W. Forbes,

to i Si 9, Mr. Dumont, Mr. J. B. Fare.

1820, Mr. E. L. Dumont, Mr. A. Perrault.

to 1824, Mr. E. L. Dumont, Mr. A. Perrault.

to 1827, Mr. E. L. Dumont, Mr. J. Simpson,

to 1829, Mr. J. L. Labrie, Mr. J. B. Lefebvre.

II. COUNTY OF Two MOUNTAINS, 90 Geo. IV, Chap. 73.

From 1830 to 1834, Mr. J. Labrie, Mr. W. H.Scott.

1834 to 1838, Mr. J. J. Girouard, Mr. W. H. Scott.  1841 to 1844,
Mr. C. Robertson, Mr. C. J. Forbes.  Mr. W. H. Scott.  Mr. W. H. Scott.

1844 to 1847, 1848 to 1851,

1851 to 1854, Mr. Mr. W. H. Scott, Hon. Louis J. Papineau.  III. COUNTY
OF ARGENTEUIL, 1 6 Viet., Chap. 152.

From 1854 to 1857, S. Bellingham, his election declared null.

Re-elected in 1855 election again declared null ; re-elected in 1856.

From 1858 to 1861, S. Bellingham. The name of J. J. C. Abbott is substi
tuted for the name of S. Bellingham in 1860.

From 1861 to 1863, Mr. J. J. C. Abbott re-elected as Solicitor in 1862.

From 186310 1866, Hon. J. J. C. Abbott.

Sidney Bellingham was elected by acclamation 27th August, 1867 re-elected
23rd June, 1871, and re-elected by acclamation 3oth June, 1875.


Robert J. Meikle of Lachute was elected ist May, 1878.

Wm. Owens was elected 2nd December, 1881 ; re-elected by acclamation,
yth October, 1886 ; re-elected lyth of June, 1890, and resigned.
William J. Simpson elected 8th March, 1892.

Biographical sketches of several of the representatives named above Colin
Robertson, C. J. Forbes, R. J. Meikle, Wm. Owens and Wm. J. Simpson will
be found on succeeding pages of this volume ; of three others Scott,
Papineau and Bellingham the sketches given below were gathered in part
from Borthwick s " History and Gazetteer of Montreal."

W. H. Scott was the son of a baker, who was located on St. Lawrence
street, Montreal, very early in the present century. The son engaged in
mercantile busi

ness in St. Eustache, and was one of the prominent rebels of 1837. He
was arrested and indicted for high treason, but after remaining in prison
some time, was dis

charged. Like several other rebels of that time, he afterward became a
supporter of the government he had attempted to subvert, and endeavored
by his devoted loyalty to atone for the errors of the past. In the latter
part of his Parliamentary career he became a great admirer and friend
of Sir George E. Cartier.

Louis J. Papineau was a man of almost world-wide fame, and he is one
of the most prominent characters in Canadian history. Few men outside
the circle of royalty have been the subject of more pen pictures than
he, and none, perhaps, are subjects of sketches so widely different in
character. Eulogy and anathema have

been bestowed on him in turn ; he was a heio or a coward, a patriot or
a traitor, a statesman or a demagogue, just according to the views or
political tendencies of his biographer.

All, however, concur with the opinion, thai he was a man of brilliant
talent, possessed of great personal magnetism, courtly manner, and was
an orator. As time recedes, also, from the stirring events which called
him into prominence, and animosity and prejudice give place to reason
and justice; he is no longer regarded as the

rash, selfish, irrational being that he once was, and even his bitterest
foes are inclined to denounce his methods rather his aims, and even
admit that we to-day are reap

ing some benefit from both. The more charitable even of his political
adversaries endeavor to find excuse for all that he did, and ascribe to
his efforts and that of his followers all that is good in our government

He was born in Montreal, i7th October, 1786, and was the son of Joseph
Papineau, a prominent notaiy, and for many years a member of the
Legislative Assembly, in which he was distinguished for his ability
and eloquence.

The Hon. Louis J. Papineau, after receiving his education chiefly at the
Seminary of Quebec, studied Law, and was admitted to the Bar of Lower
Canada in

1811. Two years previous to this, or in 1809, so popular had he become,
and so flattering were his prospects, that he was elected to the Assembly
for the County of Kent, now Chambly ; and in 1815 he was appointed to
the responsible position of speaker, which position he retained with
little interruption till 1837 a period of


twenty years. In November, 1827, when Mr. Papineau, according to the
custom of the Assembly, had again been chosen speaker, Lord Dalhousie,
the Governor of whom Papineau had spoken disrespectfully, refused
to ratify their choice. Some days of excitement and trouble ensued,
the Assembly would not yield, and, in con sequence, its members were
sent home. The Governor soon afterward returned to England, and became
Governor General of India. He was succeeded in Canada by Sir James Kempt,
whose conciliatory policy allayed, in a measure, the bitter

feelings in the Province towards the Government. This was only a delay,
however, of the coming storm : troubles which had long since commenced
between the different branches of Government continued to increase,
till they culminated in

the Rebellion of 1837-38. The important part which Papineau played in
all these

events is well known.

After a residence of two years in the United States, whither he had fled
in 1837, he removed to Paris, where he lived till 1847, when the issue
of the proclamation of amnesty permitted him to return to Canada. He
was again elected to Parliament, in which he remained till 1854, when
he retired from political life his last years be ing devoted chiefly to
horticultural and literary pursuits.

He died at Montebello on the Ottawa, 23rd September, 1871, at the age
of eighty-five.

SIDNEY ROBERT BELLINGHAM, who was long a popular figure in Argenteuil,
was a son of Sir Allan Bellingham of Castle Bellingham, Louth County,
Ireland, and was born 2nd August, 1808. He was educated in Ireland,
and married to Arabella Holmes, the daughter of a citizen of Quebec. He
was a loyal actor in the Rebellion of 1837-38, and, as a magistrate,
accompanied the valiant Col. Wetherall to St.

Charles, whither he had been sent in command of a few soldiers. In 1841,
Mr.  Belling ham was called to the Bar of Lower Canada, and, some years
subsequently, he was for a long time political writer for the press of
this Province, chiefly of the Montreal Times and Daily News. He became
endeared to the people of Argenteuil County, not only from his association
with them as their representative, but in enterprises with which he was
connected. He was interested in the construction of the Carillon &

Grenville Railway, and in colonizing the northern section of the County.

His residence for many years was on the north brow of Mount Royal, where
he purchased a valuable tract of land, beautifully located, and erected a
dwelling. Not long after his last election to the Legislative Assembly,
in 1875, he returned to Castle Bellingham, Ireland, where he was living
in December, 1895.


From 1867 to 1874, Hon. J. J. C. Abbott.

" 1874 to 1875, Lemuel Gushing.

" 1875 to 1880, Thomas Christie.

" 1880 to 1886, Hon. J. J. C. Abbott.

" 1886 to 1890, J. C. Wilson.

" 1891 to 1895, Thomas Christie.



SIR J. J. C. ABBOTT.  (From the Watchman of Nov. 3, 1893, Lachute.)

The tidings that have reached the homes of the County of Argenteuil,
this week,

cause great and deep sorrow. The greatest of our sons, the truest friend
this county ever had, has passed away. None but an old resident can fully
appreciate what he was to the County of Argenteuil. In almost every good
and public work which had

for its object the interests and progress of our people, Mr. Abbott
was there with his advice always golden and with his financial aid. The
Agricultural Society has lost perhaps its oldest and best friend, for
whether in Parliament or out of it, Mr.  Abbott s liberal donation was
always forthcoming.

But while his services to public objects have been innumerable, what
must be said of the kindness, the patience, the ability and readiness
which he displayed in listening to the private troubles and difficulties
of a long list of his Argenteuil brethren ? The legal advice which he
gave to his County gratis would have been worth a small for tune to any
lawyer. The widow and orphan, the poor and friendless, always had in
him one who would lay aside for a few moments the most weighty affair
of State to listen to their wants and clear away their difficulties.

But in no way did his character shine out more brightly than in his
treatment of political opponents. The same kind word, the same free
advice, the same pains taking consideration of the case before him,
was meted out to Argenteuil men, irre spective of whether they were
political friends or opponents. In this respect his example is one that
should never be forgotten. The retention of political spite and animosity
is very unfortunate, not only because of the harm it does, but because
it is foolish and senseless. On several occasions, when the flames of
political excite ment had been fanned by hot-headed partisans on both
sides, Mr. Abbott was heard to plead with the people not to quarrel with
their neighbors over politics. He declared that his opponent and himself
would remain good friends, and why should others make their battle so
personal as to be unneighborly ?

The history of the life of the first Canadian born Premier will form an
impor tant chapter in the history of our Dominion. But there is one fact
that is perhaps overlooked, viz., that to Mr. Abbott, more than to any
other man, do we owe the Cana dian Pacific Railway. There is no doubt
that the scheme of a great trans- continental railway was originated in
the fertile mind of this gentleman, and the success of the enterprise,
the opening up of the North West, and all the great benefits arising
there from, are due in a great measure to Sir John Abbott.

It has been said that he was a greater lawyer than a politician. Such
was the case, for he was at the very head of the legal profession in
Montreal, and, consequently, did not spend the greater portion of his
time in studying politics. At that time, there was the old chieftain,
Sir John Macdonald, to conduct the affairs of the party, and time and
again did he show the confidence and dependence he placed upon the advice
and counsel of Mr. Abbott. But, had the occasion arisen, we feel




sure that Mr. Abbott possessed the qualities, tact, discrimination,
foresight and cleverness which would have made him the peer of his
great leader, Sir John Macdonald. When that gentleman passed away,
how instinctively the party fell back upon him in the hour of need ;
and he did not fail them. Never was there a

time in the history of the Conservative party when its success was more
doubtful, and where a strong, courageous hand was more needed to turn
the tide than at the time when Sir John Abbott became Premier. But age
was upon him, and, burdened with the cares of State, the old man felt
his strength going. It was hoped that rest would make a change ; but
the only rest that came was the long last rest, upon which he entered
on Monday evening, October 3Oth, at half-past eight, 1893.

Any attempt to estimate the loss Argenteuil has sustained would prove
utterly futile, but we are sure that, from the most remote corner to
the Ottawa River boundary, the general feeling is one of the deepest
sorrow. Looking at the past and gazing into the future, we feel like
saying : " We shall never see his like again."

Sir John Abbott was born at St. Andrews, in the county of Argenteuil,
Lower Canada, i2th March, 1821. His father was the Rev. Joseph Abbott,
M. A., first Anglican incumbent of St. Andrews, who emigrated to this
country from England in 1818, as a missionary, and who, during his
long residence in Canada, added consider ably to the literary activity
of the country. He had not been long in Canada before he married Miss
Harriet Bradford, a daughter of the Rev. Richard Bradford, first rector
of Chatham, Argenteuil County.

Sir John was Dean of the Faculty of Law in the University of McGill
College, a D.C-L. of that University, and Lieut. -Colonel of the
"Argenteuil Rangers," known in the Department of Militia as the nth
Battalion, a corps raised by him during the patriotic time of the Trent
" excitement. He was also president of the Fraser Institute of Montreal,
and director, or law adviser, to various companies and corpor ations. Sir
John s name came twice before the public, in a manner which gave him great
notoriety. He was a prominent figure, after Sir Hugh Allan, in the famous

Pacific scandal episode. Being the legal adviser of the Knight of
Raven scrag, all transactions were carried on through him, and it
was a confidential clerk of his who revealed details of the scheme,
which culminated in the downfall of the Macdonald cabinet. His second
conspicuous appearance on the public stage was in connection with
the Letellier case, when he went to England, in April, 1879, as the
associate of the Hon. H. L. Langevin, on the mission which resulted in
the dismissal of the Lieut. - Governor of Quebec. In 1849, lie married
Miss Mary Bethune, daughter of the Very Rev. J. Bethune, D.D., late Dean
of Montreal.

Sir John s political life may be said to have commenced in 1857, by the
contest of the County of Argenteuil, at the general election held in
that year.  He was elected a member of the Canadian Assembly, but was
not returned until 1859-

He continued to represent the constituency in that House until the union
of 1867 when he was returned for the Commons. He was re-elected at the
general elections


of 1872 and 1874. In October of the last named year, he was
unseated. Mr. L.  Gushing, who had been his opponent at the
preceding election, again became the Liberal candidate, but Mr. Abbott
retired. Mr. Wm. Owens ran against Mr.  Gushing, and was defeated. Upon
Mr. Cushing s election being contested and vo ed Dr Christie was chosen
by acclamation. At the general election of September,

1878 he was again a candidate, but sustained defeat at the hands of
his old antagonist, Dr Christie. The latter, however, was unseated in
February, 1880 ; Sir John was

again elected for the County. Then followed the most celebrated election
trial in the history of Canada. It lasted about three months, the enquete
being one of the longest ever presented to a judge. The Court was presided
over by Justice Belanger.  Mr N W Trenholme, now Dean of the Law Faculty
of McGill, conducted the case for the petitioners, Thos. Hickson et
al. Mr. Tait, now Judge Tait, and Mr.  Lacoste, now Chief Justice Sir
A. Lacoste, were associated with Mr. Abbott himself in the defence The
result was that the election was annulled, and Mr. Abbott was re- elected
by acclamation, and sat until 1887, when he retired. In 1862, he was made
Solicitor General in the Sandfield-Macdonald-Sicotte Administration,
and prior t acceptance of office he was created a Q.C. In 1864, while
in opposition, he was

instrumental in introducing two bills, which have added greatly to
his legal fame.  The first of these was the Jury Law Consolidation Act
for Lower Canada, principal provisions were, to simplify the system of
summoning jurors and the pre paration of jury lists. The other law which
he added to the statute was the bill collecting judicial and registration
fees, by stamps. This was the most complete legislation that had taken
place on the subject, and, as in the case of his c measures, the main
principles have been retained in the subsequent legislation which has
followed. Sir John s political labors also consist of useful amendments
to bills, suggestions and advice as regards measures affecting law and
commerce. His advtc- at such times always proved of the greatest value,
and in this department it was that he achieved the most success. Upon
the death of Sir John Macdonald,

May, 1891, Sir John, then Mr. Abbott, was chosen to succeed him in the
leadership of the Conservative party and as Premier of the Dominion. The
onerous respon sibilities of this high office were accepted by Sir John
as a duty to his Party and the country. His services in this connection,
if not brilliant, were able and conserva tive, and, added to his weak
state of health, doubtless helped to shorten his life.

In the fall of 1892 he retired from active politics, and sought by
foreign travel and the services of skilled physicians to banish the
disease that racked his frame ; but it was too late, and he grew gradually
worse until the end.

In 1887, Mr. Abbott was elected Mayor of Montreal by a majority of
about 2,000 votes over his opponent, Mr. Rainville. In 1888, he was
re-elected by accla mation, and the same year was appointed president
of the corporation of the Royal Victoria Hospital, an institution which
has recently been endowed with about $1,100,- ooo by Lord Mount-Stephen
and Sir Donald A. Smith, in commemoration of Majesty s Jubilee. The
construction of the stately hospital building, costing about $500,000,
was conducted under Mr. Abbott s supervision as president.


Sir John was also president of the Citizens Insurance Company, and
director of the Bank of Montreal and of the Standard Life Insurance


It is to be regretted that the records of this Society have not been kept,
so that a connected history of it could be given from its formation.
Fortunately, a little pamphlet, 6 by 4 inches in size, and embracing
four pages, has fallen into our hands, from which we learn the date of
the birth of this Society. This relic has on its cover the following :




Then follows a picture emblem of Agriculture and underneath, the words



1828.  Below, we give the entire contents, verbatim :

At a general meeting of the Inhabitants of the County of York, held in St.
Andrews on the 2nd February, 1826, Mr. John McMartin being called to
the chair,

the purpose of the meeting was explained, and the following Resolutions
were un

animously adopted, viz. :

RESOLVED, ist. That the persons present form themselves into a Society,
to be called the " County of York Agricultural Society," the object of
which will be to im prove the mode of Agriculture in the said County by
every means in their power.

RESOLVED, 2nd. That the officers of this Society shall be a President, two
Vice- Presidents, a Treasurer and Secretary, and that a Committee of ten
shall manage the business ; all which officers shall be elected annually.

RESOLVED, 3rd. That James Brown, Esq., be President, Mr. John McMartin
and Thomas Barren, Esq., Vice-Presidents.

Edward Jones, Duncan McNaughton, Henry Chapman, Wm. Tennison, Jacob
Schagel, Stephen Burwash, Thomas Cooke, John M Ewen, Doctor C. Rice were
elected to form the Committee,

Mr. Guy Richards, Treasurer.

Mr. James Murray, Secretary.

RESOLVED, 4th. That the Committee draw up Rules for the better Regulation
of this Society.

RESOLVED, 5th. That those present immediately enter their names as
members of this Society.

Which Resolution was unanimously complied with.

(Signed), JAMES MURRAY, Secy.


On the 2 5 th March, 1 826, pursuant to public notice, a general meeting
took place, when the following Regulations were unanimously adopted :-

ist The object of this Society is to promote, by its efforts and example,
the science of Agriculture throughout the County ; to give premiums in
money or pieces of Plate, agricultural publications or implements, to
the practical farmers who shal excel in the art of ploughing, cropping,
raising stock of all kinds, in the dairy, plant ing of fruit trees,
and the general improvement of Farms and Home Manufactures.

2nd There shall be a general meeting annually, on the Twentieth day
of Jar.nary (or day following if it should fall on a Sunday), for the
election of a Presi dent two Vice-Presidents, a Secretary and Treasurer,
and ten members for a Com mittee to superintend the general interests
of the Society, and six of these with the President, or one of the
Vice-Presidents, will be sufficient to proceed to business, call
extraordinary meeting, etc.

3 rd. The Committee shall remain in office for one year, and one-half
comprising it may be re-elected, but may retire after serving one year,
then the Com mittee may elect others in their stead.

4 th. The said Committee shall meet quarterly, or oftener, if required
by the


5 th. Any practical farmer or gentleman in the County may become a
memt of the Society, by paying the sum of five shillings, annually. No
expulsion can tak place unless at a general meeting, when two-thirds of
those present may expel any member for misconduct towards the Society.

6th. No person, unless a practical farmer, within the County, can partake

the benefit of premiums.

7 th. All decisions to be made by a majority of members present, and

dent to have the casting vote.

8th. The rules of competition to be similar to those adopted by the

Society of Scotland.

9 th. The judges shall be named by the Committee from among the memb rs,

who shall determine in all cases.

roth. At the annual general meeting of this Society in January, the

of the year shall be read, a statement of the funds exhibited, the list
of subscribers read, and the annual subscription received previous to
the election of officers.

nth. No member entitled to vote on any subject, till the preceding
article is

complied with.

1 2th. That the general meeting in January shall serve for the first
quar meeting; the second quarterly meeting will take place on the
second Tuesday of March ; the third, on the second Tuesday of June ;
the fourth, on the second Tues day of September. At a general meeting of
the inhabitants of the County of York, held on the 2ist January, 1828,
the following additional resolution was agreed to :-

RESOLVED, That in order to extend the benefits to be derived from the
Associa tion, ten new members from the neighboring Parishes be added to
the number of


the Committee, and that the twenty do constitute, in future, the number
of the Com mittee, exclusive of the president, two vice-presidents,
the secretary and treasurer.


From this time onward for many years, the records are lost, but the
Society con

tinued to exist, and " Cattle Shows " and plowing matches were held
annually.  Com missary C. J. Forbes was president for some years,
and Wm. Beaton, a teacher and bailiff of St. Andrews, was secretary,
succeeded by Errick Harrington, who in turn was succeeded by Henry Howard.

The earliest records we have been able to obtain after the above were
those of a meeting held in Lachute, 3ist December, 1869.

OFFICERS.  President, Edward Jones ; Vice-President, John Hay; Secretary,
Henry Howard.


Wm. Albright, John McGregor, Thos. Noyes, Geo. B. Hooker, Walter McOuat,
Wm. Gordon, Wm. McOuat.

In 1870 there were 95 members. Amount subscribed, $113. In December, 1874,
John Burwash was appointed president, and Wm. McOuat, vice-president ;
Gavin I. Walker, who was appointed secretary in December, 1875, stiu
holds the office.

FROM 1876 TO 1895.

Presidents. Vict-Presidents.

John Hay. Wm. McOuat.

Geo. B. Hooker. Nelson Albright.

John Morrison. Geo. B. Hooker.

John Martin. Geo. Morrison.

P- Lane. John Martin.

P. Lane.  N. Albright.  Geo. Fraser.

1880. No. of members 191, amount subscribed $335.00.  1890. No. of members
240, amount subscribed $495.00.  1886. Amount paid for premiums $743.75.
1894. Amount paid for premiums, $950.00.

A Government grant of $2.00 is now received for every $1.00 subscribed.
The grounds and buildings which are leased to the Agricultural Society
for its exhibitions are neat and spacious, and their annual fairs are
second only to those of the large cities of the Province, and invariably
attract a large concourse of people.



On the 2 3 rd July, 1845, a meeting was held in a room at M. D. Seattle
s. The councillors acting at this time were John Wainright, Charles
Macdonnell, Alexis

Cameron, Stephen Burwash and Andrew McGregor. John Wainright was unanimoi
elected Mayor of the Municipality of Argenteuil.

PRESENT MUNICIPAL SYSTEM.  Copied verbatim from the Records.

On 2 3 rd August, 1855, the first meeting of the County Council of
Argenteuil was held, at which meeting the following councillors were
present :- Edwin Pridham, Esq., Mayor of Grenville.  Lemuel Gushing, Esq.,
Mayor of Chatham.  Robert Simpson, Esq., Mayor of St. Andrews.  Thomas
Christie, Esq., Mayor of St. Jerusalem Parish.  George Rogers. Esq.,
Mayor of Township of Gore.  Andrew Elliott, Esq., Mayor of Mille Isle.
Samuel Smith, Esq., Mayor ofWentworth.  George Hamilton, Esq., Mayor
of Morin.

Thomas Christie was elected Warden, and served to March, 1858.  Thomas
Barron, sen., was then appointed, and served to March, 1864.  Richard
D. Byers, from March to December, 1864.  Lemuel Gushing, to March, 1868.
Thomas Barron, jr., to March, 1881.  Alexander Pridham, from March,
1881, to March, 1895.  James B. Brown, from March, 1895, to the present.

The names of the present County Council are : Patrick A. Dunbar, Joseph
Derrick, John Chambers, Wm. D. Graham, jr., Oliver Woods, John Wade, M.
Desjardins, Hugh Walsh, James B. Brown, James Millway, Ed. Christie,
Matthew I.

Strong, George Scale.


The County of Argenteuil is deservedly proud of her rangers, though,
like for tresses scattered here and there in our land, once regarded as
a bulwark of safety, they are now less an object of necessity, and serve
more as a reminder of dangers we have escaped than of those anticipated.

A troop of cavalry was organized in this County by McRobbin 1816. He
had served in the British Army, and held the rank of sergeant, and
on petitioning Gov ernment for a grant of land, as a reward for his
service, he was granted two lots in Chatham, which are now owned by
John Kelly. He was always known as McRobb" ; he died not many years
after forming the Troop and becoming captain.  Since that period, the
command of the St. Andrew s Troop has devolved on the fol-


lowing : Capt. Donald C. McLean, Capt. John Oswald, Capt. John Burwash,
Capt.  Martin Wanless.

Capt. McLean had been a Nor wester, and lived on Beech Ridge. He
was a prominent, public-spirited, brave man, and was a J. P. of
St. Andrews. During the disturbances of 1838, he marched with his company
to St. Eustache, on the day that the rebels were vanquished. Some years
later, he sold his property on the Ridge, and moved to Quio, where he
died. One of his sons, a prominent business man, still resides there.

Capt. Oswald, who was afterwards promoted to the rank of lieut. -colonel
of Mili tia, was in command of this troop several years ; his home was
in the County of

Two Mountains. During the Rebellion he was one of the most active of
the Loyalists, in consequence of which he was particularly obnoxious to
the rebels.

In 1879, tne St. Andrew s troop and several troops were formed into
a regiment,

which afterward received the name Duke of Conna Light Royal Canadian
Hussars.  Another troop of cavalry was formed in this County a number
of years ago by Col. John Simpson of Lachute, but the organization was
not of long duration.

The Argenteuil Rangers were organized in 1862, the Hon. J. J. C. Abbott,
it is claimed, being instrumental in the formation of the Battalion. He
was lieut.- colonel of it for several years, and was succeeded by James
B. Gushing, who still holds the position.

Henry Abbott, brother of Sir J. J. C. Abbott, was sen. major till 1866,
when he

was succeeded by Allen McDonald, who, in 1883, was succeeded by
William Hoy.  First Jun. Major, Sam Rogers. This position was vacant
from 1883 to 1888, when Isaac Jekyll was appointed, succeeded in 1893
by Geo. B. Martin.

Paymaster, Archibald McDonald, till 1872 ; succeeded by Thomas Lamb.
Batt. Surgeon from 1862 to the present, Dr. Mayrand.  The Companies were
as follows :

Co. No. i, by Capt. John McDonald, St. Andrews.  Co. No. 2, by
Capt. William Smith, Gore (West).  Co. No. 3, by Capt. Geo. McKnight,
Gore (West).  Co. No. 4, by Capt. A. Cleland, Lachute.  Co. No. 5,
by Capt. Sam Rogers, Gore.  Co. No. 6, by Capt. Geo. Sherritt, Gore.
Co. No. 7, by Capt. EdwarrKPridham, Grenville.  Co. No. 8, by Capt. John
Pollock, Mille Isles.

The following changes have occurred among the captains of the different
com panies since the Battalion was first organized :

Co. No. i.

Capt. John McDonald died in 1864, and was succeeded by his brother,
Allen McDonald. In 1866, the latter became Major, and his brother Samuel
McDonald succeeded him as Captain. He was afterwards promoted to the
rank of Adjutant,


and H.W. Kempley succeeded him as Captain; and after the latter left St.
Andrews, Archibald LeRoy held the captaincy till 1883, when he was
succeeded by Capt- Thomas \Veightman.

Co. No. 2.

Capt. Wm. Smith was succeeded in 1866 by Capt. Jas. Smith, who, dying
in 1891, had as successor Capt. Wm. Good.

Co. No. 3.

Geo. McKnight was Captain till 1882, followed by Capt. Isaac Jekyll,
who dying was succeeded by his own son, Henry Jekyll.

Co. No. 4-

Capt. A. Cleland was Captain till 1866. From 1866 to 1883, Capt. John
Simp son. Since 1883, Capt. Geo. D. Walker.

Co. No. 5.

Samuel Rogers was Captain till 1866. The Company was disorganized
this year.  Co. No. 6 became No. 5 at this time, No. 7 was disbanded,
and No. 8 became No.  6.

Co. No. 7 (FORMERLY No. 9).

Capt. Wm. T. Forbes till 1872, Capt. W. Hoy till 1883, then Capt. Edward

Co. No. 8 (FORMERLY No. 10).

Capt. Jas. B. Gushing till 1883, then Capt. Geo. B. Martin till 1887,
Cap*- J ohn Sittlington till 1890; from 1893 to the present, Capt. John

The first camp was held in 1868, at the Roman Catholic Church,
St. Andrews, eight Companies and the St. Andrew s Troop present. In 1869,
the camp was at Hill Head.

In 1870, the Battalion, on account of the Fenian excitement, narrated
elsewhere, was divided and sent to different places.

1871, Camp at Laprairie.

1872, Camp at St. Andrews.

1874, Camp at St. Andrews.

1875, Camp at Bellevue, Carillon.  1876)

1877 [-Local drills at Head-quarters of the different Companies.  1878)

1879, Companies i, 4, 7 and 8 (part of Bait.), at Lachute.

1880, Companies 2, 3, 5 and 6 (part of Batt.), at Bellevue.

1 88 1, Camp at St. Johns.

1883, Camp at St. Johns.

1884, Camp at St. Johns.


1886, Camp at Richmond.

1888, Camp at Sherbrooke.

1891, Camp at East Farnham.

1893, Camp at Laprairie.

1895, Camp at Laprairie.

When the second camp was at Bellevue, on the suggestion of the late Lemuel
Cushing, M.P., a tent was erected by the Y. M. C. Association, and ever
since, this has been an important feature in the camp. The opportunity
thus afforded the Vol unteers of obtaining good reading matter and
attending religious exercises in the evening has been improved by many
of them, and it is to be hoped that good has resulted. At all events,
the suggestion of Mr. Cushing was a noble one, and the

custom which resulted from it cannot be too highly commended.

In the years 1872 and 1874, when the camps were at St. Andrews, there were
present besides the usual companies of the Battalion,, the " Prince of
Wales Rifles," Victoria Rifles," the 6th Reg.. of Cavalry, 6th Fusiliers,
and three independent companies from the region of the Gatineau.

When at Richmond in 1886, the Rangers were presented with standard colors
Queen s and Regimental by the ladies of Argenteuil.

The Rangers have gained no little celebrity for their success in compeiing
for various prizes. On the 25th May, 1885, a tug-of-war contest occurred
at Lachute, between the Rangers on one side, and the 5th Royal Scots and
6th Fusiliers on the ether. The prize was an ornate silver cup. Ten or a
dozen men were chosen from each party, and after a vigorous contest, the
Rangers were awarded the prize.  In 1893, when the camp was at Laprairie,
a magnificent and valuable silver cup was

offered by Sir Donald A. Smith to the Regiment displaying the best proof
of pro

ficiency in the qualities essential to a soldier. The prize was again
borne off by the Rangers. ,In 1887, on tne occasion of the Queen s
Jubilee, another tug-of-war contest occurred between two different
companies of the Battalion. A challenge was made by Co. No. 8, to any
other one in the Battalion, and was accepted by Co.  No- i, commanded
by Capt. Thomas Weightman. A prize of a silver cup was offeied

to the victor by Jas. Johnson, a lumber merchant living near Quebec. Five
men were selected fiom each company ; the team was commanded by
Capt. Weightman, to whose company the cup was awarded.

In 1866, the first Fenian invasion of Canada occurred. For some years
certain Irish demagogues in the United States, with the object of gaining
notoriety and filling their pockets, had been concocting a scheme whereby
so they persuaded the ignorant Ireland would be released from British
thraldom. The plan proposed was to raise

and equip a grand and invincible army in the States, v/alk over and
subjugate Canada, and after England had thus been crippled, and the
Irish patriots had acquired ter ritory on which to plan and prepare for
future operations, the people of Ireland were to rise in their majesty,
and declare themselves forever free from the yoke of English despotism.


Such was the ridiculous scheme proposed and advocated by these demagogues,
under the name and pretence of patriotism. Numerous individuals generally
the ones most blatant in their advocacy of the scheme were appointed
to receive contri butions towards its furtherance ; and, forthwith,
money began to flow into their coffers from the pockets of their deluded
followers. Many a poor servant girl contributed to this hare-brained
project the wages for which she had toiled for years.

The disbanding of the Federal armies, at the close of the American
Rebellion, gave an impetus to the cause of Fenianism. Thousands of men
were thrown upon the country without occupation or means of support,
and many of those whose social status is fitly described by the term
vagabond were only too glad to enlist in any crusade, which promised
food and raiment and an opportunity to plunder. "The Army of Ireland,"
as it was ostentatiously called, afforded the desired refuge, and to this
they hied. Their number was augmented by many from the cities loafers
and tramps who had never seen a day of military service, and who, in
their ignorance, had been led to believe that it would be but pastime
to conquer Canada, and that they would riot in the spoils.

It is but just to say, that the Fenians who crossed the boundary, and
made a raid into Ontario, seemed to have more the appearance of men,
and displayed more of the "bravery of soldiers. But the description
given above is a true one of the majority of the Fenians who crossed
the Line into the Eastern Townships in 1866.  The discarded Springfield
muskets of the Federal Government of the States pro vided the Fenians
with cheap arms, and in the month of June, 1866, several hundred of this
fraternity suddenly appeared on the Frontier on the northern boundary
of Vermont, and crossed into St. Armand, Que. So quietly had they done
their work for a while, and so quietly had they gathered, that our people
had no idea they were so near, until they were actually crossing the
border. Notwithstanding all the boasts and threats of invasion made by
the Fenians, the people of the Townships

never really believed that it would be attempted, and, consequently,
had made no pre parations to meet them. Great was the surprise and
consternation, therefore, when the news flashed through the country,
one Sunday afternoon, that 2,000 Fenians had crossed the border, and
were marching toward the village of Frelighsburg, about three miles
distant from the Line in the parish of St. Armand East.

Most erroneous impressions were current among our people, both as to
the number and character of the Fenians. It was firmly believed, for
a while, that the first detachment comprised two or three thousand,
that this would be speedily aug mented, and that they were the veteran
soldiers of the Union army men who, in every way, would prove formidable
foes to British soldiers on the field of battle.  Great was the mistake
; their number was less than a thousand, and that number was largely
composed of mere boys and such men as we have described.

It took but two or three days to undeceive the people of the Townships
and restore confidence. The Fenians soon gave evidence that their chief
object was to obtain what they could eat and drink, and what booty they
could carry away with



They were careful not to venture far into the Province, but camped
near the border, and spent their time between robbing stores,
drinking the liquors found in groceries and hotels, and slaughtering
such animals of the farmers as they found necessary for the supply
of their commissariat. Horses were taken in considerable numbers,
both from farmers and from such travelers as had the misfortune to meet
them. But these marauders were not destined to prolong their carousal on
Canadian soil. Only a few days elapsed, when the red coats marched into
the west end of St.  Armand parish, and simultaneously the Fenians made
their exit from the east end ; not even stopping to get a glimpse of the
British soldiers, much less did they attempt to wrest Ireland from their
grasp. Several stragglers were taken prisoners and tried as criminals,
but were finally released it being the general impression that the Govern,
ment deemed it more generous, in view of their insignificance, to release
them, after some months imprisonment in jail, than to mete out to them
severe punishment, and thus give them an opportunity to pose as martyrs.

The raid made simultaneously with the above, on the Niagara Frontier
under General O Niel, was of larger proportions, and resulted in more
serious consequences.  It was the design of the Fenians to assail Canada
from three points one from Chicago and places on the Lake Huron coast,
a second from Buffalo and Rochester, and a third from Ogdensburg. The
latter, which was to be the most formidable of

these undertakings, was to threaten Ottawa, capture Prescott, and overrun
the country toward the Eastern Townships. They soon found, however,
that their plans were far too great for their resources, and ere they
could put the least into execution, the places proposed to be captured
were well protected by thousands of our loyal Volunteers.

After O Niel had crossed the Niagara frontier with a large force,
a body of Cana dians 1 800 men composed of 750 regulars and the
rest of Volunteers, with a Battery of Aitillery, all under command
of Col. Peacock, took post at Chippewa, and awaited the arrival of
Lieut.-Col. Booker. The latter was a Volunteer officer, with a force
of nearly 900 men, composed of the Queen s Own chiefly college students
and other patriotic young men of Toronto, the i3th Hamilton Volunteers,
and the York and Caledonia Volunteer Companies.

While marching toward Chippewa to join Peacock, this force under Booker
unexpectedly met the Fenuns at Limeridge, where they were strongly
fortified.  As Booker had no military experience, and possessed more
bravery than skill as a commander, he immediately commenced an action
with this largely superior force.

The Queen s Own was thrown out in skirmishing order, and gallantly drove
back O Niel s advanced line on his main body. But the Volunteers were
all inexperienced ; there was no force to support them ; mistakes were
made in the orders ; a panic

ensued, and the force was soon in full retreat. The Volunteers lost
in killed, one officer and six men ; while the dangerously as well as
slightly wounded comprised four officers and nineteen men. The Fenian
loss was known to be larger than our

own, though it was never accurately ascertained, as they had possession
of the battle field, and buried their dead there. As several of the
killed on our side were college students and members of good families,
their loss was greatly deplored.


Soon after this, O Niel retreated to Fort Erie, which post he found
in possession of Lieut. Col. Dennis, with seventy Volunteers. A little
before this, Col.  Dennis had arrived from Port Colburne with a tug-boat,
in the hold of which were stowed sixty Fenian prisoners. An action at
once ensued, which, as might be supposed, ended in the defeat of the
small company of Volunteers, thirteen of whom were wounded and forty
made prisoners.

But O Niel had been disappointed. Instead of finding any in Canada to
join him,

as he had anticipated, the inhabitants rose as one man to drive him and
his mar

auders from the country. The spirit displayed by the few Volunteers
he had met showed him what he might expect when they had all gathered,
and he lost no time

in returning to the States, where he was arrested by order of the U.S.
Government, and his followers disbanded.

7 he trial of the Fenian prisoners took place in Toronto in October
following.  Many were discharged, but true bills were found against a
large number, and several were convicted, and sentenced to death ; but
their sentences were afterwards com muted by the Queen to imprisonment
for a period in the Provincial Penitentiary.

But the lesson had been a useful one to Canadians. The great expense to
which the Fenians had put their country, and their wanton acts of robbery
and cruelty, incensed our people, and confirmed their resolution not to
be caught again unpre pared. The next two or three years, consequently,
the Volunteer companies, raised in different parts of the Dominion,
were thoroughly drilled and exercised in target practice, till every
company, when occasion required, could turn out a full complement of
sharp shooters.

In 1870 the Fenians, encouraged, no doubt, by their previous pleasant
sojourn in the Eastern Townships, again paid us a visit. As before,
also, no one knew they were coming till they were near the border. They
assembled in a large body in the town of Franklin, Vt., and intended to
enter Canada by the road leading to St.  Armand East, on which they had
formerly encamped. Although no Volunteer com panies were just at hand,
the telegraph had conveyed the news of their approach, and before they
reached the Line, our Volunteers were hastening from every point of the
compass to meet them.

The road enters the Province at this point by a somewhat lengthy and
gradual descent, at the foot of which is a brook of considerable size,
then several rods of comparatively level road which soon crosses the
slope of a hill. On the left of the road, coming from the south, the
hill rises to quite an altitude, and, at that time, part of its summit,
which is broad and uneven, was partially covered with a grove of large
trees, while its southern slope, towards Vermont, contains several huge
boulders, affording admirable breastworks which our men were not slow in
utilizing. This is known as Eccles Hill ; and on the day in question,
about sixty members of the Home Guard, -who lived in that section,
and who comprised leading farmers, mer chants and business men of the
locality, took possession of the hill. Col. Asa Westover, an influential
and intelligent farmer, who lived contiguous, usually com-


manded the Home Guard, but on this occasion, all placed themselves under
the command of Col. Brown Chamberlain, one of the proprietors and editors
of the Montreal Gazette, who had received information of the intention of
the Fenians, and hastened to the defence of his former home and friends.

On the same side of the road that the Home Guards occupied, a little more
than half a mile distant on the Vermont side, stood at that time the house
of a Mr.  Rhicard.  In the road in front of this house, the Fenian general
drew up his men in two columns, and ordering them to cross the line on
the double quick, and obtain possession of Eccles Hill, he withdrew to
the house of Rhicard, ascended the stairs, and prepared to observe with
his field-glass from a chamber window, the result of his orders.  Rhicard,
who was born and reared in Canada, promptly followed him, and ordered him
from his house. " You have brought these poor fellows here," he said,
" to invade Canada without any cause, and now, instead of facing the
danger with them, you come back and seek refuge in my house. You cannot
stay here ;"and the General of the " Army of Ireland " walked out.

Another incident, related by an eye-witness, deserves notice. Before
the general in command had formed his men to cross the Line, one of his
captains, a soldierly- looking man, approached him and addressed him
thus :

" General, you have deceived us. You said we were to meet a regular army
and here I see no enemy. I claim to be a soldier ; as you know, I have
been in many engagements, and I do not shrink from danger, but I have
not yet sunk so low as to make war on women or children or defenceless
farmers. I tender you my sword ! "

handing him which, he jumped into a buggy near at hand, in which a man
was sitting, and drove off.

The incident shows that there were some men among the Fenians, and there
is no doubt that many others felt that they had been deceived.

The Fenians, according to instructions, went down the decline on the
double quick, crossed the bridge, and still went on, without hearing even
the report of a pistol to warn them of any obstacle to their triumphant
entrance into the fair fields of the Eastern Townships. They crossed
the line, when lo ! from the summit and side of the hill before them,
a sharp and loud report and the messengers of death fell rapidly among
them. They halted and returned the fire ; but they might as well have
fired at the moon, trees and rocks being the only enemy in vie\v.

Soon came another volley, and then another, and by this time the valor of
the " Army of Ireland " was on the wane. " Discretion is the better part
of valor," and Ireland might take care of herself; they were not going
to stand longer on the road to be shot at, and taking their wounded and
dead, with the exception of one poor fellow, who was left in the road,
all, save a few who sought shelter beneath the bridge, made a rapid
movement toward Vermont.

The second Fenian raid into St. Armand was ended. One of the Fenians,
on getting back out of rifle range, remarked to the bystanders who had
followed to

witness the " Invasion," that he had been in several engagements in
the great


Rebellion, but had never been in one where the bullets fell faster than
they did from Eccles Hill. Well might he so remark, as every man on the
Canadian side was a

crack shot.

The writer with a friend drove on the battle ground that day, but the
firing had ceased. With a glass we could see distinctly two Fenians who
had been shot one lying in the road and another in the field in the rear
of Rhicard s house, where he was shot while running across the field.

Several reporters of the New York papers were present, and many companies
of Volunteers had now arrived, and others were constantly coming, till
orders were

given them to return.

It was never known what the casualties among the Fenians were during
this raid,

as they carried away their wounded, some of whom died subsequently. It
is also stated that they carried away some who were killed.

Toward nightfall, our Volunteers buried the Fenian who was shot on the
Canadian side. He was a young fellow, and the next day his father and
mother arrived, nearly heart-broken, from their home in Burlington,
Vt.. and took back with them his remains. They had made every effort to
dissuade him from coming to Canada, but without avail.

In March, 1866, the nth Battalion, being called out on account of an
anticipated Fenian invasion, assembled at St. Andrews ; Companies i and
7 were sent to Ottawa ; 2 and 5 to Lacolle. As the other companies were
not properly officered, having been newly re-organized, they remained
at St. Andrews.

The companies that were ordered to Ottawa rode up in sleighs, and remained
there a month ; on their return in April, they went to Prescott, where
special cars were to meet them. As they were boarding the two cars, they
noticed eight men- strangers occupying seats in one of them. As the cars
were designed specially for the Volunteers, some one objected to taking
other passengers, but the strangers maintained their seats, and expressed
their determination to do so till they had reached their destination.

The cars went on to Cornwall, when, on arriving there, to the surprise
of the Volunteers, their two cars were quickly surrounded by soldiers
of the Prescott Bat talion.

The civil authorities at Cornwall had received a telegram from Toronto,
inform ing them that there were Fenians on the train. The Mayor
and Sheriff of Cornwall, therefore, visited the train, and informed
Capt. McDonald of the telegram.  Believing that the eight strangers
must be the Fenians referred to, he stationed Sergts.  Thomas Lamb and
Timothy Fitzgerald at one door of the car, Martin Weighttnan and another
man of his company, at the other door, with strict orders to let no one
enter or pass out. The Sheriff and one,or two others were soon admitted,
and the strangers

much to their astonishment and chagrin were arrested on the charge
of being

Fenian spie s.

They loudly disclaimed any connection with the Fenian Order, or knowledge


D /

of it, but on being searched, every one was found to be armed
with two revolvers and their valises were packed with ammunition and
cartridges. They finally a knowledged themselves Fenians, and were marched
off in irons to CornwaU Ml Care was taken by the officers engaged in the
arrest to conceal the matter, as fa as possible from the Volunteers,
being apprehensive of violence to the prisoners such was the hatred
borne toward Fenians by the Volunteers. These, it is said we re the first
Fenian prisoners taken in Canada, but they afterwards escaped from jail

In June, 1866, the Battalion was again called out, and the companies
arrived at

boaf I r S A n f K 7 eVening ThC f 1IOWing M nday nf S ht > th ^
took - facial boat to St. Anns, and the next day went to Cornwall,
from which place they were

reTumed "** ^^ " * UC

About the first of August, 1866, two companies, i and 4, which were
formed om Volunteers from all the companies of the Battalion, went to
Cornwall to relieve two companies of Prescott Volunteers, that for some
time had been stationed there eHef companies were there till November.

In April, 1870, the Battalion was again called to St. Andrews, and from
that TownshiT ltrCa1 WhCre ^^ WCre deSpatched t0 different P arts of
the Eastern

In the month of May following, they were once more called together
at St Andrews but many of the officers and men being absent to aid in
suppressing the first toon, the companies were not in proper condition
to be sent out Col Wolsey, who was then captain of the Prince Consort
Rifle Brigade, came to drill them WCK Vei " e Pr6pared the tr Uble in
the Northwest ha ^ subsided, and they

A rifle match was formed in connection with the Battalion, several years
aeo It he d I annually at St. Andrews, and receives for prizes a grant
from Governm?m $50 yearly, and this is increased to $120 by private
subscriptions These matches are always well attended, and have been
the means of developing many young men into crack shots. There are six
different matches : the < Nursery match President V Vice-President s,"
Military," "Association," and < Extra-Ser e "

for each of which there is a special prize.


Lieut-Col.  James B. Gushing.

Majors.  William Hoy. George B< Mardn

Cap tains.

John Pollock. Albert E. Hodgson . Henry Jekyll.

Thomas Weightman. John Rogers. William Williamson.

Geo. Dunbar Walker. William Gurd. j ohn Earle




John McMartin. William Watchorn. Isaiah Bows.

Lemuel Berron. Samuel F, Smith. Robert Evans.

2nd Lieutcnanh.

Abr. Watchorn. Andrew Rathwell. Osmond Le Roy.

John A. Morrison. Walter A. Brown. F. Gushing.  Adley
Shirritt. B. J. Williamson.

Paymaster. Adjutant.  Thomas Lamb. William Williamson.

Quarter Master. Surgeon.

William Pollock. Wm. H. Mayrand, M.D.



The history of education in Argenteuil begins with the struggles of
the first settlers in the county. All efforts to provide an education
amongst the early inhabit ants were, as in all other parts of Canada
at that time, purely voluntary. When a number of inhabitants felt the
need of a school, a subscription list was opened, for the purpose of
raising sufficient means wherewith to pay the salary of some person who
should be selected to conduct the proposed school. Such school was often
held in the homes of some of the people, who gave the use of a part of
their house as a contribution for the support of education. Another
form of assistance was the prac tice of boarding the teacher for a
period in turn, according to the number of pupils the person sent to
the school. Still another plan of supporting the school was by supplying
wood for heating the school room. There were also other ways of contri
buting to its maintenance. Instead of paying cash, subscriptions were
often paid in produce, especially when the teacher was a householder
with a family. There was

always a part of the salary paid in cash. In this way an exchange of
services was made, and while the pupils oji the one hand received an
education, the teacher on the other hand obtained a living, which is
about all those who become teachers receive at any time. Under such
circumstances the continuance of a school was very uncertain and
irregular, but such was the practice which obtained for many

years, until a system of education was provided by government.

In these early days there were no diplomas to guide in the selection of
a teacher, yet in most cases a person could be found who had sufficient
education to conduct the school. Such persons knew little of the methods
of teaching, and often adopted inferior methods, yet many of their pupils
were successful in study, and later, in their life s occupation.

The subjects taught in these early schools to which most attention
was paid



were reading, writing and arithmetic. Geography and grammar were taught,
the former without maps, the latter as a series of rules of speech and
composition, a prac tice too common at the present time.

In these days of which we write, it was quite necessary that the teacher

be able to rule the school in every respect, since there were no
school laws and no authorities to whom the teacher could appeal for
assistance. Hence, we find that as there were many difficulties hard
to overcome, especially in the discipline of the school, most of the
teachers were masters, who are fittingly described by Goldsmith, when
he writes of the master of Lissoy, thus :

" A man severe he was, and stern to view,

" I knew him well and every truant knew ;

: Wei 1 had the boding tremblers learned to trace

" The day s disasters in his morning face ;

" Full well they laughed with counterfeited glee

" At all his jokeSj for many a joke had he ;

" Full well the busy whisper, circling round,

" Conveyed the dismal tidings, when he frowned ;

Yet he was kind, or if severe in aught,

" The love he bore to learning was in fault."

The experience of many of these men was very difficult and trying,
and they are

most properly characterized by the last two lines of the above
quotation. The build ings provided for school purposes were often small,
cold, unhealthy, and poorly pro vided with furniture and appliances for
teaching ; nevertheless, much of the work done was noted for thoroughness.

This condition of things, however, gradually improved, and was finally

in 1829 by a voluntary system of education. Under this system a community

desired a school had to provide a suitable building for school purposes,
and had to pay a fee of admittance for each pupil attending the school,
while the Government paid the teacher directly, upon the joint certificate
of the clergy and the member for the county.

This system was abolished in 1841, and the present educational system
estab lished, whereby taxes are imposed for the support of education,
while the Government expends annually a large sum of money, paid to
schools in proportion to the latest census returns. By the system of
1841, all teachers were to be examined and certi fied, and although
such test of scholarship was but simple at first, the examination for
diplomas at present is a fair test of proficiency in the work prescribed.
Much opposition was offered to the introduction of the new school system,
chiefly owing to the taxation, and in some of the municipalities
considerable physical force and threats were used to prevent the
establishment of public schools. The better cause pre vailed, however,
and public schools have for many years been in operation in each township
of the county.

Some of these schools in the more populous parts are well attended,
and accomplish


good work ; others in less favorable parts are not so well attended, yet
the work of The less favored school is often equal to those which have
greater advantages.  One of the great hindrances in the establishment of
an elementary school system in our pr vince was the difference amongst
the people in race, language and religion, efforts were made to devise
a suitable system, but none succeeded until 1841, when the present
system was established, giving to Protestants and Roman Catholics ahk.
the right to provide an education for their children. Thus we have what
may be called a Dual System of education and two classes of elementary
schools. For many years in the earlier days of the country s history, the
inhabitants were entirely Eng lish-speaking, but for some years past the
remaining portions of the county have been occupied by people of French
origin, and thus we have both kinds of schools estab lished. There are
at the present time 19 Protestant school municipalities, containing 60
elementary schools, and 13 Roman Catholic municipalities containing 18
elemen tary schools. The total number of schools therefore is 78, while
the total enrollment of pupils last year (1894) was 3,403, giving an
average of 43 to each school.  The total value of the school buildings
of the county is estimated at $64,790, while the total assessment of
taxable property is $1,903,624. The amount of taxes collected in 1894
was $16,576, to which must be added the Government grant of $2,631,
making the total cost of education $19,207.

The average salary of elementary teachers in English schools is placed
at ,131,

and those of the French schools at $127 per year. Of the teachers in
the elementary schools, 6 were without diplomas, 2 being in the English
schools, and 4 in the French. Such is a brief outline of the efforts
which led to the establishment of our elementary schools supported by
public contributions and Government aid.


Less than a century ago, the ancestors of the present inhabitants of

were chiefly beyond the sea. Bravery and determination are qualities
which, at all times and in all nations, have deservedly been admired,
but usually they are so as sociated with war, or rendered conspicuous by
impending danger or serious calamity, that we are apt to disregard their
presence in the peaceful pursuits of life.  The Scotch are proverbially
a brave people ; their deeds of valor have been commemorated sculpture,
history and song. No more striking examples of heroism are recorded than
those of Scotia s sons, when they gathered to repel Edward s invading
hosts and

rescue their country from a foreign yoke.

From that to the present time, the martial glory of Scotland has not been
eclipsed. The annals of a thousand battles fought in the wide domain of
the British Empire attest the stoicism with which Scottish clans have
marched to death to uphold the prestige of St. George s cross.

And have the sons of Erin no share in martial fame ? Are there no fields
whereon Irish valor has vied with English and Scottish prowess to sustain
the glory of Britain s


flag ? Every British engagement, from the days of Cromwell to the present,
refutes the imputation. Side by side, in India, Afghanistan, the Crimea
and Egypt, have

Scotch and Irish soldiers with equal bravery marched to victory or defeat.

Was the spirit of these men wanting in those of their countrymen who
crossed the ocean to become pioneers in the wilderness of this distant and
strange land ? Did it require no bravery, determination or self-denial to
sever the dearest associations> and leave for ever the home of their
fathers, to engage in new struggles in foreign wilds ? Was there no act
of heroism in all this, which would compare with that of their brethren,
who had volunteered to fight the battles of their country ?

Let us reflect. A sea voyage in those days was widely different from
what it is

in 1895. From two to three months was the time required for a sailing
vessel to cross the Atlantic, and those vessels were but poorly
constructed, compared with the staunch steamers of to-day, to resist
the shock of the billows and storms of the deep During all this time,
the hapless emigrant had naught to engage his mind but the sorrowful
recollection of the loved ones and scenes left behind ; naught to attract
his eye but the dreary waste of waters around, which became more and
more mono tonous as day succeeded day.

And when, at last, weary and dispirited from his long voyage, he reached
port, a week or more was required for the conveyance of himself and family
to the cabin o 1 " a friendly countryman contiguous to the wilderness,
where he was to pitch his tent, and, doubtless, remain for life. Here
he leaves his family till he can erect a cabin on his own land, or take
steps to secure a place that he can call his own. But what a change
from the comforts and appearance of an old and populous country to that
presented in the wilderness! Comforts of almost every kind were wanting.
But what seems to us of the present as the greatest impediment to the
happiness of the emigrant was his total ignorance of the work it was
necessary to do his destitution of the knowledge on which all his future
success depended. Everything had to be

learned, and comforts unless he had money he was obliged to forego. As
very few had money, their lives, for many years, were a period of
privation, and when we know that hundreds of these emigrants chiefly
Scotch, but many Irish endured all this privation with fortitude ; that
year after year, through tropic heat and arctic cold, they persisted
in their endeavors to subdue the forest and transform the land they
occupied into productive fields, we can but regard it as a display of
bravery and determination of a most exalted character.

It was the same spirit which animated their ancestors to chivalrous deeds
a Bannockburn, and at a modern date compassed the downfall of Sebastopol
and the relief of Lucknow. Indeed, many of the pioneers of Argenteuil,
as will be seen on succeeding pages, were battle-scarred veterans, who had
won laurels in India, in the Peninsular war, or on the field of Waterloo.

Argenteuil, the legapy which they bequeathed to their descendants,
is the object of our present survey.

Though distant from the seaboard, her frontage upon one of the broadest


grandest rivers upon the continent brings her into easy communication
with the chief cities of the Province and the markets of the world. Two
railways now cross ing broad sections of her territory increase still
further her commercial facilities, and bring together the people of
districts that were remote.

The strength and fertility of her soil compensate in part for the
roughness of her exterior, while the beauty of her scenery is a scource of
wealth more lasting than that of the mines and the productive plains of
the West. The marvellous beauty of her inland lakes, the picturesqueness
of her mountains, the wild gorges and water falls of her rivers, are
but in the infancy of their attraction. When they are better known,
and the facilities for reaching them are improved, they will form a
permanent magnet for visitors the mountains will be dotted with villas,
and the lakes with skiffs

and yachts.

Though Argenteuil has some good grain-growing sections, and usually
produces good crops of oats, corn and potatoes, it is evidently a country
better adapted to dairying and stock-raising than to other purposes.

She has cheese factories and creameries, the produce of which holds fair
rank with any in the Province. Her cattle, sheep and horses are of the
best, and the annual fairs which are held at Lachute, the chef-lieu of the
county, exhibit a variety and quality of animals, as well as farm products
of all kinds, that would be a credit to any agricultural district.

The inhabitants of Argenteuil still retain the prominent characteristics
of the

races whence they sprang thrift, honesty and hospitality forming
striking features in their character, which a stranger will not fail to
observe. The farmer of Argenteuil is determined to live within his means,
consequently there is but little, either about his home surroundings,
his wearing apparel, or his travelling equipage, that savors of a
love of display or extravagance in the use of money. If, now and then,
one is in the enjoyment of an expensive dwelling or a fine carriage,
it is conclusive evidence that he has been blesssed with fortune or
shrewdness above his neighbors, and that what he enjoys is paid for. It
is not exaggeration to say that all, or nearly all, are in comfortable
circumstances, far better than the inhabitants of some sections of the
Province where there is more outward display of wealth. Honest dealing,
and a desire to observe the Golden Rule of doing as they would that
others should do to them, is a prevalent trait. Hospitality is a quality
found in every household.  Into whatever family the stranger enters,
he is welcome at the board, and a refusal to partake of refreshment,
which is immediately proffered, is very likely to be

attributed to fastidiousness or to want of geniality. However cautious
and exacting our subject may be in making a bargain, he never wants
sympathy for the needy or afflicted; and let him once become assured
that a petitioner for help is deserving, assistance is never delayed. An
additional quality of the inhabitants of Argenteuil is the love of their
homes and their native land.

It may be a knowledge of the alacrity with which their fathers responded
to the

call to arms in 1812, or the eagerness with which they rallied to the
loyal standard


in 1837, and their frantic rush to arms to preserve their hearth-stones
from Fenian touch, yet one cannot resist the impression, that a patriotic
class is that which inhabits the hills and valleys of Argenteuil a danger
menacing their homes and freedom would call forth a class of patriots
as brave as ever responded to the call of Libsrty.  " Princes and lords
may flourish or may fade,

A breath can make them, as a breath has made ;

But a bold peasantry their country s pride

When once destroyed can never be supplied."

While the yeomanry of Argenteuil are brave, hospitable, moral and
industrious, a want of facilities for education in past years shows too
plainly its baneful effect, especially in a few secluded rural districts ;
but the present encouragement given to schools will preserve the rising
generation from the bane of illiteracy.

While speaking of the inhabitants of the County, we should not omit
notice of the French, who, through constant increase during recent years,
have become no inconsiderable part of the population. It is generally
conceded that the habitant is a good citizen.

He is simple in his habits, plodding and industrious, with little
ambition save

to supply the immediate needs of his family and to be regular in his
attendance at his church.

Of his brethren who possess a little more education or ambition, many
develop into able business men, and become prominent farmers, shrewd
speculators or man

ufacturers. Many embark with success in commercial life, and become
popular through their affability and the courtesy with which they supply
the wants of their customers. Another class who fill the higher positions
of life public offices or professions are those who consider and discuss
the social and political problems of the day, and desire the progress of
their race. The representative of the latter class, like the natives of
his mother-land, is proud-spirited. If the situation of his countrymen
in Canada is subordinate, he knows that it is an exception to the parental

stock he springs from a land that acknowledges no superior. If piqued
as he

sometimes is at Anglo-Saxon boasts, he consoles himself with a glance at
the fields whereon the cross of St. George has bowed before \\-\Qfleur
dc. Us of St.  Denis.

Whatever chagrin he may feel at the recollection of Quebec is dispelled
by a longer flight of memory to the battle of Hastings. The Englishman
may sing the songs and boast the exploits of Merrie England, but the
Frenchman has equal com

fort in the deeds and dilties of La Belle France.



A remarkable feature of the Scotch settlers of the county was the distinct
sep aration of the two races : the /{inlanders settling on the banks of
the Ottawa river and around St. Andrews, while the Laplanders settled
at and around Lachute, where for years the names of the Barrens, Doigs,
Drennans and Buchanans, together


with the McOuats, McKimmies, McGregors and McClures, and a host of other
equally worthy names, are remembered as household words.

The early settlers in that part of the county, before the arrival of
the Scotch, had very little knowledge of farming, their chief dependence
for a living being in the manufacture and sale of potash ; but when the
timber was all cut off their farms, of course, the supply of material
was exhausted, and then they had to pay more attention to their farms ;
but as the soil was of a light, sandy nature, and their facilities for
cultivating it very few and of the most primitive character, they had
uphill work.  Their only implement in the shape of a plough, during the
first and second decades of this century, was very properly called the
"hog plough," which, as its name indi cated, was not conducive to a
successful course of farming, and in a short time their farms were
completely worn out and exhausted.

About that time, a few Scotch emigrants came to the place, and finding
that farms could be bought cheap from these men who were glad to get rid
of them at any price, secured their own, and wrote for their friends
to come, and in a short time a small colony of thrifty, industrious
farmers was established, who brought not only knowledge of the. best
system of agriculture known and practised in the Lothians, which even
at that time was considered the best in the United Kingdom, but who also
brought the best and most improved agricultural implements, and also the
best tradesmen, representing the different handicrafts required in a new
country, and being careful and frugal, as well as of the most industrious
habits, a marked change was soon visible in the appearance of the country,
and in a short time the " desert rejoiced and blossomed as the rose."

In addition to all these worldly possessions and thrifty habits which
they brought from their native land, they also brought the love and
veneration for their religious institutions and privileges in which they
had been nurtured and brought up. The

remembrance of those blissful associations, with which they had been
so familiar, particularly in the rest and observance of the Sabbath,
was something they were very thankful for, as a Scottish Sabbath, as it
was known to them, was a day of rest and gladness, a day wherein man
held converse with his Maker, free from worldly cares and anxieties ;
and as they wended their way to the Kirk, which to them was the very
gate of heaven, and the morning psalm went up in a grand, slow surge,
perhaps to the tune of " Elgin " or "Dundee" or plaintive " Martyrs,
worthy of the name," there was a sense of hallowed days in the very air,
and in the words of the Psalmist they could say, " I was glad when they
said unto me, Let us go into the house of the


In their new homes they had to forego these pleasures for a time ;
Zion was not

forgotten, and in due lime they had the extreme pleasure and satisfaction
of having their religious privileges as they were wont to have them in
their native land.  Many a time, no doubt, their hearts ached with a home
sickness and longing, as they listened to the words of a simple ballad
written by one of their own poets, " O ! why left I my hame ? " one of
the most plaintive and pathetic ballads in the Scottish dialect, begin-


11 ing with a wail in the minor key, in which the home life, the family
and social rela tions are bemoaned, and closing with a wild, weird burst
of sorrow, in which their religious privileges are lamented. The following
story, which was published many years ago in one of the leading Scottish
journals, illustrates the power of music and the effect it has on the
Scottish peasant :

An emigrant vessel lying at the port of Leith, bound for Australia,
was visited

before sailing by one of these ballad singers, and the above-named simple
ditty was sung as only could be sung by one of these singers, and the
result was, that in a short time the greater part of these emigrants
were weeping and wailing at the thought of leaving their native land,
and it was only that better counsefs prevailed, or they would have
deserted the vessel, their feelings were so wrought upon by this simple
but touching song.

Scotland is famed for a class of national airs of a peculiar style and
structure, and the martial music possesses a wild, spirited, strongly
marked expression of char acter, which has often turned the tide of
victory on many a bloody field of battle.

Some of the descendants of the Scotch farmers are living in comfort
and afflu ence on the old homesteads, others are occupying positions of
trust and responsibility in different parts of the Dominion, while others
have left home and friends and native land to carry the glad tidings of
salvation to heathen lands, and it does not require a great stretch of
imagination to connect these devoted workers, who have given their lives
to spend and be spent in the Master s service, with the religious training
of their forefathers and their love of the Sabbath and Gospel ordinances.

" If thou turn away thy foot from the Sabbath, from doing thy pleasure
on my holy day, and call " the Sabbath a delight, the holy of the Lord
honorable, and shalt honour him, not doing thine own " ways, nor finding
thine own pleasure, nor speaking thine own words, then shalt thou delight
" thyself in the Lord, and I will cause thee to ride upon the high places
of the earth, and feed " thee with the heritage of Jacob, thy father,
for the mouth of the Lord hath spoken it."

Mr. Dewar also pays the following compliment to the French :

A tradition exists, which, in the main, is supported by history, that
Argenteuil was chosen as the trysting place or re/it/ez-roi/s of American
emissaries (or Bostonnais. as they were called by the French Canadians),
who endeavored to fan the flame of dis content among the French habitants,
with a view of helping the American nation in their subjugation of Canada.

They did not succeed in their mission, especially in the rural districts,
as the Indians remained firm in their allegiance to the British, and the
French Canadians, to their honor be it narrated, remained equally firm
and true, as was witnessed a few years afterwards, during the war of
1812-14, when the flower of their best families withstood and repelled
with great loss, the invaders of the Province at Chateauguay and Chrysler
s Farm. On this subject, the Archivist s report for 1888 says :

" But the appeals (of these emissaries) to the better class of French

"had little effect, as is strikingly shown by the list sent by Carleton
to Lord Geo "Germain on the Qth May, 1777, in which there does not appear
the name of one


"French Canadian. Those of that nationality who took part with the
Bostonnais " were of the lower class in the rural settlements."

The term " Bastonnais " seems to be a corruption of the word Bostonnais,
as Arnold s expedition was known to have started from Boston, and the
corruption has extended to our day, for up to the last forty years, in
speaking to old French Cana dians in reference to the American invasion,
they would invariably designate it as " la guerre des Bastonnais." We
like these national solecisms, and we have retained this one.


On the isth of June, 1682, a promise of a grant of this fief to Sieur
Chas.  Jos.  D Aillebout was signed at Quebec by Count de Frontenac,
Governor of New France.

The grant was to include "a tract of land lying on the north side
of the Ottawa, extending from the foot of the Long Sault two leagues
towards Montreal, and four leagues back from the Ottawa, including all
the islands, points and sand-bars opposite of which the island named
Carillon forms a part."

In 1697, Sieur D Aillebout and his wife, Catherine Le Gardeur, sold
the grant to their son, Pierre D Aillebout Sieur d Argenteuil. The
latter in 1725 took the oath of fealty, and fyled the promise of Count
de Frontenac. The heirs of Louise Denis, widow of Pierre D Aillebout
Sieur d Argenteuil, sold this fief to Louise Panet, who took the usual
oath in 1781. In 1800 Panet sold to Major Murray, who sold to Sir John
Johnson in 1814, and the only Seigniorial claim against Argenteuil now

existing is held by his heirs.

This Seigniory was erected into a parish by proclamation of roth May,
1822.  The following is a description of the Seigniory copied from
Bouchette s Topo graphy of Canada published in 1815 :

" The Seigniory of Argenteuil is on the north bank of the Ottawa, in
the county

of York. It adjoins the seigniory of the Lac des Deux Montagues on the
eastward, the township of Chatham on the westward, and a tract of waste
Crown lands on the northward; its front extends two leagues along the
river, by four in depth. It was granted yth March, 1725, to Mons. D
Aillebout. The present proprietor is Sir John Johnson, Bart. Perhaps
through all the upper part of the district of Montreal, no tract of equal
extent will be found of greater fertility, or possessing more capabilities
of being converted, within a few years, into a valuable property. The
land is luxur iantly rich in nearly every part, while the different
species of soils are so well varied as to afford undeniable situations
for raising abundant crops of every kind.  The lower part bordering on
the Ottawa is tolerably well cleared of wood ; there are large patches
of fine meadows and pastures ; from hence the ground rises with a

gradual ascent towards the rear. In the back parts the woods run to
a great extent, and yield timber of the different kinds of first-rate
size and goodness, which hitherto have been very little thinned by the
labors of the woodman. The Riviere du Nord


crosses the upper part of the Seigniory in a direction from east to
west, discharging itself into the Ottawa, about four miles below the
great falls, and nearly half way between the lateral boundaries ; it is
navigable as high up as the first mill a distance of three miles. There is
a small stream called Riviere Rouge, running in the same direction across
the lower part of the grant as the Riviere du Nord, and falling into the
navigable part of the latter. The settlements that are already formed in
Argen- teuil hardly amount to a third part of the whole ; the remainder,
however, presents many temptations to agricultural speculation. Of
the present concessions, some are situated on the bank of the Ottawa,
where they seem to be the most numerous as well as the best cultivated ;
others on the Riviere Rouge, in a range between it and Riviere du Nord,
and along both banks of the latter ; all showing strong indications of
a thriving industry in their occupiers. There are two grist mills, two
saw mills and a paper mill, the only one, I believe, in the province
where a large manufacture of paper in all its different qualities is
carried on with much success, under the direction of the proprietor,
Mr. Brown of Montreal Not far below this mill is a

good bridge, over which the main road to the township of Chatham and the
upper townships upon the Ottawa leads. On the left bank of the Riviere du
Nord, upon a point of land near its mouth, is very pleasantly situated
the residence of Major Murray, formerly owner of the Seigniory ; this
stream and the bays of the Ottawa that indent the front abound with a
great variety of excellent fish, as do the low lands thereabouts with
wild fowl and game of several sorts. The island of Carillon, three miles
long by three-quarters broad, is very good land, but not put to any use
; this with a smaller one near it, and another at the entrance of the
Riviere du Nord are appendages to the grant. If fertility of soil and
easy access to water conveyance be deemed of influence in the choice
of situations wherein to clear and break up new lands, probably it will
not be easy to select a tract where these advantages are better combined
than in the Seigniory of Argenteuil."


Sir John was a son of Sir Wm. Johnson, an officer in one of the King
s regi ments in the then Province of New York, and who resided at
"Johnson Hall," in the beautiful valley on the banks of the Mohawk,
where he had a large tract of land, and where many of his countrymen
and others had settled and lived together in peace and harmony for many
years. Sir William had also received the appointment

of Superintendent of Indian Affairs, which does not appear to have
been much of a sinecure, as his letters or despatches are dated from
different parts of the country, from Johnson Hall to Oswego, Niagara
and Lake Champlain, thus showing that he travelled extensively. On the
breaking out of the troubles which eventually en,

with the gaining of their independence, many of his neighbors (under
his ad\


influence, no doubt) refused to join the movement, preferring to sacrifice
all they possessed, and remain loyal to what they called their king and
country and as it was impossible to remain neutral, the only alternative
was to flee to Canada, which, a short time previously, had passed into
the hands of the British.

Arrangements were therefore made by which they were escorted by Indians
to Oswego, whence they went to different parts of the country.

I would not have dwelt so long on this subject were it not that I am
descended from one of these so called U. E. Loyalists, my mother s
grandfather, Arch.  McDeirmid, having left his comfortable home on
the Mohawk river, and, after suffer ing almost incredible hardships,
arrived at Caldvvell s Manor, on Lake Champlain, where he had to begin
life anew, without deriving any substantial benefit for his loyalty to
his king and country.

To Sir Wm. Johnson belongs the honor of capturing Fort Niagara in 1759
and on the 8th September, 1760, the whole of Canada was surrendered to
the British.

Sir William has been accused of being the instigator, if not the actual
leader, of the raid made by Indians on the peaceable inhabitants of
the valley, when so many were ruthlessly massacred, Indian fashion, and
their houses and property destroyed by fire. There is no proof whatever,
that he was in any way connected with that raid; besides, his influence
and actionsawere always on the side of clemency and mercy.  However,
it is a well authenticated historical fact, that a raid by Indians and
others was perpetrated in that place, as above described. There could
not have been any glory or honor attending it, as Colonel Guy Johnson,
St. Claire and Brant all deny having any part in it.

Sir William s intimacy and connection with Mollie Brant, which has
furnished material for writers of fiction as well as history, may have
been an advantage to him in his dealings with the Indians, but it "must
have been a root of bitterness in his own family, as she lived with him
as his wife, and was always regarded as such by the Indians, and after
his death was treated as his relict. (Archivist s Report B. 114- 63-)

As a woman, she had great influence among the different tribes, and
one word from Jier is more taken notice of by the Five Nations than a
thousand from any white man without exception. (Ibid.}

Sir William died in July, 1774, after a few months severe illness,
and was much

and deservedly regretted by all classes, and especially by the British
Government, who had great confidence in him, both as an officer in the
army and in filling the important office over the Indians.

His son. Sir John Johnson, was also an officer in the 28th Regiment of
New York, and shortly after his father s death was appointed to the
position which his late father had held, as Superintendent of Indian
Affairs a position which he faithfully filled for many years, even to
the detriment of his own private business.

He was at one time nominated for Lieut. -Governor of Upper Canada ; and
Lord Dorchester, in a letter to the Home Secretary, also recommended him,
but before the letter arrived, Simcoe had been appointed.


In 1808, he wrote to Mr. Granville, stating that he wished to resign his
office of Superintendent, and asking that his son, Lieut.-Col. Johnson,
be appointed in his stead; but the Home Government did not entertain
the application, as they consi

dered Col. Johnson was not sufficiently acquainted with the peculiarities
of the Indian tribes. It was, therefore, given to Col. Clans, a
son-in-law of Sir Wm.  John son, who had been for some time acting as
Deputy Superintendent. It was a reat disappointment to Col. Johnson,
as his father, Sir William, considered that this appointment was to
remain in his family. (Ibid, 311-11.)

About the year 1814, Sir John Johnson purchased the Seigniory of
Argenteuil from Major Murray, and built the manor house on a beautiful
spot on the left bank of the North River, near where it flows into the
Ottawa. It was built on the same model (only of smaller dimensions) as
"Johnson Hall," the residence of his father on the banks of the Mohawk. In
that manor house he resided for several years surrounded by comforts and
luxuries far in excess of what might be expected in a comparatively new
country, and was very free and affable in his deportment, and was noted
for his kind and hospitable treatment to all who sought his acquaintance.

The < dinner bell " that hung in the belfry of his coach house,
and which was

\ ot summon the family and guests to the spacious dining room, he
presented to

the Rev. Archd. Henderson, who placed it on his church, where it was
used to sum

mon his congregation to worship, but after a few years was taken down
and placed in

the care of the late Guy Richards.

As he had decided to leave St. Andrews, he appointed an agent to look
after the business of the Seigniory, and went to Montreal, where he
resided until his death Tasse, in his life of Philemon Wright, mentions
these facts: "In 1774, Sir John

^ Johnson was appointed Superintendent of Indian Affairs, a position
which his late father, Sir Wm. Johnson, had also held. He had won the
entire confidence of the

Indian tribes, and was highly esteemed among them, as was witnessed at
the time

1 of his death in January, 1830, when a great number of Indians went to
Montreal to |^take part in ^the funeral services which were held in the
Anglican Church. An

Iroquois Indian chief even made an oration in his mother tongue on the
virtues ; | of the deceased. At St. Regis, the Indians, when informed
of his death, went around the village, uttering cries and lamentations,
and the whole population followed them in a crowd, giving signs of the
greatest sorrow."

His eldest son, Gordon Johnson, never assumed or inherited the title,
as he had,

i previously, incurred the displeasure of the family, by his marriage
with a

French Canadian woman. After the death of Sir John, the Seigniory came
into pos-

iion of his son, Col. Charles Christopher Johnson, who held it for
many years,

and was succeeded by Capt. Johnson, the present proprietor.

St, Andrews Parish.

St Andrews was erected into a Parish in 1822, and at that time it embraced
the entire Seigniory of Argenteuil. In 1852, the parish of St. Jerusalem
d Argenteuil was formed, which much to the dissatisfaction of many of the
inhabitants of Andrews-included considerable more than half the original
seigniory, leaving the northern boundary of St. Andrews about five miles
from the Ottawa instead of twelve the distance from this river of its
original northern boundary.

At some time, about or during the fifth decade of the present century,
another small tract of territory -a mile in width from the Ottawa, and
two miles in length from the east line of the Seigniory was taken from
St. Andrews, and annexed

to the parish of St. Placide.

The surface of this parish is somewhat uneven though its diversities
are not abrupt, nor does it contain any land that is not adapted to
cultivation. Its soil is good, scenery attractive, and its different
sections especially the River Rouge, Beech Ridge, and the Lachute Road
present many fine, well tilled farms.

It was here that the first settlers of this County pitched their tents ;
indeed, St.  Andrews, more especially the River Rouge settlement, seems to
have been a sort of preparatory place for settlers before going elsewhere,
the number of those born

there, or whose ancestors were born there, and who are now settled
throughout the Dominion being legion.

It is said, that so little did the first settlers on the Rouge know
of graphy of the country, or understand the way of economizing space,
that m reaching the St. Andrew s Mill, for a long time they conveyed
their grain to the Ottawa,

thence by boat to the North River, and up that to the mill. Major
Murray, the Seignior, happening at this time to visit the settlement,
and learning this custom, pointed out to them the amount of toil they
were needles-sly expending ; and then, showing a map of the Seigniory,
convinced them that, in a direct course, they were about as near the Mill
as they were when theyW reached the mouth of the North River. After this,
they opened a road through the woods to the mill.


Few, if any, country villages or parishes in the Province are more widely
o r favorably known than St. Andrews.

Settled at a comparatively early period, and possessing among its
inhabitants many of intelligence and refinement, it naturally soon
enjoyed a distinction seldom attained in the early history of country
localities. Many of its business men, also, were those who had gained
experience and formed an extensive acquaintance in other places, and
their journeying to and fro na turally helped to extend the fame of




their thriving village. But not least among the things which contributed
to make it widely known was its location. Situated near the Ottawa
on the North River, which is navigable a portion of the season as far
as this village for most of the craft which ply the larger stream, it
is visited by many who, either in the course of business or pleasure,
sail up and down the Ottawa. When the water in the North River is too

low to admit the passage of steamers, they stop on the Ottawa at the
nearest avail able point to St. Andrews. The sail up the North River
is extremely pleasant, and the passenger who has never before made
this journey wonders, when the steamer turns from the broad Ottawa
towards a forest of willows and alders, whether she is about to make
a trip overland; but as she soon glides into the smaller stream, he
finds sufficient interest in observing the various farms that lie along
the shore with their flocks, herds and diversified crops. Just before
reaching the imposing iron bridge which spans the stream and connects the
east and west sections of the village, the steamer glides to her wharf. A
half-dozen or more skiffs, drawn up on the stony beach on the one hand,
and a garden descending to the water s edge on the other, contribute,
with surrounding objects, to form an attractive picture.

Back a little on shore, are a fancy dog cart, a newly painted buggy,
and a more

pretentious two-horse carriage, all in readiness with their drivers to
receive the two demoiselles, petite madame with her two children, and
the portly, elderly man, his wife and daughter, all of whom are just
returning to their homes after a visit to the city.

Nearer and closer to the edge of the wharf are several habitants, some of
whom are waiting to convey freight to the freight house, while others have
come to carry the valises and parcels of lady passengers who reside in the
village, while two or three are present to drive home the cows and young
stock which the portly old gentleman has purchased for his country domain.

Though the quantity of freight landed here by the boat is not quite
so extensive as the cargo brought by an ocean steamer to one of our
city wharves, yet that the quantity delivered at St. Andrews is not
insignificant is proved by the length of time that it takes several active
hands to discharge it. But the last article a coop con taining a dozen
brown Leghorns has been transferred to the wharf, and the gang plank
is about to be drawn in, when a loud " Halloo " stays proceedings for
a little time and attracts all eyes shoreward. An express, containing
two moderate-sized boxes, drives hurriedly to the wharf, a gentleman,
evidently a merchant, alights, throws the boxes out with no little
excitement, and then turns to inform the purser that those stupid
employees of Smith & Jones have sent him the wrong goods. Scarcely has
this message been delivered, when another middle-aged merchant, in a
smart suit, arrives, and desires to know if the hardware he ordered last
week from Messrs.  Dobbs & Ferguson has arrived. On being assured that
it has not, he sends a mes sage, which is calculated to sharpen the wits
of Dobbs & Ferguson, then hurries


The steamer is soon at right angles with the current, and just as the

imagines that she is about to butt head foremost into the opposite
bank of the river, she gracefully swings into mid-channel, and, anon,
is once more on the Ottawa.

7 2


Such is a scene that may often be witnessed on the arrival of the
steamer at St.  Andrews, an event which is always regarded with pleasure,
relieving, as it does, the monotony of village life, and affording to
the inhabitants for a time a much desired convenience.

That the channel of the North River will some time be deepened, so that
it will

be navigable for steamers the whole season, there is little doubt. But
until the pro per interests are awakened and the proper capital invested,
this work of public

utility will be unaccomplished.

It seems strange to us, who know so well the various stages through
which a new

settlement passes before it engages in important manufacturing
enterprises, that St.  Andrews, in the very outset of her history, should
have had a paper mill ; yet that such is a fact is shown by " Bouchette
s Topography of Canada," as well as the testimony of many still living,
who saw the mill in operation. The following account of this manufactory
is given by Colin Dewar :

" The paper mill was started by a company of Americans, who obtained a
30 years lease from the Seignior for the necessary water power ; but as
James Brown was the owner of the land where they intended to build the
mill, it is quite probable he was a partner from the start, as it was
always spoken of as Brown s Paper Mill.  The canal was dug to provide
water power, and a dam built across the river from

the shore on the east side to a point near the foot of the little island,
and as a large quantity of timber and lumber would be required in the
erection of the paper mill, they first of all built a saw mill at the head
of the canal and extending along the river bank, thus giving plenty of
room for the piling of the lumber and storing saw logs ; and as business
increased, the space between the canal and the main road, now occu pied
by the railway depot, was utilized. The paper mill was built on the site
where Alex. Dewar s store now stands, and had sufficient water power to
drive the machin ery required for doing a large business, and employment
was given to many girls and boys, as well as men. One of the foremen for
some time was Mr. G. A. Hooker (father of the late Mr. G. A. Hooker),
and who was ably assisted by the late William Zearns.

"These industries continued for several years, and were of great benefit
to the

village, in giving employment to many hands, besides, there was no other
saw mill nearer than Lachute ; and it was regarded as a public loss,
when the business of both mills came suddenly to a stop in the spring
of 1834, by the dam giving way, owing to the high water and ice. During
the summer, preparations were made to rebuild it ; but as the Seignior
protested against it, and threatened all sorts of litigation if per
sisted in, it was deemed advisable to suspend operations. After two
or three years cross-firing between them, the trouble ended by the
Seignior s making an offer to Mr.  Brown for the purchase of all his
property (which was accepted) ; extending from Lot 29 to Lachute Road,
and from the Beech Ridge lots to Davis line, and including both mills
and dwellings. Some of the machinery was afterwards used, when the River
Rouge saw mill was erected."


Among the very first of the pioneers who settled at St. Andrews were a
number of Americans. Whether one of them came first and induced the others
to follow, or whether they came together, it is now impossible to say,
but it is quite certain that there was very little if any difference in
the time of their advent.

They were Peter Benedict, who arrived in 1799, Benjamin Wales, John
Harring ton and Elon Lee, who was always known as Captain Lee. All that is
known of his military career, however, is that he had been a Drum Major
in the American army during the recent struggle for independence. Two at
least of the other Americans mentioned above had served in the same army ;
and it strikes us, as an incident somewhat peculiar, that these men had
no sooner seen the object accom plished for which they were fighting,
than they again sought a home beneath the

British flag.

CAPT. LEE bought the lot, and built a hotel on ground now occupied by
the Congregational Church. He purchased all the land between the village
and the present Roman Catholic Church, lying between the road to Carillon
and the Ottawa.

His house was quite a rendez-voustoi Americans who desired to escape
military service during the war of 1812, and it is said that "jolly times
" often occurred here while they remained.

Captain Lee had the reputation of being a Christian man, and of keeping a
good Public House. In the absence of any church building, it was sometimes
found con

venient to hold religious meetings at his house, when he generously
opened his rooms for the occasion, and otherwise did what he could for
the encouragement of religion. But, financially, he was not successful
his debts having accumulated, after a number of years,to an extent that
rendered the surrender of his estate into the hands of his creditors
necessary, and he soon afterwards left the country.

BENJAMIN WALES, who married Susan, a daughter of Peter Benedict, had also
been a musician in the American Army. He Was extremely fond of music,
and sought to encourage its study among the young people of St. Andrews,
a number of whom he taught vocal music. He was a paper maker by trade,
and for a number of years

was foreman in the paper mill in this village. He was retiring in
habit, and has left to us the reputation of being an earnest, consistent
Christian ; he died in 1836. By his marriage with Susan Benedict he had
five children Henry, Lemira, Charles, Elizabeth and Mary D. In 1839,
28th August, Charles Wales was married to Lcetitia Platt, daughter of
Nathaniel Hazard Treadwell, Esq., of whom a sketch will be found in the
history of L Orignal. Mr. Wales, like his father, was a Christian man,
and his influence was always on the side of morality. He opened a store,
where his son Charles now trades, and nearly his whole life was given to
the mercantile pursuit. He was a Justice of the Peace, Commissioner for
the trial of small causes, and for forty years a Major of Militia. Owing
to his position as magistrate, his good judgment and pacific disposition,
he was often consulted by those in trouble, and his advice often resulted
in the amicable settlement of disputed accounts and contro versies,
which otherwise would have ended in serious trouble and litigation.



In the Rebellion of 1837-38, when there was a great scarcity of money in
the community, he and A. E. Momnarquette, of Carillon, .sued p rl vate
notes -or ,h n placers " a they were called-payablc at their respective
stores, which being freely cu a d in the community, proved at once a
great convemence and a blessing.

Mr Wales died 3 oth May, l8773 and it was said of him :- < The
fragrance of his memory can never die, and many a man and woman will
cherish it, as that sympaSg friend and an honest man." Mrs. Wales, who
survives him, inheriting he characteristics of her ancestors, is in every
way a worthy partner o such a man and is still active in temperance and
all other Christian work. hey h d six child ren who grew up,-two sons,
Charles Treadwell and Benjamin Nathaniel, and four dau hters Margaret
Susan, Anna L*titia, Mary Maltbie and Grace Platt Charles folow the
mercantile business in the store occupied so long by his father, whose
reputation he well sustains. He was married .irt July 1875, to Martha
W. Stowe of Sheffield, Conn., who has been an important acquisition to
the temperanc, Christian workers of St. Andrews.

Benjamin, the second son of Charles Wales, sen., studied medicine,
taking his degree at McGill University in 1874- A few years later, he
took up his residence in Robinson, Que., where he still remains in the
enjoyment of an extensive practice.  He was married I 9 th November,
1878, to Emma T. Osgood, at SawyemUe, Que.  Margaret S. is married to
Thomas Lamb, merchant of St. Andrews. Mary M.  married Wm. Drysdale,
publisher of Montreal, ist January, 1880 She died in 1891, lamented by
a large circle of friends, her amiability and deeds of kindness and

volence being widely known.

Anna L*titia, married to Rev. D. W. Morrison, i S th September, 1881,
resides at

Ormstown, P.O. , , f

Grace Platt was married 6th February, 1895, to Mr. Kilgour, furniture
dealer, o

Beauharnois, Q. . ,

The descendants of few men have reflected more credit on their fathers

have those of Chas. Wales, sen., of St. Andrews.

The following sketches of two more of the American pioneers named at
have been contributed by Colin Dewar.

OTTAWA, ;th February, 1894- MR. C. THOMAS,

When the American Revolution broke out, Mr. Peter Benedict left his
studies in Yale College, and entered the Army as orderly sergeant, and
went with I Montgomery to Canada, to the reduction of St. Johns. Returning
to his place, he was promoted to the rank of ist Lieutenant in the 3 rd
New York nental Regiment, and remained some years in the service, but
declined further pr motion The pension laws of the United States were not
as strict then as now n regard to the place of abode, as Lieut. Benedict
lived in Canada and drew a pensi



for his services from the U.S. Government up to the time of his death
in 1830, and afterward his wife drew the pension allowed to officers
widows up to the time of her death in 1846.

He was originally from North Salem, N.Y., where all his family were born,
but came from Burlington, Vr., in the spring of 1800, with his wife
and family, consisting of three sons and two daughters, and settled on
a farm, where he resided till his death, aoth May, 1830. He was a man
of superior abilities, of a strong, cultivated and reflective mind,
well qualified to fill any position ; and it was only a short time
before he was appointed a Justice of the Peace, which office he held
for nearly twenty years. Of his family, one daughter married Dr. Beach,
and the other married Benj.  Wales ; his two eldest sons died shortly
after his arrival. His youngest son, Charles, born 22nd October, 1785,
lived with him and carried on the work of the farm for

many years. Having formed a partnership with his brother-in-law,
Mr. Wales, as builders and contractors, they continued for several years
to carry on the farm and their other work to their mutual advantage.

Mr. Benedict, on the nth May, 1812, was married to Uamaris C apron,
daughter of Nathan Capron, of Keene, N.H., and after the birth of their
eldest son, George, removed to the Bay, on what was known as the last
farm in the Seigniory. After several years residence there, he removed
to St. Andrews, to a property purchased from Mr. Nolan, where he resided
until his death. He always took an active part

in all public matters, having held the office of Justice of the Peace
for many years, and was a Commissioner for the trial of small causes,
and for apprehending fraudu lent debtors, as well as for administering
the oath of allegiance. He was appointed arbitrator on a streams case
in the Parish of Cote St. Pierre, which proved to be both difficult and
complicated, but was finally surveyed and adjusted to the satisfaction
of all concerned. He also took an active part in church matters, and was
for many years one of the Elders of the Presbyterian Church. He resided
in the County for 72 years, and died on the 3151 May, and his wife on
the ist June, 1872, having lived together for the long space of over 60
years; and in death they were not divided.

His family consisted of four sons and three daughters, that lived to
grow up.  His eldest son, George, born 4th July, 1814, was the only
one who settled in his native place ; he married, i4th February, 1844,
Eliza Beattie, daughter of Mr.  David Beattie of St. Andrews, by whom he
had a family of five sons and five daughters. He removed from St. Andrews
in 1869 to Ogdensburg, N.Y., where he died and December, 1892. His three
other sons left home, when quite young, and settled in the United States,
where Peter died in October, 1892. Chas. and Henry are still living in New
York. His eldest daughter, Susanna, married George G.  Sharpe in 1842, and
died i6th January, 1858, in the 42nd year of her age, leaving a family of
three sons and two daughters. The eldest and only surviving son, George,
lives in the State of Nebraska. The eldest daughter married the Rev. Dr.
Paterson of St. Andrews, and the youngest married Mr. Robert Stewart
of Ottawa.

The following is an extract from a diary kept by Mr. Charles Benedict,
of what


was long remembered as the "cold summer": "Sunday, 1 2th May, 1816, heavy
rain began to fall, and continued without cessation all night, turning
cold, but still raining all day Monday. On Tuesday, very cold, with snow
squalls, ground almost covered with snow. Wednesday, so cold, obliged to
wear mitts and great coat ploughing ; heavy frost at night. Thursday,
rather fine sowed wheat and began planting potatoes ; kept cold with
hard frost at night up to the 2 Sth, when another cold rain set in. 2
9 th, around frozen two or three inches deep ; 3 oth, 3 ist, finished
planting corn and pota toes ; June 6th, cold with snow ; yth and 8th,
cold not abated, ground covered with snow, dressed the same as in winter
; cold all through the month ; woods and fields turned a pale green ;
July ist, frost killed cucumbers, etc., then cold rain set in ; the 6th,
;th and 8th, very cold, had to put on mitts and overcoat, hoeing potatoes;
loth, nth, hard frost ; and so on through the greater part of the month."

It must have been very discouraging for them to go on ploughing and
sowing in such very unseasonable weather, but they relied upon God s
promise " that seed time and harvest, cold and heat, summer and winter,
day and night should not cease "

and the promise was fulfilled by the ingathering of a good average crop.

There is no record of any such cold season, as above recorded, known in
the history of Canada since that time.

JOHN HARRINGTON, sen., was an American by birth, and came to Canada
early in

the first decade of this century, when quite a young man. He married a
daughter of

Mr. Peter Me Arthur of Carillon Hill, and had a family of four sons and
five daughters.

He was a first class millwright and an excellent mechanic, and
superintended the

erection of mills in various parts of the country, and especially those
mills erected by

his son-in-law, D. McLaughlin, at By town and Arnprior. He settled on
the farm

known by his name, and built that large, substantial, brick residence
that has stood for

so many years, and is, to all appearances, as sound as ever. He died
about the year

1846, and his wife about twenty years after. Of his sons, John, the
eldest, carried on

the farm for many years before and after his father s death, and was a
pattern of

-neatness and thrift to all the farmers in the vicinity, and it was a
pleasure to walk

around his large farm, and see the convenient farm buildings, all in
good order and

condition, clean, neat and in good taste. He held many important county
and muni

cipal offices, which he was well qualified to fill.

William, the next son, left home when quite a young man, went to Montreal,
and entered a hardware establishment, where, in a short lime, he became
a partner, and married Miss Laura Seymour, and had a family of one son
and four daughters.  After a time, he left Montreal and took up his abode
in St. Andrews, where ^he received the appointment from Capt. Johnson as
acting agent for the Seigniory, which position he filled up to the time of
his death a few years ago; his estimable wife died a few years previously.

The other sons, Eric and Armand, also left home early, and began business
m Arnprior, where they have remained to the present.

His eldest daughter, Sarah, never married, but kept house for her
brother John,


at the old homestead. She was an excellent woman, an exemplary Christian,
a kind friend, and charitable to those in need, and her death was
sincerely regretted by a large circle of friends. The third daughter
married Dr. Van Cortlandt, one of the leading medical men of the days
of old Bytown. The second daughter married Daniel McLaughlin, one of
the leading lumber manufacturers of his day, and who also represented
the County of Renfrew, both before and after Confederation.  The fourth
daughter married Nathaniel Burwash, merchant of Arnprior. The youngest
daughter died in the spring of 1854 after a short illness. Her death
was a great shock to the family and to her large circle of young friends,

Of the children of William, his only son, Bernard, as is well known,
is one of the Professors in McGill College; he is a young man of more
than ordinary ability, as his position in life fully demonstrates.

The three eldest daughters died within a few years of each other, and
some time

prior to the death of their parents.

The youngest daughter, Laura, resides within a short distance of her
old home.

C. D.

Of those who lived in St. Andrews in the early days of her history,
probably no

one did more for her advancement or was more noted for enterprise than
JAMES BROWN. He was a Scotchman who had been engaged in the printing
business in Montreal, where he published a weekly paper called the
Canada Courant. In 1812, after coming to St. Andrews, he organized a
company of militia, of which he became captain. Among the first, if not
the first, of his acts on coming here was to purchase the paper mill. He
enlarged it, as he did, also, the canal on which it was located, built
a new saw mill and a new dam across the river, below the old one, just
at the lower end of the island. Owing to his enterprise, a good many
found employ ment not only at his mills but in other branches of his
business. He purchased five lots of land along the North River running
northward from the River Rouge, some

distance along the Lachute road. He also purchased several village lots
on the opposite side of the river, where he had a house and store both
in one building, which occupied the site of the present brick house of
Mrs. E. Jones.

Mr. Brown is remembered by many ot the oldest citizens of this section,
and all

iver that he was a clever and an upright man. He was a Justice of the
Peace, and

liseharged the duties of his office in a manner which enhanced the
respect which

he commanded in his varied intercourse with his fellow-men. One of
his daughters

was married to Royal, a son of Moses Davis; another in 1829 to
C. H. Castle,

cashier of the Bank of Montreal. The Earl of Dalhoiisie, who was then
Governor of

the Province, was on a tour to this section to inspect the work on
the Grenville

canal, then in process of construction. Being a friend of Mr. Brown,
he cheerfully

:omphed with his request to him to ba present at the marriage of his

which occurred in the house now owned and occupied by Alexander
Dewar. A few


years after this marriage Mr. Brown donated to his son-in-law, Mr. Castle
and his wife, a lot of land, No. i King s Row, which he himself had
purchased in 1809.

It is said that some regarded Mr. Brown imprudent in pecuniary matters,
and accused him of extravagance. Whether there was valid ground for
this accusation

or not, it is certain that in his later years he was in much poorer
circumstances than he was in earlier life. One work, especially, which he
performed, was referred to by some as proof of his extravagance : this
was the building of an expensive stone wall around the Island above the
grist mill, and another along the Lachute Road on his farm. It was his
design to make a park of the Island, and with this design, he paid out
no little money. But from the removal of the trees near the margin, so
that the wall might be constructed, their roots soon decayed, the water
undermined the wall, and the whole work was soon destroyed. Mr. Brown
left St. Andrews after the Rebellion of 1837.

MOSES DAVIS, from Chesterfield, N.H., was one of the very early settlers
here, his advent being in 1801. Soon after his arrival, he opened a store,
where the shop of Daniel Sutherland now stands. Though it would doubtless
bear little comparison to similar establishments of the present day,
yet it contained what the community in those days demanded, and, like
many another, possibly laid the foundation for a

broader and more lucrative business.

That Mr. Davis was a man of enterprise, and one who was ready to see and
take advantage of an opportunity, is obvious from the way in which he
started, and engaged in manufactures of which the new settlement stood
in need. There being no tannery in the place, he opened one, soon after
beginning his mercantile venture, on a site near the present house of
Thomas Fournier, and this he kept in operation till 1847.

Harness making and shoemaking were other industries in which he engaged
and continued for many years. In 1806, he purchased a lot of ninety
acres of land, and subsequently added one hundred and fifty more. While
these different branches of business no doubt repaid him for the trouble,
expense, and attention they required, they must have been a blessing to
many others, especially to those laborers to whom they gave employment.

In 1832, he built the stone house in which his son Theodore now
resides. It will be recollected that this was the year in which the
cholera made such ravages in the Province. A man named Pitt, who was
employed in the construction of this house, in going to his dinner,
while crossing the bridge in the village, was seized with pain which
portended the dread visitor, and at three o clock the same day he was
a corpse. During the troubles of 1837-38, this house, on account of its
size, was se lected by the military authorities for a barracks, in which
the soldiers were quartered.  The family of Mr. Davis patriotically
granted it for the purpose, and found a tern, porary domicile in a
smaller house in the village.

Mr. Davis was for many years a Justice cf the Peace, and a Commissioner
for the trial of small causes. He was married in April, 1806, to Lurena


daughter of another pioneer. He died at St. Andrews, 1 2th Dec., 1851,
but Mrs.

Davis survived him nearly thirty years, having lived till i3th June,
1881. They had a large family of children, two of whom died in childhood ;
six sons and two daughters grew up. Three of the former left this section
long ago, two at a more recent date, while Theodore, the fifth son,
remained on the homestead. Nelson, the eldest son, served as cornet in
the Volunteer Cavalry Company of Capt. McLean, during the Rebellion of
1837-38, and, like his comrades, cheerfully performed the duties demanded
of him during that stormy time. In 1841, he removed to Montreal, where
for some time he was employed as customs and shipping agent. Crosby, the
youngest of the family, was for many years engaged in mercantile business
in St.  Andrews. In 1887 he removed to Ottawa, where he still resides,
filling a responsi ble position in one of the largest establishments
in the city. He married Margery, daughter of William McEwen, Esq., of
River Rouge, St. Andrews. Their only son is residing in Chicago, where
he is established as a dentist, and is doing an extensive and lucrative
business. Their second daughter married Mr. Paton, well and favor

ably known in Montreal in connection with the Y. M. C. A. work, and who
is now filling the same position in the city of Winnipeg. Two of the
daughters reside with their parents, and one is at present in Chicago.

Lurena, the eldest daughter of Moses Davis, married Robert Simpson, of
whom a sketch is given on a succeeding page. Eliza, her sister, married
Joseph Kellogg, for a number of years a merchant in 1 Orignal. In 1843,
they came to St.  Andrews, where they lived on a farm till 1857, when
they removed to Illinois, where Mr.  Kellogg died. His widow subsequently
moved to Iowa, in which State she still resides.

Theodore, as stated above, has always remained on the homestead, his
unim paired physical and mental powers after threescore and ten years
of service testify ing not only to the healthfulness of the climate in
this section, but to the fact that temperance, morality and industrious
habits are infallible aids to longevity.  In the late Rebellion, like
his elder brother, he also enlisted in the Volunteer Company of Cavalry
commanded by Capt. McLean. After acting as School Commissioner for many
years, he accepted the position of secretary-treasurer of the School
Board. In 1845 he married Helen, daughter of Duncan McMartin, a pioneer
on the River Rouge, They have had eight children, Moses their eldest
son is in Montreal, having suc

ceeded to the business. followed by his uncle, Nelson, that of customs
and shipping agent. His youngest son is in business in Tacoma, Washington.

THEODORE DAVJS, a brother of Moses Davis, who came to St. Andrews in 1801,
must have been here previous to that date, judging from the fact that
records refer to a survey and proces verbal of St. Andrews, which he made
in 1799. But whether or not he was a citizen of the place at that date,
it is certain that he was at a short period subsequently. Being for some
years the only surveyor in this section, his services were often called
in requisition, and possessing an enterprising spirit, he soon became
an important addition to the business men of the place.


When steamboats began running to Carillon, they found great difficulty
in get ting up the rapids at St. Ann s, and to overcome this difficulty,
Mr. Davis constructed locks at Vaudreuil, which were in use for several
years, after which the route was changed to the north side of the
river, and locks at St. Ann s were built, thus making the route more
direct. The remains of these old locks at Vaudreuil are still visible.
Another work of public utility he performed was removing boulders from
the Ottawa above Carillon, so as to facilitate navigation. He married
a daughter of Colonel Daniel Robertson, who was the widow of De Hertel,
and the mother of Colonel De Hertel of St. Andrews. Mr. Davis purchased
a lot of land on the west side of the North River, and on it erected a
two-story house on the site of the present residence of Mr. De la Ronde,
advocate. He sold this property, not many years later, to Guy Richards,
and removed to Point Fortune, where, in company with a man named Tait,
he opened a store. They traded there for a few years, when Mr.  Davis,
having purchased the farm of McRobb in Carillon, now owned by Mr. John
Kelly, removed thither, and lived here till his death, which occurred
in Hull, i6th March, 1841, at the age of 63 years.

The following sketch of other members of the Davis family has been sent
to us

by Colin Dewar :

* SIMEON DAVIS, with his wife and family of four sons, Roswell, Asher,
Lyman and Asahel, together with his two brothers, Theodore and Moses,
came from Mas sachusetts, and settled at St. Andrews in 1801, where he
remained for several years.

" Roswell, the eldest son, married Miss Annie, daughter of Nathan Capron
of Keene, N.H., by whom he had a family of six sons, viz., Edward, Alfred,
Whitcomb, Simeon, Roswell and Nathan. About the year 1840, he removed
from St. Andrews with his family to the Township of Osgoode, which at
that time was opened up for settlers. He purchased a farm on which he and
his wife resided until their death in a good old age, about the year 1866.

" His son Edward, who is now in the 84th year of his age, and in
possession of all his faculties, can recount many stirring incidents of
the early days, and remembers quite distinctly when the first steamboat
made its appearance at Carillon, and as a stage driver on the route
between Montreal and Grenville (mentioned in another part of this work)
has had a varied experience in both summer and winter travel. He relates
with pride and satisfaction, that he never met with an accident in
crossing the rivers on bad ice, and although he had to drive through
bad roads on dark nights, not one of his passengers ever received an
injury. In relating this part of his experience, which is not given in
a spirit of boasting but in that of gratitude to the Father of mercies
for His watchful care over him, he attributes his part of the success to
his habits of sobriety, which could not be said of some of his confreres.

" After his father left St. Andrews, Mr. Davis went up the Ottawa river,
and engaged in the lumber business for some years, and being of an
active, pushing spirit, was engaged in several important public works,
such as opening up new roads, build ing bridges, etc., besides having
considerable experience in mining and boating.


" He married comparatively early in life, and had a family of four sons
and one

daughter, all of whom are married and have families of their own. He
has resided for the last thirty years at Quio, Province of Quebec,
where the greater part of his family also reside.

" About four years ago, a sad misfortune overtook him, in the destruction
of his house by fire, together with the greater part of his household
goods, which was a great loss ; but, sad to relate, his wife, who had
returned to her room to get, as was sup posed, some valuable papers,
was prevented by the rapidity of the fire from returning, and was not
missed, until it was too late to render any assistance.

" Roswell s third son, Whitcomb, took an active part in suppressing
the Rebellion of 1837, being a Volunteer in the Lachute Road Company,
under Captain John Dennison. He marched to Grand Brule with the other
Volunteers and Regulars under the command of Captain Mayne, of the
24th Regiment, to meet those coming from Montreal on the I4th December,
1837. He served in that Company until it was disbanded in 1840, when he
joined the rest of the family, and settled on a farm near his father,
where he and his wife brought up a large family of sons and daughters,
and where he died in July, 1894, aged 77 years.

" Roswell s other sons are still living in the immediate neighborhood
of the old homestead.

" Asher, the second son of Simeon, was brought up to the blacksmithing
business, which he carried on for several years, at Carillon, where he
resided until the death of his wife in 1872, when he removed to Trenton,
where he died in the year 1880.  His wife was a Mrs. Cameron, a daughter
of Wm. Atkinson, who resided for many years

at Carillon ; they had no family."

The following obituary is copied from the Belleville Intelligencer,
of March, 1884:-


" Lyman Davis died at the residence of his son in Trenton, on the 24th
March, 1884, at the advanced age of 90 years, 2 months and 6 days.

The subject of this notice was born in Massachusetts, U.S.A., on tne
i<;th January, 1794. He came with his parents to Lower Canada in 1801,
and located at

St. Andrews in the County of Argenteuil. At the breaking out of the war
in 1812-15, he was drafted, and served three years. At the expiration
of the war, he was dis charged with the other Militia. About 1825,
he again removed with his parents to the village of Hope, where he
worked with his father at the blacksmithing trade for three years,
and at the expiration of that period he removed to that part of the
Township of Hope now called Port Britton, where he still worked at his
trade till 1830, when he gave up his business, removed to the Township of
Clark, and commenced farming.  And two years later (in 1832) he married
Catherine Babcock, a daughter of \Vm- Babcock of Ameliasburg. In 1840,
he removed his family to Ameliasburg, and continued farming till 1848,
whe.i he removed to Trenton, five years before the


village was incorporated, where he continued to reside till his death. Mr.
Davis had many warm friends, was very unassuming, and never took an
active interest in public affairs.

" He leaves a widow 72 years old, two sons and three daughters to mourn
his loss, all of whom are comfortably situated.

" Mr. Davis was a pensioner, and has regularly drawn his pension since
the grant was made. Thus, one by one, our old veterans pass away."

In 1804, two brothers named Peter and Duncan Dewar from Glasgow, Scotland,
made St. Andrews their home, and many of their numerous descendants are
still in the County of Argenteuil.

Duncan Dewar, the younger of the two brothers, purchased a hundred acres
of land which is known at the present time as the Harrington Estate,
but believing he could add to his income by a modest venture in the
mercantile line, he built a store on the site of the present store of
Mr. La Fond. Not finding this business suited to his tastes, however,
he sold his stock, and, during the remainder of his lite, confined
his attention to farming. He was a man much respected, very quiet,
and so domes

tic in his tastes, that he kept aloof from politics and everything
calculated to attract him away from home or the care of his domestic
concerns. He died in 1869, leaving six sons, Peter, John, Duncan, Donald,
Hugh and Alexander, and two daughters.  Three of the sons, John, Duncan
and Hugh, the only ones who had children, settled in St. Andrews. The
latter, after living on the homestead till 1856, sold it, and two or
three years later went to Ottawa, where he still resides. His eldest
son, William, is manager of the large mercantile establishment of John
McDonald & Co. in Toronto. John, another son, is book-keeper for an
extensive lumber company in the same city.

Mary, one of th? daughters of Mr. Dewar, married JOHN LAMB, foreman in
a manufactory of Judge Hamilton of Hawkesbury. Possessing considerable
ingenuity in the way of invention, Mr. Lamb devoted much of his time to
this work, and invented a water-wheel, which is now in use in various
parts of Canada. Afterwards, he became the originator of several other
machines, which are in popular use. Soon after his marriage he removed
to Ottawa, where he died in 1894 ; Mrs. Lamb died in 1887.  They had
six children three sons and three daughter. The sons, James B., William
and John H. Lamb, engaged in tfie occupation followed by their father,
and seem to have inherited much of his skill at invention.

Jan> a daughter of Duncan Dewar, sen., married William Kneeshaw,
and settled

on Beech Ridge ; both are deceased. They had one son, Robert, and one

Sarh, who now reside in Illinois.

Alexander, the youngest son of Duncan Dewar, sen., met his death by a sad
acci dent in the spring of 1837. He and a young man named Abner Rice,
who was studying for the notarial profession, when together one day,
were asked by a citizen to aid him in getting a heavy canoe over the
mill dam. The water was high, and the work was one involving no little
risk. They brought the boat down, however, but


in the act it upset, and Dewar swam lo the shore. Rice clung to the boat
and endeavoured to right it, but seeing he could not, Dewar jumped in
and swam to his assistance. It was no easy matter, however, to handle
the boat in that boiling caul dron, and with the view, no doubt, of
getting it into more quiet water, they botli clung to the bow. As it
glided along with the swift current, it had acquired no little momentum
by the time it reached the bridge, and the young men being forced against
the middle pier were both killed.

John, the eldest son, purchased land in Buckingham, and in company with
his brother Donald, was preparing for himself a home, when circumstances
occurred which led him to make his home in St. Andrews. In January,
1836, he was married

to Elizabeth Wales, and her father dying some months later, her mother
prevailed on the newly married couple to make their home with her,
and take charge of the

farm. The following obituary published at the time of Mr. Dewar s death,
23rd April, 1875, expresses the popular sentiment in the vicinity of
St. Andrews, and shows that the lives of this couple were not spent in
vain :

" Died at St. Andrews, on the 23rd inst., after a few days illness,
Mr. John Dewar, aged 69 years, the eldest brother of Duncan Dewar, Esq.,
J.P., of that village, leaving a family and a large circle of friends
to wrestle with a sorrow, which would be infinite if they sorrowed as
those who have no hope.

" Mr. Dewar was converted when a young man, and soon after, while
living in Buckingham, embraced Baptist views, and was immersed by the
Rev. John Edwards, sen., the pioneer Baptist of the Ottawa Valley. He
married Elizabeth Wales of St.  Andrews, a lady of great amiability,
whose soul was in lively sympathy with his own in respect to every
good work. About a year after his marriage he removed to St.  Andrews,
where he united with several kindred spirits in forming a Baptist church.
He was chosen one of the Deacons, and continued faithfully to discharge
the duties of his office till called by the Captain of his salvation
from the field of labour to the rest that remaineth for the people of God.

"Brother Dewar was a man of large heart and warm sympathies, and while he
loved God supremely, he loved men universally. Abhorring every evil way,
he pitied evil doers and laboured for their recovery from sin. He was a
man of peace, much more willing to endure wrong than to do wrong. From
the commencement of the temperance enterprise, he was a consistent and
warm advocate of the cause. He has left an afflicted widow, three sons
and three daughters, with a large circle of friends to mourn his absence,
but to rejoice in the belief that he has gone to serve God day and night
in his temple. W. K. A."

Mrs. Dewar died in 1881. Their children were Duncan Wales, Henry, Charles
Alexander, John Edward, Mary Lemira, Esther Jane, Elizabeth, and Susannah.
Two of the sons, John and Henry, lived on the homestead till 1889,
when they sold it to J. A. N. Mackay, Esq. Those of the children now
alive are widely scattered ; the only ones living in this County are
two daughters, Mary and Jane, whose good works are a reproduction of
those of fieir parents. The former is the wife of Mr. A.  L- Sharman,
a most estimable citizen of Carillon.


Duncan Wales, the eldest son of Mr. Dewar, died in 1873, two years before
the demise of his father. He left a widow and two sons, Ethelbert and
Ford, who are

honourably employed in Duluth, Minn.

DUNCAN, the third son of Duncan Dewar, sen., was born May, 1807, and,
as he has been a prominent figure in his native village through nearly
all of his active and useful life, he is entitled to more than a passing
notice in these pages. It is but fair) also, to acknowledge that, but
for his great age and retentive memory, many of the incidents herein
recorded would have been lost to the future. His birthday was rendered
memorable by the erection of the first bridge that was ever built across
the North River at St. Andrews. Until the age of fourteen, he regularly
attended the village school, which was a building occupying the site of
the present town hall, his first teacher being a young man by the name
of Joseph Whitcomb, son of a mason,

who had been brought to the village by Thomas Mears. At the age mentioned
above, the subject of this sketch was seized with an ambition to take
care of himself-

A man named Timothy Bristol had a wheelwright and blacksmith shop,
in a long building which stood on ground now occupied in part by the
post-office.  With this man young Duncan had become well acquainted,
and as he was frequently in his shop, he soon formed the opinion that
the lot of a mechanic was more pleasant and profitable than that of
a farmer, hence he besought his father to permit him to learn the
trade of blacksmith, a trade for which his small stature and delicate
constitution seemed scarcely fitted. After due consideration, his father
consented to his proposal, and apprenticed him to Bristol for the term of
three years. Some of the neighbours pronounced the arrangement foolish,
declaring that he would get disgusted with the work, and wish to return
home within two weeks, but Mr. Dewar, knowing his boy s qualities better
than they, said he knew that if he began the work he would stick to it
the correctness of which statement was proved by the sequel.

In those days muscular strength and ability to defend one s self
by physical force were in high esteem, while those who lacked these
qualities, the young especially, could not forbear feeling that they
were destitute of some of the essential elements of manhood. Now, though
young Dewar had no reason to repine at his want of strength, he felt that
public opinion, on account of his slight form, would naturally consign
him to the weak class, and he retained this impression, till one day,
being assaulted in the shop by a burly habitant, he soundly thrashed
him. Doubtless he was indebted for this victory to strength acquired at
the anvil ; but be this as it may, from that time onward he seemed to
hold a higher place in the esteem of his com

panions. But before he had completed his apprenticeship, another incident
occurred, which was fraught with much more important interests to him, and
which to the present has had much influence on the actions of his life.

A few prominent men of St. Andrews, having heard the noted Evangelist,
Rev.  Mr. Christmas, preach in Montreal, invited him to hold a series of
meetings in St.  Andrews which invitation he accepted. It is said that,
as a result of these meetings, twenty-eight individuals, a few of whom
were of profligate character, were reclaimed


from the error of their ways. Mr. Devvar was one of the converts,
and henceforth his feelings and aspirations were far different from
what they had been. It is usual for the new-born Christian to cherish
respect and love for the clergyman under whose preaching he has been
converted. This feeling, in part, induced Mr. Dewar to seek employment
in Montreal, where he might enjoy the acquaintance and preaching of the
Rev. Mr. Christmas. He soon found work in an iron manufactory, where he
remained several months, during which time he was a regular attendant
at the church of Mr. Christmas, and he induced a cousin of his to go
with him, who, in the end, was also converted. A chance to obtain better
wages next led him to Grand Isle, Ver

mont, and after working there nearly a year he came home to attend
school. He had always been anxious to obtain an education, and he
determined to devote what money he had earned to this end. After
this supply had been exhausted, he went ttawa, and procured work in a
government shop at $1.25 per day, making irons which were used in the
construction of canal locks. In the society into which he was there
thrown, his temperance principles were pretty strongly tested. In the

afternoon of his first day in the shop, he saw one of his fellow-workmen
collecting money from the others, and presently he came to him. Asking the
purpose of the Section, he was told that it was to purchase liquor. He
replied, " I do not drink and it is against my principles to encourage
it." " Well," was the answer, " no man can stay here unless he joins
us." Mr. Dewar then gave them money to assure icm that he was not actuated
by parsimony, but expressed his determination not ste any spirituous
liquors. They never asked him for money again, nor did they invite him
to drink, although they all continued to use liquor themselves, and
often o excess. One thing, however, they would not permit, but doubtless
they were prompted more by a spirit of fun than of ill-will. A milkman
came around daily and raising a window of the shop, passed a pint of
milk through it to Mr. Dewar but soon, before he could get it, a sly
tap would send the contents on the floor, and after occurred several
times, the attempt to obtain milk was abandoned. When had earned $100,
he once more returned to St. Andrews, and attended school, 1 in this
manner secured a degree of scholarship rather above what was accorded

at that time to the young men of his age.

About 1828 he entered the store of Mr. Guy Richards as clerk, and remained
im six years, and he attributes much of the knowledge of business and
moral ived to the wise instructions and good example of Mr. Richards. In
.834, he and John Richard Hopkins, nephew of Mr. Richards, bought
Richards stock ierchand.se, and Mr. Dewar for many years followed
the mercantile business, agn, as his means increased, he added other
branches of business, yet without much ready profit. About 1850, he
built a tannery, and then a bark mill. The owing year he received a
diploma from the Provincial Industrial Exhibition in the best specimen
of harness leather manufactured in Canada. In 1856 annery was burnt, and
his insurance policy having lapsed, it was an entire loss, s immediately
rebuilt. He met with various other losses during his earlier career,
one of a boat for which lie had paid $600.


In December, 1836, Mr. Dewar was married to Margaret Tread well,
daughter of Nathaniel Hazard Treadwell, Esq., Seignior of Longueuil. Miss
Treadwell and a sister had been for some time living at L Orignal with
their brother, Charles, and they often came to St. Andrews to visit the
family of Mr. Richards. It was thus that Mr. Dewar became acquainted
with his future wife. After a courtship of two years, they married at
her father s residence in Plattsburgh, N.Y.

Mrs. Dewar possessing much of the ability of her family was a help-mate
in the most significant sense of that word a woman whose counsel was
wisdom, whose example was virtue. Her father and her distinguished
sister, Mrs. Redfield, often visited them at their home in St. Andrews,
and these were occasions of no little enjoyment, for no man could better
appreciate cultured society than Mr. Dewar.

In his youthful days, he was a schoolmate of the late Sir J. J. C. Abbott,
though some years his senior. Though they differed widely in political
principles in after years, a warm friendship always subsisted between
them, and letters that Mr.  Dewar received from Mr. Abbott, which he
still retains, show that the statesman esteemed him as an honorable and
able political foe.

Some years ago he was instrumental in obtaining a grant of ^900 from
Parlia ment, for the purpose of improving the navigation of the North
River ; but owing to some political chicanery, this sum was diverted
from its proper object, and used for other purposes. Though a confirmed
Liberal, he has never sought political office ; the only public position
he has held being that of magistrate, in which office he acted ably and
conscientiously for nearly a quarter of a century. His attention during
the last fifteen years has been chiefly confined to his drug store,
the first and only one ever opened in this village.

He has three sens now living ; Guy Richards, his second son, has
been postal clerk for the last sixteen years between Montreal and
Toronto ; the two others, Dun can Everett and Alexander, have long
been engaged in mercantile business, the for mer in Aylmer, Quebec, the
latter at St. Andrews, where he has followed his present vocation many
years. Retiring in habit, he has never sought public positions, and is
respected for his moral Christian character. He has two children, a son
and daugh ter ; the former, Alexander, is studying for the ministry, and
for the past three years has earnestly devoted himself to Christian work,
spending some months in this work in New York in the summer of 1893. He
is president of both the St. Andrews and Argeuteuil C.E. Societies.

In the beginning of the present century, JOHN MCMARTIN of Genlyon,
Perthshire, Scotland, decided to try his fortune in the New World. His
wife having relatives at the Bay of Chaleurs, on the north of New
Brunswick, thither he went, and prepared for himself and family a home. A
year or two subsequently, learning that two of

his brothers, farmers in Scotland, were about emigrating to Canada,
he deci ded to seek with them, when they arrived, a more suitable place
for agriculturists than could be found near the Bay of Chaleurs. In that
locality the inhabitants subsisted almost wholly by fishing; but as this
method of procuring a livelihood was not congenial to


his tastes, and the land there was generally sterile, he gladly
availed himself of a chance to dispose of what he had purchased. This
he exchanged with his wife s uncles for land which they had received
for service rendered the Government -md

which was situated in the County of Huntingdon, Quebec. On reaching
Montreal however, he learned that his estate in Huntingdon was in an
unbroken wilderness

and that should he settle there, his nearest neighbour would be thirty
miles distant.

At this time Major Murray was in Montreal, endeavouring to obtain Scotch
set tlers for his Seigniory on the Ottawa, and Mr. McMartin was induced to
sell his land in Huntingdon, and with his brothers take up his residence
in the Seigniory.  Accord ingly in 1801, or the year following, he came
hither, and purchased two lots on the south side of the River Rouge which
are now owned by the family of the late Geo.  Hyde. The inevitable log
house and small clearing were here on his arrival, but in a few years,
about 1810, he built another house, which, with some alterations and
additions, is still standing and occupied by the family of Mr. Hyde. Mr.
McMartin added another lot to those which he first purchased, and with
the help of his sons cleared up the greater part of these three lots ;
he died in 1847. Four of his sons Finley, Duncan, Daniel and Martin,
joined the Cavalry Company of Capt. McLean in the Rebellion of 1837-38,
and all remained in it, till advancing years induced them to yield their
places to younger men. Mr. McMartin had fifteen children, thirteen of
whom arrived at maturity ; eleven of them settled on the River Rouge ;
the youngest son, Martin, lived and died on the homestead.

FINLEY MCMARTIN, the sixth son, after living and working on the
homestead till he was about thirty-four years of age, entered the store
of Mr. Charles Wales, sen., of St. Andrews, as clerk.

At the expiration of a year, believing that trading on his own account
would be

more profitable than his present work, he hired the store across the
street opposite that of Mr. Wales, which was occupied by Frederick
McArthur, and purchased his stock of goods. Subsequently, he purchased
the store and house, both being under the same roof; but in about ten
years from the time he began to trade, this building, together with
his entire stock of goods, was burned. He then hired another store,
in which he traded till 1858, when he built a large brick store, which
is now owned by Wm. D. Larmonth, and is used as a boarding house.

In 1868 he disposed of his store, and the next year purchased the
grist mill and iree hundred acres of land adjacent. At the expiration of
fourteen years he sold the mill to Mr. Walsh, its present proprietor, and
since has confined his attention to s farm. Although an octogenarian, he
is so well preserved physically and mentally that few would imagine him to
be more than sixty. His honesty, sobriety and dili gence in business have
won the respect of his fellow-citizens, yet, the only secular office he
has accepted at their hands is that of School Commissioner, a position he
has held for many years. He was secretary of the Baptist Church Society
for a long time, as well as a member and generous supporter. He has been
twice imrried, the first time in 1847 to Christy McFarlane, who died in
1865. His second marriage


was to Amanda Wales. By the first marriage he had three children, John
., Elizabeth and Kate. Elizabeth married E. M. Kneeshaw, and Kate,
J. S. Buchan, a rising young lawyer of Montreal, son of Win. Buchan,
Esq., of Geneva. Mrs.

Buchan died in 1894.

TOHNF MCMARTIN at the age of sixteen engaged to a firm in Montreal as
and subsequently became a commercial traveller, a position for which
his rectitude, affability and fine address eminently fitted him. After
an experience of eight years in this line, he entered the firm of
J. W. McKeddie & Co., on Victoria Square, as


GUY RICHARDS was another man prominent and influential in the youthful
days of St. Andrews. He was born in Norwich, Conn., on 8th November,
1787 ; he went from there to New York, and after a few years came
to Montreal. His ability soon secured him many friends among the
Americans in that city, and through them he became established in
a thriving business as merchant. In the war of 1812, believing that
he could make much profit by providing clothes for the Volunteers,
he invested lately in woollen fabrics, paying a high price for them;
but just after he had embarked in this venture, peace was declared,
his scheme collapsed, and if not financially ruined, he was at least in
embarrassing circumstances. Previous to this, he had

formed the acquaintance of a Miss Graham from Massachusetts, who was on
a visit to an aunt residing in Montreal, and the acquaintance ripened
into friendship, and

finally terminated in marriage.

With the view no doubt of improving his financial condition, Mr.
removed to St. Andrews ; here he also engaged in trade. He bought
the property of Theodore Davis, the surveyor, enlarged the house, and
used one part of it as a store.  After trading here for about thirteen
years with good success, and doing considerable business meanwhile as a
lumber merchant, he sold his real estate, and then, about 1827 built the
brick store which is now occupied by Mr. La Fond. He was very successful,
financially, while he lived here, yet, owing to his benevolence and severe
losses, it was found at his death that he was not worth as much as had
been supposed.  He was highly esteemed as a citizen, and his purse was
always open to encourage

every good work. One young man was educated for the ministry through
the means of money that he supplied : he died 2 ist September, 1839.

Cynthia Graham, a sister of Mrs. Richards, bom in Comvay, Mass.,
lyth Decem ber, 1800, came to St. Andrews to live with her sister in
1819. While living here, she became acquainted widi HENRY BENEDICT WALES,
and in 1829 they were mar ried. Soon afterward they moved to Pt. Fortune,
and purchased the farm about a mile belotv the village, now owned by
Mr. Williamson. A quarter of a century later, Mr. Wales sold the farm,
and built a steamer, known as the " Buckingham," which

for seven years did duty on the Ottawa under his own management.

He then sold it to his brother, and purchased a farm in Alfred/Ontario,
which he also sold in a few years, and returned to St. Andrews, where he
died in 1889.  One of the daughters of Mr. Wales married the Rev. John
Dempsey, a Baptist nun-



ister, who labored many years in St. Andrews, and another was married
to Finlay

McMartin, with whom her mother, Mrs. Wales, who has just celebrated
her ninety-

third birthday, now lives.

It is impossible to speak of this lady, who still retains her mental
faculties to a remarkable degree, without pondering for a moment the
mighty changes that have taken place in the world s history within
her recollection. She was seven years old when Robert Fulton made a
voyage from Albany to New York in the first steam boat the world had
ever seen. She had attained an age when the events of the war of 1812,
the battle of Lundy s Lane, Queenstown Heights and Pittsburgh must have
aroused her imagination and stamped themselves upon her memory. She was
bud ding into womanhood when the battle of Waterloo was fought, an event
which oc curred nearly two decades before the binh of those who are now
threescore years of age. Statesmen and warriors whose achievements have
startled the world have begun and finished their parts in the drama of
life since the days of her childhood She was nearly thirty years old
when the first railway in America was con structed, and forty before the
invention of the electric telegraph, and, yel, she has lived to see the
social and commercial world revolutionized through the mighty agen cies
of steam and electricity.*

ROBT. J.SIMPSON, from Mascouche on the St. Lawrence, was another man
who may be classed with the pioneers of this section, as he was here
and keeping store as early as 1807, m a large wood house, occupying the
site of the present dwelling of Mr. Howard, notary. His career, however,
was soon terminated by death.

Trustees of his estate apprenticed his son Robert, eleven years of age,
to James Brown, who had a printing house in Montreal, to learn the trade
of printer.  After mshing his term of apprenticeship seven years youn^
Simpson engaged to work or Mr. Brown another year, at the expiration of
which time he returned to St Andrews, and purchased a farm on the River
Rouge, now known as the Blanchard farm.

About this time, Mr. Moses Davis being occupied with his plan of erecting
a iery, accepted Mr. Simpson as partner in the work, and, henceforth,
the ter was one of the enterprising spirits of St. Andrews. In 1 824,
he formed a closer ice with Mr. Davis, having entered into a contract
of marriage with his eldest aughter. A few years afterwards, deciding
to engage in the business of tanning on own account, he erected a
building for the purpose, on the site of the present annery which is in
disuse. Some years later, this having fallen a prey to fire, his the one
mentioned above, which is now standing. Mr. Simpson, like his r-m-law, in
addition to his business of farming and tanning, added that of harness-
sing and shoemaking. He seems to have been a man of much influence in
the :e, one of those whose advice is sought by neighbors in the troubles
and disputes into which they sometimes fall, and one who by force of
character is able to sway others.

I .

-"Mrs. Wales died a few months after the above was written



He was a Justice of Peace, Commissioner for the trial of small causes,
and for

some time Mayor of the Parish.

At one period, during the construction of the Grenv.lle Canal, he had a
con tract for supplying the Royal Staff Corps at Grenville with beef-a
contract which, on account of the distance and state of the loads,
involved, in summer especially, no little hardship. The beef must be
in Grenvllle before 9 o clock thus necessitating constant worry and
watchfulness on the part of Mr. Simpson, lest the man he employed to
carry it should oversleep, and trouble arise in consequence

A few years later, during the Rebellion, he took another contract to
supply the

soldiers stationed at Carillon with bread. The carrying out of this
contract, though not without its vexations, was less irksome, on account
of the shorter distance to be travelled. During this exciting period,
Mr. Simpson s services were called in requisition in many ways and
on various occasions. He was especially serviceable in obtaining the
restitution of such property as the belligerent parties took f

other at the time of the greatest excitement.

Being well acquainted in the neighborhood of St. Eustache and St. Benoit,
ar having friends there among the Radicals, he was often visited by
some of the latt and solicited to use his influence in securing the
restoration of articles which, in t.  days of recklessness with regard to
the laws of mtum and tuum, had suddenly change hands. More than once,
also, he was solicited to visit the above localities to secure the
return of property which had mysteriously slipped from the possess.on
c of his loyal neighbors. On one occasion, however, his mission was
a higher His old employer, James Brown, who now lived in St. Andrews,
and Montmarqu.  a merchant from Carillon, while returning from Montreal,
were taken prisoners by t insurgents, and held at St. Benoit. Mr. Simpson
s object was to obtain their r and having been successful in his purpose,
he returned in company with them t Andrews, where they received quite
an ovation. It has been stated that the dwe of Mr Davis was used as a
barracks for soldiers who were quartered m the village.  Another large
building used for the same purpose was the house already ment which was
formerly the house of Mr. Simpson, and which stood where Mr. I brick
house now stands.

Several prisoners had been taken at St. Eustache and in that vicinity,
a were tried for treason by court martial, the sessions of which were
held in this Nothing very criminal being proved against them, they were
released was their fear of being ill-treated by the crowd gathered there
to listen to ceedings, that they earnestly entreated Mr. Simpson to
escort them some distan beyond the village a favor he cheerfully granted.

Mr. Simpson died 2 4 th May, 1870, but his widow survived till 19* Sept
1895. She was a woman of much intelligence and activity, and though
she the age of eighty-eight, her mental and physical faculties were
well preserved.

They had eight children, of whom one died in infancy. Robert, the eldest
: spent some years in New Zealand, engaged in mining. He returned,
married, an<


9 1

died in St. Andrews, where his widow still resides. Moses Davis


- " " >. ,

which ill-health induced him to

/// / cv ST - ANDREWS, 2 3 rd March. 1877

7 " / "" Smtary **""**"** Ai

S, R Aviation


Yours truly,


Robert S. is a dental surgeon in Montreal.



house of Jas. McDougall & Co. The youngest of these brothers, George F.,
is still at school, and of the daughters, Agnes L. and Jane Klyne, the
former was married 1 6th March, 1895, to D. A. Mclntyre, of Calumet,
and the latter resides with her brother at The Willows, their home in
St. Andrews.

MARTIN JONES was one of the very early settlers at Carillon Bay, and
his advent

must have been about the beginning of the present century ; he settled
on land now

owned by Raymond. It is related that one winter, while he resided here, he

found it necessary to go to Lachine for provisions, and so destitute was
the country at that time of means of travelling, that he was obliged to
go on foot. Taking a neighbor, a habitant, with him, and a hand sled to
convey his supplies, he performed the journey by way of the Ottawa on
the ice.

The cold was excessive, and they suffered severely, the potatoes being
frozen before they had accomplished. half the distance ; but their
return was hailed with far more delight by their families than is the
one who now returns in a palace car, with numerous boxes of presents
and delicacies for the Christmas cheer. In 1803, Mr.

Jones purchased lot No. 3 on the east side of the North River, where A. C.
Robillard now lives, which had been granted by the Seignior, i/th May,
1793, to

Ignace Samson. He lived here till his death in 1838, leaving one son and
three daughters. The eldest of the latter was married to Wm. Le Roy; the
second, in 1820, to Thomas Wanless ; but the third never married. The
son, Edward Jones, spent many years of his life in keeping a public
house the building used for the purpose being one opposite the store
of Mr. Wales. In 1843 ne purchased Carillon Island, in the Ottawa,
comprising about 1000 acres, since which it has

generally been known as "Jones Island." He never lived on it himself,
but his son Edward resided there for many years, and then leaving it
in possession of his own son, Robert, he came to St. Andrews and Jived
in the house still owned by his widow, till his death, iyth June,
1890. He was quite successful in financial matters, and was a man of
respectability and influence. He was Justice of the Peace for several
years and a member of the Local Council.

THOMAS WANLESS mentioned above came from Yetholm, Roxburyshire, Scotland,
and settled in St. Andrews about 1812, and did business here as an artisan
many years.  He had twelve children, but only one son now remains in
this section. One of his sons was living in Denver, Colorado, and while
on a visit to him, Mr.  Wanless died in February, 1873.

The son, MARTIN WANLESS, now living here, has been one of the active
citizens of the place, and prominent in both civil and military
affairs.. He was a member of the village Council eight years, and one
term its Mayor, and has officiated as Secretary Treasurer fourteen
years. After acting nine years as chairman of the School Board, he was
chosen as its Secretary-Treasurer, and has held the position seven years.

In 1849, he joined the St. Andrews Troop, and in 1867 became its
Lieutenant.  In 1880, he received his commission as Captain, and in 1890
was promoted to the

rank of Major.



Early in the present century a young man whose home was in Bath, England,
decided to visit Canada with the view of settling here, eventually,
should the country please him. A confectioner by trade, it is quite
probable that he designed establishing his business in the new colony,
provided conditions were favorable.  However this may be, influences
more potent than pecuniary interests induced him to remain. He formed
the acquaintance of a young German lady in Montreal, who, like himself,
had recently left her native land, so John Teasdale and Mary Dock- stadter
became one. He engaged in his former business of confectioner, and pros

pered ; then he bought a fine house with a large garden attached, and
this was made to contribute in no small degree to his income. He planted
a nursery, sold stock, cultivated choice flowers, imported rare plants,
and thus gradually swelled his coffers, till he was reputed well off
in this world s goods. But if his business expanded, so likewise did
his family, and in time he became, in the language of Grecian mytho
logy, the father of a beautiful offspring. In consequence of too fully
realizing this fact, however, and thus becoming an over-indulgent parent,
he was destined to ex perience much sorrow. His eldest son, William,
and another one, John, were young men of romantic nature, with a strong
predilection for fashionable and gay society ; they had received good
advantages, and were passionately fond of music, as the number of musical
instruments provided for them through paternal kindness abund

antly attested. But notwithstanding all this indulgence, parental wisdom
was not entirely inert, and it was decided that the sons must have
something to do, some useful occupation to employ their minds and provide
means for future requirements.  A little more parental discretion and
authority at this juncture of affairs might have prevented misfortune,
but, unfortunately, the choice of vocation was left to the younger minds,
and for them nothing short of mercantile life would suffice. St,

Andrews was the location selected for this mercantile venture, and,
forthwith, a build ing was erected for this purpose. This stood on ground
now occupied, in part, by the cottage of Mrs. Meikle ; it was a long
structure, designed not only for a store, but for one or more tenements.

In this, then, the young men were soon established as merchants ; but
whatever their success and habits at first, it was soon evident that the
store was of secondary importance and that their minds were "on pleasure
bent." The country at that period being new, and the forest abounding
in game of various kinds, presented great attractions to one inclined
to sporting. The pleasure thus afforded to the two younger brothers was
one they were not likely to ignore. But in order to pursue

it in becoming style, they must have horses and dogs, and thes? were
soon provided.  While they were employed with the delight of the chase,
business did not thrive ; the interests of those left in charge of the
store were not identical with those of the pro prietors, and the losses
thus sustained, added to expenses incurred in the rounds of pleasure,
presented in the end a discouraging spectacle in the account of profit
and loss.

As may be supposed, and as the citizens of St. Andrews had prophesied,
the new



mercantile firm soon failed ;-but parental pride and affection willing to
give another trial, their debts were paid, the store restocked, wholesome
reprehension and advice were given, and the sons started anew. But they
had not had that experience necessary to success. It is an admitted fact
that very few men are qualified to

handle money unless they have earned it. The second trial was begun, no
doubt, with good resolutions, which for a time were carried into effect,
but the final result was failure more disastrous than the first.

The elder Teasdale, collecting together what remained of his property,
moved to

St. Andrews, deciding that he could support his family at rr.uch less
expense here than in the city, while the sons now adopted a course which
developed their latent energies and ability, and properly fitted them
for the battle of life.

WILLIAM, the elder son, studied with Col. Fortune, a provincial land
surveyor and civil engineer, who at that time was also agent for ( the
Seigniory of Argenteuil, ard lived at the Manor House at the Bay. His
pupil being an apt scholar, thoroughly mastered his profession, and for
years was employed in surveying lands in this section of the Province. He
surveyed much in Argenteuil, and it is said that he named some of her
beautiful lakes. But he finally suffered from an affection of the eyes,
and eventually became blind ; he died at Rigaud about 1862. JOHN,
his brother, studied medicine with the late Dr. Wolfred Nelson, and
subsequently settled in Rigaud.  In the commencement of his last illness,
he visited Montreal for treatment, and died therein 1870. His obituary
says: " Dr. Teasdale has been living and practising in Rigaud for the last
forty years, where he was much esteemed by a large circle of fiiends, not
only as a physician, but as a true friend. His loss will be deplored, not
only by the people of his own parish, but by all the surrounding district,
and the name of Dr. Teasdale will be remembered for generations to come."

The father for a" time traded in the store which his sons occupied in St.
Andrews, and died therein 1830. Mrs. Teasdale survived till 1870. Julia,
their sixth child, married GASPARD BE COLIGNY DENYS DE LA RONDE, a notary,
8th February, 1829. Mr.

de la Ronde, who was born in St. Anne, descended from a lineage that might
satisfy the most ambitious, his ancestry on the maternal side running
back through illus trious families to the King of Portugal, and on the
other, through houses equally famous ; ihe last of his distinguished
paternal ancestors being General de la Ronde, who, connected with the
army of Burgoyne, fell at the battle of Ticonderoga in 1777.

Gaspard de la Ronde studied for the notarial profession in Montreal,
and immediately after passing his examination came to St. Andrews and
practised. He

had an extensive business for many years, and besides attending to the
duties of his profession, often acted as counsel for litigants, pleading
their cases in the lower courts. He died 8th June, 1882, at the age of
78. His widow is still at St.  Andrews, and, though fourscore years of
age, her mental faculties are intact. They had ten children five sons
and five daughters, who lived till past the age of twenty, though but
few of them are now alive.


J. T. de La Ronde, the eldest son now living, after spending some years
in the States, employed in commercial business and as proof-reader in
a newspaper office in Plartsburg, N.Y., returned to Canada, and now
resides at St. Andrews.

R. P. DE LA RUNDE, his brother, in his youth learned telegraphy ; he
then studied law in the office of Chapleau, Ouimet & Mathieu, and was
admitted to the Bar in

1867, and the following year was married to Martha McMartin, daughter
of Duncan

McMartin, J.P. He lives at St. Andrews, where he has built up an
extensive prac

tice as an able and honorable barrister.

Stewart E., another son of the late Gaspard de la Ronde, has been
engaged for the last nineteen years in the commission business in
Ottawa. Margaret, a sister of the above, married J. H. P. BROWN, son
of Dr. E. B. Brown of St. Anne. Mr.  Brown has for several years been a
mail clerk, and is now employed as such on the Canada Atlantic between
Montreal and Ottawa.

HENRY ALBRIGHT, a German, was one of the U. E. Loyalists who sought
an asy lum in Canada at the beginning of the American Revolution. In
Montreal he engaged to Dr. Meyers to take charge of a farm, which he
owned on the opposite side of the St. Lawrence. But he soon experienced
much trouble with Indians, whose thievish

propensities seemed likely to leave him but little personal property,
and after he had one day driven away several of them, a friendly chief
advised him to leave the place.  Believing this to be judicious counsel,
he followed it, and engaged the friendly chief to convey his family
across the river in a canoe. His young boy, Martin, on the

voyage across, fell out, and was saved only by the activity of the chief,
who caught him by the hair as he rose to the surface.

Mr. Albright came to the Bay, and settled on land until recently occupied
by Matthew Burwash. Not long afterwards, he purchased the lots on the
North River now owned by Alphonse Dorion and Charles Hunter, where he
lived until he died in 1820 ; he left two sons and four daughters :
Valentine, one of the former, lived and died on the homestead. Martin,
another son, who owned a farm adjacent

to his brother s, sold it, and moved to the farm now owned by his own son
Nelson He spent the greater part of his life here, and died in 1872. He
married Jane Hyde, and their ten children have helped to swell Canadian
population, and extend the fame for thrift and industry of Canadian
citizens. Nelson Albright, mentioned above, is one of the leading men
of the parish ; he takes a lively interest in the Agricultural Society,
and his fine farm, on which he has recently been awarded a silver medal,
always displays, among other things, a choice stock of cattle.

ANGUS McPniE came with his family from Fort William, Invernessshire,
Scotland in 1802 : two brothers, Ewen and Ronald, also making the journey
with him. He first went to Pte. Claire near Montreal, and lived there
a few years, learning to speak French fluently, and then settled in
Chatham, on land now owned by the Fitzgeralds.  While living there, he
was, in company with Noyes and Schagel, carrying freight from Carillon
to Grenville. He had three sons and three daughters : John, the second

son, bought a farm on Beech Ridge, and lived there till his death. He
was married in


1827 to Mary Cameron, sister of the Cameron who first settled at Pt. an
Chene, and had five sons and five daughters ; three of the former and
four of the latter grew up. Besides his military and other offices,
Mr. McPhie was president of the Agricul tural Society several years. He
was an extremely enterprising man, taking a deep interest in farming, and
improved his own land to such an extent, that he was awarded three medals
by the Agricultural Society, besides gaining several prizes ; he died in


JOHN McPniE, jun., the fourth son, in his younger days spent three
years in

California, then travelled a few years in the commercial line. In 1872,
he bought the farm of 270 acres where he now lives, and was married the
same year to a daughter of Charles Albright. Mr. McPhie has been School
Commissioner several yeais, and is one of the influential and respected
citizens of St. Andrews.

The following letter may properly be inserted here, as it treats of
the early

history of St. Andrews :

OTTAWA, 1 8th January, 1894.


DEAR SIR, In writing a sketch of St. Andrews, as well as of the
inhabitants before my time, it may as well be said here, that the
information given is partly from tradi tion and partly from personal
observation, and is written entirely from memory.

Before the advent of steamboats on the Ottawa river, between Carillon and
Lachine, it was no easy matter to travel between these points, and paddle
your own canoe. A decided improvement was made, when a line of covered
stages (each drawn by four horses) was started to run from Montreal via
St. Eustache and St.  Andrews to Grenville. The trip was intended to be
made in three days or two trips per week each way. They also carried the
mail, and the stage driver s capacious hat contained what letters and
newspapers were to be delivered between the different offices, and which
were usually thrown out in passing. The stage house in St. Andrews (where

they changed horses) was kept by a Mr. John Russell, and was a large,

wooden building next to Mr. Guy Richards store, and about where Janvier
Soulier s house now stands. After a time, he removed across the river to
premises situated between Robt. Simpson s garden and Edward Jones house,
where he died. His widow

kept the house for a time, when she married a Mr. Bowman, and removed
to Buck ingham. The arrival of the stage in the village was always
heralded by the driver s horn, and was as great an event to the gossips
and idlers then, as the arrival of a fast train in these days at a
rural station. After the steamboats were fairly established, the trade
was diverted from the land route, and the stages were taken off the
through line, and placed between Carillon and Grenville, and between
Point Fortune and L Orignal. There vas also, for many years, a winter
line of stages on the same route from Montreal to St. Andrews, and at
certain seasons of the year the trip was not accomplished without great
difficulty and frequent loss, as many fine horses were drowned crossing
on the treacherous ice at St. Eustache.

The industries of St. Andrews consisted of two general stores, an
ashery, a


tannery, with saddlers and shoe-makers shops, a paper mill, saw mill
and grist mill, with the usual village blacksmiths. The taverns were
also there, but they could not be properly classed among the industries.

One of the stores was kept by Mr. Guy Richards in a large, two-story
frame build ing, next to John Russell s stage hotel (which was afterwards
occupied as a residence and registry office by Col. De Hertel) .

After the main street, as it now stands, was opened up, past where
the Baptist and Episcopal churches are situated, down to where the
bridge spans the river, Mr.  Richards removed his store, up to a large,
two-story stone building (which is still standing), where he did a large
and prosperous business for many years, retiring from active life a
short time before his death in September, 1839.

The other store was kept by Mr. W. G. Blanchard, who also conducted
the ashery, where the inhabitants could send their ashes and get a fair
price for them.  And as the country was new, each farmer would have a
good many bushels of ashes

saved up after burning his log heaps. Many a poor family enjoyed
little luxuries, such as tea and sugar, and other articles, from
the sale of their ashes, that they otherwise would have had to do
without. Mr. Blanchard was a kind-hearted, easy going man, who put
too much dependence on some of his unscrupulous neighbors, as it was
currently reported that he paid more than once for the same ashes.

Mr. Davis tannery was a long, low building nearly opposite where
1). Sutherland

has his tailor s shop ; the saddlers and shoemakers were on the other
side of the street, and a brisk business was carried on in all of them.

The Seigneur had at one time a sawmill situated on the west side of
the island,

but it was either burnt or otherwise destroyed several years previous. The
grist mill was a short distance above the present one, and was one and
one-half stories high, built of cedar logs and clapboarded ; the water
wheel and other machineiy were of a somewhat primitive construction,
perhaps as good as it was possible to get in those days, but they could
not compare with the "Lamb" or Leiffel of these days.  The corn was
ground, but not bolted or sifted ; that had to be done at home with a
sieve, made from a partially tanned sheepskin, stretched over a hoop,
and per forated. The miller who presided over that institution for
many years was certainly not in advance of his surroundings. He was a
Highlander from Argyleshire (not far from that celebrated spot where the
horrible " Glencoe" massacre was perpetrated), by the name of MacCallum,
but who rejoiced in the not very euphonious sobriquet

of "GoeA-cum-gaw."

The blacksmiths, in the earlier days, were not noted for fine work,
and the hoes, axes and forks made by them, and which have come down
through several decades, to say the least, had no scarcity of material in
them. But later on, there was a great improvement in all farming tools,
and a large business was done in making axes,

which were then in great demand, one firm having a " grindstone " run
by water power to grind, polish and finish them up ready for use.

The members of the medical profession, as they styled themselves,
had nothing


to b,oast of in regard to ability or skill, and it would be difficult to
tell what college they graduated from. All diseases were, for the most
part, treated with liberal doses of calomel and jalap, together with the
free use of the lancet, and, in cases of sur gery, heaven help the poor
wretch who required their services ! After a few years, a better educated
class settled in the country, viz., Drs. Beach, Ellis, and Rice; the
last named also carried on a farm, which is now owned by Mr. T. Davis,
and he lived where George Simpson s house now stands. About the same
time Dr. Rae came to the village ; he was a young Edinburgh graduate
of high standing and pol ished manners, and in a very short time was a
general favorite and a successful practi tioner, being consulted in all
serious cases, and sent for from Lachute, Chatham and Grenville.

In those days, wheel carriages were not in use, the only means of
travelling was on horseback, consequently, a country doctor had a hard
life, and required a good strong constitution to stand the wear and tear
and exposure to all weathers, so that in a short time Dr. Rae s health
began to give way, and at his death he was much regretted.

He resided for many years in the house which is now occupied by
Dr. Mayrand, and, after his death, his wife and family went to
Montreal. Shortly before this, another young Scotchman by the name of
McCallum, a graduate from the same college, opened an office and began
the practice of medicine, and very soon had the reputa tion of being very
skillful and energetic. He enjoyed a large and growing practice, and when
the cholera broke out in 1832, he did good service among the poor, and

was very successful in his treatment of all those infected with that
terrible disease.  His career of usefulness was brought to a sudden
termination by an accident which in a short time carried him off. During
his residence in the county he made many warm friends ; and as he was a
single man, and had no relatives in the country, he was well and tenderly
cared for in his last illness, and his untimely death was much lamented.

There was not a single representative of the legal profession in the
county in early times, not but what there was plenty of law going on,
but it was all carried on through the Magistrates Court, which had plenty
to do with some of the residents of Chatham, who spent a good part of,
the proceeds of their potash in law.

There were several notaries in the county before Mr. Nolan came;
he practised for many years, and was regarded as a careful, reliable
man in his profession.  He owned and resided on the propertyjwhich he
afterwards sold to Charles Benedict.

About the time Mr. Nolan left St. Andrews, two other young notaries
Larue and Goudie opened an office on the corner^vhere Mrs. Caution s
house now stands.

Yours truly,


In order to show the difference between the prices of articles eighty
years ago

and the present, the following are copied fron a well preserved Day Book
that was



used in St. Andrews in 1814. The items are drawn from several different
accounts, as there is not a single account in the book in which
four-fifths of the items charged are not for liquors of various kinds,
by the glass, gill, half-pint, pint, quart, etc.

This is not surprising, whenVe reflect that traders ail sold spirituous
liquors, and their patrons all used it.

The charges were all made, of course, in pounds, shillings and pence,
but have been changed into dollars and cents. The merchant seems to have
sold every

thing from a jews harp to a log cabin :

1814 Feb. 6 To



tc tl





1 1


t (.  it




Oct.  (i

i a ti

n ii

tt tt it

i n



< i


1 1



May 4

t <




II Ii il tl

Bushel Corn at

Pr. Socks "

Pr. Scissors "

Lbs. Loaf Sugar

Bush. Salt

Mug Cider

Lb. Chocolate

Bushels Rye

Pint of Rum ,

Lb. Tobacco

" Raisins.

" Tea

" Powder "

" Shot

Pint Gin

63^ Yds. Cambric, at 74C

i Lodging and % Sheet Paper

, j i int Rum, i supper



75 50 40 40 20

5 40 60


i So 68


30 5 oo

15 50

2 5 34

.  it

1 1 ,t ft it

i Almanac.  So Board Nails. .

2500 Shingle Nfils i 50

3000 J ,ai ge Nails 9 oo

5 Yds. Lining, at 5oc 2 50

3 " Sheeting i 50

loo Board Nails 40

5 Yd.=. Blue Cotton 3

i Gill Peppermint

i Set Cups and Saucers 4

1 Tumbler broken

2 Candles

i Lb. Putly

\Yz Bush. Oats i

1 Quart Brandy

2 Slings

i Skein Silk

6 Yds. Co.ton at5octs. 3

i Glass Bitters

, Pint Pepp-rmint

I Bush . Barley 2

i Hair Comb

i Spelling Book

1 Lb. Rice (by wife) ,

Yz Doz. Plates and 2 Tumblers

2 Bowls and I Pepper Box

Yz Lb. Pepper

Yi " Spice

I Yard Gingham

i Qt. Beer

i Pint Port Wine..

oo 15 15 15 5 15 oo


25 10


5 25


30 3 15


77 2 5 -5 40




1814 Tune 7 To 10 Yds. Calico $5 2O

" " " I Paper Pins 30

" " " 2 Ozs. Cinnamon 25

I Dinner (St. John s Day) i oo

9 " y?, Lb. Copperas (by Betsy) 10

17 " y 2 " " (by Jack) 10

18 "I Pair Overalls 3 70

" "i Stick Twist 10

" " i Scythe .. 200

z}/ 2 Yds. Cotton i 50

1 i Lb. Dried Apples 20




Nov. 9 By 6 Bushels Onions, at $1.50 900

" " " 169 Lbs. Beef, at 7C H&3

" " 600 " Pork, at 1 8c 108 oo

The earliest physicians of this place have already been mentioned in
the letter of Mr. Dewar.

Among the other prominent men belonging to the medical profession who
have lived in the parish was DR. THOMAS JAMES HOWARD.

He was born at Exeter, Devon County, England, in February, 1796, and
in his early life entered the Royal Navy as midshipman on His Majesty
s frigate " Canopus."  He was in active service three years in the
Mediterranean, during the wars with

France, Turkey and other powers, but was obliged to retire from the
Navy on account of ill health. Subsequently, he held the commission of
Lieutenant under

Colonel Rolle in the South Devon Militia, and afterwards practised as
physician and surgeon in Devonshire. In 1844, with his wife and twelve
children and maid servant, he sailed for Canada, a part of the vessel
being fitted up for their special use and accommodation. After a voyage
of seven weeks, during the months of April and May, this sailing vessel
Tarrived in Quebec. The following summer Dr. Howard spent in Montreal and
in travelling through Ontario, seeking a desirable place for location ;
but he finally settled in St. Andrews, and began the practice of medicine.
His confreres were Dr. Pyke, Dr. Lawrence succeeded by Dr. Wm. Robertson,
Dr.  Fenwick and Dr. Mayrand. Having purchased a farm on the River Rouge,
he retired to it after a practice of three or four years, and thence
removed to Lachute, where he died in 1871.

HENRY HOWARD, his second son, born in 1828, was fifteen years of age
when he crossed the Atlantic with his father s family, he remained two
years in St.  Andrews, and then went to study French and the Notarial
profession inti;e office of Mr. T. J. Girouard at St. Benoit. Mr. Girouard
had been one of the active promo

ters of the Rebellion of 1837-38, and the village of St. Benoit, which had
been burned by Sir John Colborne, had then just been rebuilt. Travelling
vehicles were of a

primitive and rustic style ; a buggy being a thing unknown, while homespun
tuques and beef-skin moccasins were articles deemed indispensable in
the attire of the habi tant. Very few understood a word of English an
advantage, no doubt, to the young student, in view of the object at
which he aimed.


On receiving his commission as notary public for the Province of Quebec,
in Nov

ember, 1851. he settled in St. Andrews, with which place his history since
has been closely identified. He has filled many responsible offices, some
of which have been either removed or abolished. Active in the formation
of the County Agricultural Society, he was appointed Secretary-Treasurer,
and held the position for twenty-three years, when the office was removed
to Lachute. He has at different times been Deputy Clerk of the Circuit
Court, has been Deputy Coroner. Official Assignee of the Coun ties of
Argenteuil and Ottawa, and Secretary-Treasurer of the Local Council ;
in all ot which he has sustained a reputation for efficiency in business,
while commanding respect as an intelligent, public-spirited citizen.

Mr. Howard was married in 1853 to Marie Aurelie Clouthier, of St. Eustache
; they have three sons and one daughter. William Henry, the eldest son,
a graduate of McGill, is now superintendent of the Pueblo Smelting and
Refining Company, Colorado ; Ernest, the second son, is a member of the
Montreal Stock Exchange ;

Herbert, the youngest, is a bank clerk, and the daughter, unmarried,
remains with her parents.

DR. ROBERTSON is a name that has been familiar to the inhabitants of
the Ottawa 
Valley for two generations ; Dr. Patrick Robertson, who has won honorable
distinc tion during his life-long residence in this county, being the
son of a doctor who was in successful practice here for more than a
third of a century.

The latter, Dr. William Robertson, a graduate of King s College, Aberdeen,
Scotland, and of the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons, London,
came from Perth, Scotland, to this country about 1834. He first practised
a year in Williams- burg, Dundas Co., Ontario, and then, for the purpose
of looking after the business of his half brother, Colin Robertson,
who represented the people of this County in Parlia ment, he removed to
Lachute. Soon afier this, he opened an office on Little St.

James street, Montreal, and practised there a year. About 1842, he was
married to Miss Tiernay, daughter of a gentleman connected with the
Customs Department, and in 1847, he removed to St. Andrews, where he
spent his remaining days, dying 6th March, 1871 ; Mrs. Robertson died
6th February, 1890. They had two sons and four daughters. DR. PATRICK
ROBERTSON studied medicine, and graduated at McGill in 1868. He then
settled in St. Andrews, where, with the exception of one or two years
spent in England, he has since resided, and built up an extensive and
successful practice; he has recently removed to Montreal.

Of the remaining children of the late Dr. Robertson, William, the second
son, became general manager of the London Life Assurance Company, and
died in 1889.  One daughter was married to Col. MacDonald, Indian agent
of the North West Territories ; another married Bruce Harman of Toronto ;
a third wedded Chas.  Handy- side, of the firm of H. & A. Allan, Steamship
Co. of Montreal ; and one died when but ten years of age.


DR. GEORGE FLANIGAN SHAW, a rising young practitioner, associated with Dr.
Robertson, is from a family in the Dominion Capital whose members are
represen tatives of the most honorable occupations and professions.

He was born in Ottawa in 1862, and is a son of Charles Shaw, one of the
oldest officers of the Post Office Department. Henry S. Shaw, one of the
brothers, is also an official of the same department ; and of his three
remaining brothers, the eldest, C.  S. Shaw, is one of the prominent
business men of Ottawa. Dr. W. F. Shaw is G.  T. R.  physician, located
in Gravenhurst, Ont. ; and Rev. J. Arthur Shaw, M.A., of Bishop s College,
Lennoxville, is Rector of Cobden in the Diocese of Ontario.

The subject of our sketch was educated in Ottawa, and at Bishop s College,
Lennoxville, and graduated with honors at McGill University, Montreal,
taking his degree of M.D., CM., and while there, was for a year editor
of the McGill Fort nightly.

He has travelled extensively in Europe, visiting hospitals both in England
and on the Continent, and thus keeping pace with the rapid advancement
in knowledge, which of late years has signalized the march of medical
and surgical science.  He is a member of the Montreal Medical Society
and of the College of Physicians and Sur geons of Quebec and Ontario.

Since the writing of the above, Dr. Shaw has dissolved partnership
with Dr.  Robertson, on account of the latter s departure for Montreal,
and is no\v established in St. Andrews upon his own responsibility ;
he has recently been appointed Health Officer of the parish, and church
warden, to fill places rendered vacant by the depart ure of Dr. Robertson.

WILLIAM H. MAYRAND, M.D., is another of the physicians who have earned
a livelihood and reputation in St. Andrews and vicinity, and he is one
of the few remaining who were prominent in the generation past. He was
born at Louiseville, Riviere du Loup, and is a son of the Hon. Etienne
Mayrand, who for several years was an M.P.P. After spending two years
at St. Hyacinthe College, he went to Nicolet College, and remained
five years. On leaving that Institution, he studied medicine a year
with Dr. Morin of Quebec, and then entered the Medical Depart ment of
McGill University, and graduated there in May, 1847, m tne sama class
with Dr. Christie of Lachute. He immediately settled in St. Andrews,
and in April, 1848, was married to Catherine Sophia Pecco, a daughter
of the late Commissary General Pecco, of Corfu, Ionian Islands, and a
niece of Commissary General Forbes of Carillon.  The social qualities of
the doctor, united with his skill as a physican, soon pro cured a good
practice, and for nearly half a century he has been a familiar figure in
this section. Though preferring to give over his practice to younger men,
he is still the dependence for medical treatment of many households.

Mrs. Mayrand died August 8, 1888, leaving two sons. Henry Wellington,
one of these, is employed in the Merchants Bank at Halifax ; Geo. C. is
in business in

Nelson, B.C.

A recent addition to the medical men of St. Andrews is Dr. WALTER


who was born in 1865 at Aylmer, Que. He received his early education
in Aylmer,

Ottawa and Gait. In 1885, he entered the Medical Faculty of McGill
College, and

received his degree of M.D., C.M., there in 1889. I 1 1890, he went
to Sheldon, N.  Dakota, and during his stay there enjoyed an extensive
practice. In 1891 he was

married to Eva, daughter of Finley McMartin, of St. Andrews. In 1895,
desiring to come East, he sold his practice in Sheldon, and bought that of
Dr. Robertson of this place. Dr. Aylen is a worthy son of a clever family,
the Aylens of Aylmer having given the medical and legal professions some
of their most gifted members.

DR. WILLIAM S. ALLEN, who has also but lately visited St. Andrews
profession ally, was born in Montreal, his parents coming from Nottingham,
Eng., where his

mother, Jane Stanley, belonged to one of the leading families. He was left
an orphan at the age of four years, and while still very young, began
life as junior clerk for the Canada Paper Co., Montreal. A year later,
he became private secretary to John Macfarlane, Esq.. president of the
Company, in which position he remained two years, and afterward acted
asjprivate secretary to Jas. Bryce, Esq., superintendent of the Canadian
Express Co. He was indentured to Dr. J. B. Vosburgh, Montreal, and

began the study of dentistry in the fall of 1891, and also took a partial
medical course in the University of Bishop s College, Montreal ; he
received the degree of L.D.S. in October, 1895.

Dr. Allen is a young man of much geniality as well as enterprise, and as
his pre sence in St. Andrews fills a long fell want, it is to be hoped
that he may meet with deserved success.

Dr. Legault is another physician who has been here for the last six or
eight years, and has practised very successfully during the time.


Though considerable pains were taken to obtain a more complete history of
the Anglican Church here, they were fruitless. Eor the sketches of the
remaining churches, we are chiefly indebted to the courtesy of others ;
the biographical sketches of iheir pastors being, of course, from our
own pen.

Itinerant ministers visited St. Andrews, and preached in the early years
of her

history ; but the first church formed was the Church of England, by
the Rev.  Richard Bradford, as early as i8ri.

The first resident clergyman was the Rev. Joseph Abbott, who was born
in the north of England, and who graduated at a Scotch University. He
arrived in St.  Andrews in 1818, and the services, until 1821, were held
in a school-house. The Rev.  Mr. Henderson, a Presbyterian clergyman, who
came about the same time that Mr.  Abbott did, also held services in the
same school-house ; but as Mr. Abbott had little regard for dissenters
of any creed, it is not surprising that these different services did
not continue in the same building in the strictest harmony. Serious
differences, however,. were avoided by the withdrawal of the Presbyterians
to a private dwelling, and both clergymen were provided with church
edifices the same year, 1821.


After remaining here a few years, the Rev. Mr. Abbott removed to a field
in the

Eastern Townships, which, from his own name, is now known as Abbottsford,
and left the church at St. Andrews in charge of his brother, the
Rev. William Abbott.  The latter remained here till his death, which
occurred in 1859.

Not long after coming to Canada, the Rev. Joseph Abbott was married
to Harriet Bradford, a daughter of the Rev. Mr. Bradford of Chatham,
and their descen dants are among the most influential citizens of the
Province. The late Sir J.  J. C.  Abbott, their eldest son, was born
here i2th March, 1821. The Rev. Mr. Abbott exchanged his property in
Abbottsford with his nephew for that in Chatham, lately owned by his
father, the Rev. Mr. Bradford, and returned to this section, settling in
Grenville, accepting the pastorate of the Anglican church there, till
he went to Mon treal. He was appointed Bursar of the McGill University
in that city, in 1843.

The Rev. Richaid Lonsdell, M.A., accepted the charge in St. Andrews
after Mr.  Abbott s death, and held it for many years ; he won the
esteem of his parishioners, and the number of communicants increased
during his ministrations. He removed in October, 1885, and was succeeded
by the Rev. Mr. O Sullivan, but an affection of the" throat caused the
latter s resignation in a few months.

The Rev. F. N. Bourne was the next clergyman in the field, who, after

it till the fall of 1893, relinquished it for the rectorship of Dunham,
Que. ; he has also since accepted the principalship of Dunham Ladies

In January, 1894, the Rev. J. W. Dennis became incumbent, and his
ability, geni

ality and courtesy have secured for him much popularity.



The first recorded movement towards the establishment of the Presbyterian
Church in Argenteuil is embodied in the following document, which is
without date, but evidently a copy made at the time, and belonging to
the year 1816 :

" We, the subscribers, inhabitants of the Seigniory of Argenteuil,
deeply impressed with a sense of our destitute condition with respect to
the regular ordinances of divine worship, and sensible of the important
benefits which we and our families would derive from the labors of a
faithful minister of the Gospel, have agreed to use our endea vors in
order to attain this desirable object, trusting to the Great King and
Head of the Church for crowning our endeavors with success.

" As we are under the paternal care of the British Government, and are
therefore strictly connected with Great Britain in politics, commerce,
and similarity of manners, so it is natural for us to look to that
quarter for a pastor who may take the oversight of our spiritual concerns.

" We appoint the following gentlemen to be a corresponding committee,
with such friends and promoters of Christianity in Britain as may be
deemed by them the most active and influential in promoting a design of
this nature, to wit, Messrs. Rev.


Robert Easton, John and Phineas Hutchins, Benjamin Wales, and Wm. G. Blan-

And they promise, the document further says, to pay to the clergyman
who should come the sums opposite their names, yearly ; and at the end
it is stated that the number of subscribers was sixty-four, and the
"sum total subscribed, 101 ;"

but unfortunately the names are not given.

The Rev. R. Easton was minister of the Presbyterian Church in St. Peter

Montreal, then in connection with the Associate (or Burgher) Synod, of
Scotland ; the Messrs. Hutchins belonged to Lachute, and Messrs. Wales
and Blanchard to St.  Andrews.

Mr. Easton, to whom doubtless the original document was sent, wrote to Dr.
James Hall, of Edinburgh, a leading minister of the Associate Synod, who
brought the matter before his Presbytery. At the same time, a similar
application was sent by the Presbyterians of Rideau in Upper Canada ;
and the Presbytery, in compliance with these requests, appointed the
Rev. Wm, Taylor of Falkirk to Argenteuil, and Mr.

Wm. Bell, a probationer, to Rideau. Application was made to the British
Government for assistance, and as that government was desirous of
encouraging a good class of emigrants to settle in Canada, a salary of
,100 stg. a year was promised to each of those ministers, " in addition
to such provision as might be made for them by the settlers."*

In due course, Mr. Bell was settled at Perth in the Rideau district;
but Mr.  Taylor, instead of coming to Argenteuil, went to Osnabruck on the
St. Lawrence, and pitched his tent there. On learning of this, Dr. Hall
corresponded with the Rev.  Archibald Henderson, M.A., of Carlisle in
England, who, after due consideration, accepted the appointment thus
vacated (the same provision being made for him by

the Government, as had been made for Mr. Taylor), and came to St. Andrews
in the

summer of 1818.

Mr. Henderson was born at Doune near Stirling, Scotland, on the syth

1783. He attended the Grammar School of Stirling under the famous
Dr. Doig, from whom he imbibed that love of learning and that accurate
scholarship by which he was distinguished. At the age of 16, he entered
the University of St. Andrews, the most ancient of the existing seats of
learning in Scotland. There he studied under another enthusiastic scholar,
Dr. John Hunter, whose editions of Virgil and Horace and other classics
used to be so familiar in the Scottish grammar schools. Mr. Henderson
was an able mathematician, as well as scholar, and was advised by the
Professor of that branch of science to devote himself to it. He had,
however, higher views, and went to Selkirk to attend the Divinity
Hall of the Associate Synod, which was presided over by the well-known
Dr. Lawson. That great man was Principal and Professor of all the

* As stated in a despatch to Dr. Hall from Earl Bathurst, Secretary of
State for War, the adminis tration of Colonial alTairs being at that
time in the hands of the War Department. The salary was paid out of
the Military Chest at Quebec, afterwards at Halifax, when the British
Garrison had been removed from Quebec.



departments of Theology, in his single person, and trained an able and
well- furnished race of ministers. Mr. Henderson had thus the advantage
of sitting at the feet of three teachers of the very first eminence in
the country, and he showed himself a pupil worthy of them. Dr. Hall,
in a letter to Mr. Easton, in September, 1817, says of Mr.  Henderson :
" If he will come, I could not point out one in all the Synod better quali
fied. He is pious, modest, active, and persevering. He composes elegantly,
pro nounces the English language unexceptionally (a rare thing, I suppose,
for a Scotch man in those days), delivers himself with a manly fluency
and grace, and, lastly, is an admirable classical scholar, and completely
fitted to superintend an academy. I can stake our credit on him."

He had been settled in 1810 over a church in the City of Carlisle, and
from thence he came to this country, at the call of the inhabitants of
Argenteuil, to take the oversight of their souls and preach to them the
Gospel of the Grace of God.

He sailed from Greenock at the end of May, i8i8 ; and arrived in Canada
in July. He brought with him a letter from Earl Bathurst to the Governor
General, Sir John C. Sherbrooke, by whom he was kindly received. Leaving
his wife and three small children in Montreal, he came to St. Andrews,
and preached to the people, who were much pleased with him, even beyond
their expectations. He was speedily recalled to Montreal by the sickness
and death of one of his children.  With a sorrowing heart he returned with
his family to the village which was to be the scene of his labors and his
home for nearly fifty-nine years. St. Andrews, beautifully situated at the
foot of a rapid, on both sides of the North River, was a small place, and,
to the new comers from the crowded Old Country, scarcely visible. Mrs. Hen

derson used to tell how she asked on arriving and looking round :
"Where is the

village?" and received the reply : "It is on the other side of the
river." When on that side, she still asked : " But where is the village? "
Again the answer came : " On the other side of the river."

The district was in much need of Gospel ordinances, no minister having
ever been settled in it. Mr. Easton of Montreal occasionally came to
attend to the Pres byterians. An Episcopal minister preached once a
fortnight to the people of that body, while a good man, Hugh Cameron,
of Cote du Midi, was wont to exhort the people, and even, it is said,
sometime to baptize children. He was usually spoken of as " Hughy the
Minister," and his descendants are still distinguished by the cognomen of
" the minister."

There was now, however, an abundance of clerical provision, for on the
same day with Mr. Henderson, and in the same building, the Rev. Joseph
Abbott of the

Church of England began his labors. Fora time, the two congregations held
service at different hours on the Lord s Day in the village schoolhouse,
the Presbyterians meeting in the forenoon and the Episcopalians in
the afternoon.

The people who formed Mr. Henderson s congregation were chiefly of two
classes, both of vigorous and reliable character. The greater part were
Scotch settlers,


mostly Highlanders ; the other families were chiefly of United Empire
Loyalist stock^ or who had more recently crossed the lines from the
neighboring Republic in the

same spirit.


On the 26th January, 1819, a meeting of Mr. Henderson s congregation
was held in the schoolhouse, to consider " the necessity of building
a place of public worship."  Capt. Elon Lee was appointed Moderator,
and Guy Richards, Secretary. It was motioned, seconded and unanimously
voted, that a church ought to be built, and a committee was appointed
to determine whether it should be built of wood or stone, and to
examine various proposed sites for the crurch. The committee consisted
of Messrs. John Brush, James Bro\\n, Charles Story, Duncan Dewar of
Chatham, Wm.  Blanchard, Judah Center, John McMartin, Hugh McLachlin, John
McLean, Moses Davis, Charles Benedict, Phineas Hutchins, Thos. Barren,
G. A. Hooker and Peter

Deu-ar. They wisely decided on stone, and in the fall of that year,
the people were busy quarrying near the Red House, and in drawing the
stone and other materials.*

In 1820-21 the church was built, on a site given by the Seigneur, Sir
John John

son, Bart., on the west side of the North River. It was a plain but solid
structure, which still stands as strong as ever, but enlarged and greatly
improved in appearance.  The builders appear to have been A. Graham for
the stone work, and Archibald and Malcolm McCallum for the wood-work,
and they built faithfully and well. Friends in Montreal gave generous
assistance, a subscription list being headed by the Seigneur with 25 in
money and material, and W. McGillivray with 10, and amounting in all

to 148 i2s 6d. It is interesting to see on the list the names of families
still flourish ing m Montreal, prosperous and liberal, such as Torrance,
Frothingham, Ogilvie,.  Johnstone, Gibb, and that of George Pyke,
afterwards one of the judges of the King s.  Bench.


One of Mr. Henderson s first acts on settling in the country was to get
an official register for the due recording of " Acts of Civil Status,"
according to the laws of Lower Canada. It was authenticated on the first
page in the following form :

" This book, containing eighty-eight folios or double pages, was
this day presented by the Reverend Archibald Henderson, minister of
the Presbyterian Parish Church, St. Andrews, Argenteuil, to serve as
a register of the Acts of Baptism, Marriage and Burial, to be by him
performed, and the same was this day paraphed by me, the Hon.  James Reid,
one of the Judges of His Majesty s Court of King s Bench for the Dis
trict of Montreal, pursuant to the Act in such case made and provided.

"MONTREAL, I2th day of August, 1818.

"J. S. REID, J.K.B."

*The " Red House " was an old post of the Hudson s Bay Co., and stood in
a conspicuous posi tion on the shore of the Ottawa River, some distance
higher up than the Manor House. Both these houses have disappeared.


Five days later the first entry was made : it was of a marriage, in
these terms :

Daniel de Hertel of St. Andrews, Argenteuil, Esquire,

Maniage of and Lydia Brown, minor daughter of James Brown of the city

DANIEL DE HERTEL of Montreal, Stationer, were married by License
on the seven- ami teenth day of August, in the year of Our Lord one
thousand LYDIA BROWN. eight hundred and eighteen, in the presence of
the undersigned witnesses, by me.




The next entry is of the baptism of a child a month old, as follows :

A son of Zechariah Whistle and his wife Eve, born on

. of the twenty-third day of July, in the year of Our Lord one

s \MUEL WHISTLE, thousand eight hundred and eighteen, was baptized on the

twenty-third day of August following, by the name of Samuel, in the
presence of the undersigned witnesses, by me.



The next entry is of the baptism of George, son of George Robertson of St.
Andrews, papermaker, and his wife Margaret. It is not till a year after,
that the maiden surname of the mother is given, as well as her Christian
name. Nor are the names of the parents of the parties recorded in the
entries of marriages, as has to be done now, and the want of which has
caused disputes in matters of property. The

first burial entered is not till a year has passed, when on the i3th
August, 1819, occurs the burial of a child who had died the day before,
viz., James, the sixteen month old " son of the late Amos Blanchard of
Montreal, cabinet-maker, and his wife Susan."

While deaths were so few, Mr. Henderson in the first year baptized
fifty children and married twenty couples, people coming to him for
those services from consider able distances all round, from Lachute,
Chatham, Rigaud, River du Chene, and even from Montreal in several
instances. Lachute is called "the Chute," or "the Chute settlement,"
and our familiar River Rouge is translated into " the Red River."

These fifty marriages were all " by banns " or "after proclamations of
banns," except two, which were " by license." The number of marriages
by license gradually increased, engaged couples apparently growing in
shyness or pride, as the country grew in wealth and society developed
itself. At length, about 1846, banns and licenses balance each other, and
a dozen years later, marriage by license had become general; and for more
than thirty years banns are almost unknown to the record, very few being
willing to have their matrimonial intentions publicly announced in church.


Not one has been so announced since the law was authoritatively declared
to mean that where banns are published they must be published on three
successive Sundays and not, as had been the ususal practice, three times
in one day.

The Register is very carefully kept aM through in regard to marriages ;
but it is less so for a few years after 1824, in regard to baptisms
and burials. At that time there were some who questioned the legal
right of the clergy of the Church of Scotland to keep registers or to
officiate at marriages, and in a particular case the Court of Appeals
decided against them. Mr. Henderson took an active part in vindicating
the rights^of himself and his brethren. A Bill was brought before the
Legislature of the Province, " for the Relief of Ministers connected
with the Associate Synod," and when the Legislative Council desired
information in regard to that body, he drew up a Memorial setting forth
the history and principles of

the Church of which he was a minister, and its high standing in
Scotland. The Act was passed, and the disabilities which it had been
attempted to impose on him and others were cast aside, and their claim to
" Equal Rights " publicly recognized.


A Presbyterian Church is not completely organized without Ruling Elders.
Accordingly at an early period three were chosen and ordained to
that office, to wit, Messrs. Wm. G. Blanchard, Benjamin Wales, and
Cummins. Other Elders appointed in after years were in August, 1832 :
Wm. McEwen, John McConnell, Win.  Cook and Guy Richards; in May, 1836,
Charles Benedict and Peter McMartin ; in March, 1863, John McGregor
and Alex. McLachlan ; in March, 1877, James Middle- ton (formerly an
Elder in Stanley St. Church, Montreal), Charles Wales (son of Benjamin
Wales above named), and James McOuat; in February, 1881, John Robertson
(formerly an Elder in the Free Church of Scotland, and subsequently,
after completing his theological studies at Queen s College, Kingston,
ordained Dec., 1884, as Minister of Mill Haven and Ernestown in the
Presbytery of Kingston) ; in 1887, Charles T. Wales* (son of Charles
Wales above named), David Rodger* and John F. K. McMartin.* Thus in the
Wales family there have been three generations of Elders in succession,
a circumstance not unprecedented, but yet not common, although it ought
to be of frequent occurrence, the sons walking in the footsteps of their
Godly fathers.


Mr. Henderson labored, as Presbyterian Minister of the Seigniory of
Argen- teuil, with much activity. Besides his work at St. Andrews, he pi
cached regularly at Lachute, where he established a Temperance Society ;
at Chatham also, travelling

* Those whose names are marked with an asterisk (*) form the present
session along with the Rev. Dr. Paterson, the Moderator. Mr. Michlleton,
.1 man much beloved, died at the age of 86, while this book was passing
through the press, all the rest having gone before except Mr. Robertson,
who lives in Nova Scotia.


the seven or eight miles to those places by roads which were mere bridle
paths through the forest, beset sometimes with wolves and bears. He
had service also in the dis tricts round the village on the Sabbath
afternoons, as there was only one diet of worship in the church on
that day. Through his pastoral care and fidelity the Presbyterhns
of his wide field were nourished and strengthened till, in 1832, a
separa e congregation was formed at Lachuie. One of the few minutes
of Session extant of the early period relates to this matter. It is
dated St. Andrews, nth July, 1832, and bears that : " A petition wjs
presented from the following church members re siding at Lachute and the
neighborhood, viz.: [the names are not given], pray ing the Session to
disjoin them from this Church, that they may be formed into a distinct
church of the same denomination under the pastoral care of the Rev.  Wm.
Brunton, who now ministers among them. The Session agreed that the prayer
o^ this Petition Le granted, and the petitioners are hereby disjoined."

After some years, the congregation of Lachute divided into two, one
of them becoming connected with the Free Church. A third was formed at
Chatham, in connection with the Church of Scotland, and at a later period,
a church was built at Pt. Fortune also, for the accommodation of the
members of the Chatham congrega tion residing there. Thus the St. Andrew
s Church grew after the manner of the banyan tree, the branches of which
stretch out on all sides, and by and by reach to the ground, where they
take root and grow up into so many distinct trees, at a distance from
the parent stem, yet vitally connected with it and with each other,
and spreading one wide umbrageous shelter. Although of three different
sections of the Presbyterian Church, yet all these congregations were
alike in doctrine, government, and worship, and they were all united
again ; three of them at the union of the Free Church and the United
Presbyterian Church in i86r, and the others at the memorable and happy
union of the J5th June, 1875, when all the Presbyterian b >dies in
the Dominion, with the exception of a few congregations here and there,
were formed

into one, under the name of " the Presbyterian Church in Canada."


In the meantime, although Mr. Henderson and his congregation were
Presby terians, they were for many years without the oversight of any
Presbytery. He, how ever, had been in the habit of meeting with his
ministerial brethren for mutual fellowship and counsel. In 1843, tne "
Missionary Presbytery of Kastern Canada" was formed

by authority of the United Secession Synoi of Scotland. It consisted
of the Rev.  Andrew Kennedy of Lachute and the Rev. Alex. Lowden
of New Glasgow, with their respective Elders, Messrs. John McOuai
and John Murray. It was strengthened in 1845 by the accession of the
Rev. Dr. Win. Taylor, of Montreal, and his con gregation in Lagauchetiere
street, which had been organized in 1833, but had hitherto been in
Presbyterial connection with Upper Canada.

When this Presbytery was formed, Mr. Henderson desired to become a member
of it, and sent a memorial to the Synod in Scotland, stating his position,
and request-


ing to be admitted, with the condition that he should be allowed to retain
his annual grant from the government. But the Voluntary Controversy had
been agitating the

Churches of that country for a number of years, the ministers and people
of the

Secession generally taking strong ground against the establishment and
endowment of the Church by the State. They were, therefore, unwilling
to admit him unless he gave up the government salary, but offered to
guarantee him an equal amount.  He, however, did not wish to be a burden
on their Mission funds, and declined the pro posal, continuing in his
former isolated condition till the year 1860.


In that year, failing sight and strength compelled him, now in his
yyth year, to seek assistance in his work, and he made application for
a preacher to the United Presbyterian (formerly the United Secession)
Presbytery of Montreal. They were not able at the time to send one, and he
applied to the Montreal Presbytery of the Presbyterian Church of Canada,
which was in connection with the Free Church of Scotland. In due course,
he and his congregation were received into that body, and a preacher was
obtained from them, who gave satisfaction to the congregation and was
duly called : but his settlement did not take place. In the same week
in which he was expected to be ordained, the present pastor arrived in
Montreal from Scot land. He was at once sent up to St. Andrews to supply
the vacancy, and preached

on the next two Sabbaths, 291)1 July and 5th August, 1860, Having received
an appointment to preach in another place, he left for five weeks, and
returned to begin his regular work on the i6th Sept., and has continued
ever since, through the help of God, to go in and out among the people
till this day. He belonged to the United

Presbyterian Church, but the two bodies were to be united shortly, a basis
of union having been mutually agreed upon, and he had no conscientious
difficulty in antici pating the Union by a few months. He therefore put
himself under the care of the Free Church Presbytery, and on the 24th
October he was ordained, "by the laying

on of the hands of the Presbytery," to be Assistant and Successor to
the venerable servant of God, who had been himself ordained, just fifty
years before, at Carlisle, and had borne the burden of pastoral duty at
St. Andrews for two and forty years un

aided, save by the grace that is promised to every true worker, and by
the sympathy and help of the able and faithful Elders and other members
of his church, who had mostly grown up under his ministry.


Mr. Henderson now practically retired, the work bzing lefc entirely
to the young minister; but he retained the status of Senior Minister
and his position as a member of the Presbytery. Only three weeks after
this happy settlement, as it was to him. a great sorrow came upon him
in the brief sickness and death of his wife. She was the daughter of
the Rev. Mr. Morton, the Relief Minister of Leslie in Fife, and a woman


of piety and shrewdness and kind-heartedness, with a touch of racy humor,
in which her husband also abounded, and a spirit of hopefulness which
was a strong support to him in the despondency to which he was somewhat
prone. She died on the i6th November, being within a month of eighty-one
years of age.

Two years later he lost the only remaining member of his family, his
son Peter,

who was a physician in Ottawa, and died unmarried, 26th November, 1862,
at Burritt s Rapids, where he had some property, and to which he had
gone for his health.  He was 44 years old.

Mr. Henderson preached occasionally in the absence of the pastor,
usually tak ing part also in the quarterly communion services and in the
prayer meetings.  His pist birthday happening on a Sabbath, he preached
an earnest and affectionate dis course to the young, addressing them as
from the borders of the eternal world, and testifying that it was only
the fear of God and the faith of Christ that could make their lives
truly useful and their end happy. Towards the end of 1876 his health
rapidly declined, and on the iQth January, 1877, he suddenly passed away,
having lived ninety-three years and nearly four months. He died in the
house of his col league, where he spent the last eight years of his
life. He had been very reticent, like most of his countrymen, as to his
inward thoughts and feelings, but a day or two before the end he began to
open his mind a little, saying in reference to his hopes for eternity :
" I cast myself, as a sinner ready to perish, on the mercy of Him who
is mighty to save." He did not remember when or where he had " cast his
first an chor," to use an expression of John Knox s, but he had cast it
long ago on safe

ground, and his hope was sure and steadfast and entering into that which
is within the veil.


The history of the Congregation had been one of harmony, except at one
period, in the 30% when misunderstandings arose between the minister and
some of the peo ple, resulting in a number of them leaving the Church ;
but, in course of time, most of these returned to their former fold. With
that exception, the Church had a peaceful and prosperous existence,
their accomplished pastor feeding them with knowledge and understanding
from the stores of his biblical and theological learning, and his deep,
though unobtrusive, spiritual life. Liberal himself and large- minded,
he taught them to take an interest in Bible Society and missionary work,
having a weekly prayer meeting, and, once a month, a "monthly concert"
or missionary meeting, which has been kept up to this day. The money
raised was sent for many

years to the American Board of (Commissioners for Foreign Missions ;
but when the Canada Presbyterian Church established foreign missions of
its own in Formosa, China, India, the New Hebrides, and other parts of
the world, the members thought it their duty to give their contributions
to the support of their own Church missions.

The Congregation still has over sixty families connected with it,
although its field


has been contracted by the establishment of other four or five
Presbyterian congre gations within its original bounds, besides a number
belonging to other denomina tions ; and, although there has also been a
constant drain of the young men to the ever inviting and largely promising
West, besides the frequent removal of families to other localities,
lessening the Protestant population in its different branches.

The membership has increased to above one hundred and forty, through
the occasional incoming of new families and the steady growing up of
many of the young (why should it not be so written of all?) into a solid
Christian life. On several occa sions, through means of special services,
large additions were made to the number of communicants.

The Congregation has grown in the grace of liberality in giving to the
cause of

God. Before 1860, they gave little for the support of the Church, the
salary which their minister received from the military chest seeming to
them to relieve them from almost all responsibility on this behalf. By
their enjoyment of Gospel ordinances with so little charge to themselves,
they lost the privilege of exerting themselves for the sup port of Christ
s cause and the blessing which is promised to those who are faithful
in this duty; and when, all at once, the whole burden of supporting
their minister was laid upon them, some, faint-hearted, were ready
to shrink from it. Tae greater part, however, stood manfully forward,
and by bearing became stronger to bear. For to

him that hath shall be given." They found a new pleasure in new duties
and new relations, and were ready to acknowledge that Christ s way
was the best, viz., that they who preach the Gospel should live of the
Gospel. They undertook to give their new minister $600 a year, and in 1861
their contributions to all church purposes were $728, a large sum for a
people that had probably not given more than $150 in any one year before.

Since that time the stipend has been increased twice, while the
contributions to the schemes of the Church have also increased. In iSyo
they raised $1,283, includ ing subscriptions for some special objects,
and for the last four years the congregation has contributed, for all
purposes, from $r,ioo to nearly $r,3oo each year, being an average of
$20.00 per family. This may seem large to some, but it is less than the
average over the whole Presbyterian Church in Canada, which was in the
latest report $22.82. But what is that to what is still due to God? If
all the tithes that are unpaid were brought into His storehouse in the
spirit of consecration, the \vorld would soon be changed. The truth is
that the Church of Christ has only beun to give.

In 1877 the church building was greatly improved from its former
unadorned, barn-like appearance, by having a new and handsome front
erected, with corner tower, and much work done inside, costing in all
$2,500. Four years later, in i88r, the manse also underwent a much needed
renovation, at a cost of nearly $600.  both cases the Ladies Association
contributed a large proportion of the expenses.  The manse, with garden
and small meadow attached, is the house which Mr.


der<on built for himself shortly after his arrival here, and which
he made over before his death to the Congregation, as their property
for the use of the minister.

The Congregation has, doubtless, much to lament over in its history and
experi ence, while there is much for which to give God. thanks. Many men
and women who have been brought up in it, now scattered over the Dominion
and the United States, are in their spheres, some of them prominent,
supporting the cause of truth and righteousness ; and thus its influence
is widespread. It has helped to keep the Gospel light shining here for
seventy -seven years, and borne its part with other churches in testifying
for Christ and in training the people for His Kingdom."

The REV. DANIEL PATERSON, D.D., was born in Greenock, Scotland, and
studied at the Grammar School of that place, under the tuition of James
Lockart Brown, LL.D., an excellent teacher and scholar. He next went
to the University of Glasgow, where one of his professors was the great
scientist, Wm. Thomson, now Lord Kelvin, and there received the degree
of A.M. He studied theology in the United Presbyterian Divinity Hall,
Edinburgh, and came to Canada in the summer of 1860, and was ordained at
St. Andrews, October 241)1 of that year. He has been connected with the
Presbyterian College of Montreal since its commencement, as a trustee
and member of the Board cf Management, as one of the examiners for eight
years, and as a member of the College Senate for thirteen years. He
received the degree of D.D. from the College in 1892. He was appointed
one of the representatives of the Montreal Pres bytery in the Campbell
heresy case, to defend the action of the Presbytery before the Synod of
Montreal and Ottawa, and did so with the other representatives, who were
Drs. McVicar, Scrimger, and Robert Campbell.

Dr. Paterson is one of those quiet, unostentatious men, whose godly life
is a more powerful sermon to the unconverted than usually falls from the
pulpit. Though schol arly and thoroughly well-informed respecting current
events, his sermons are anything but pedantic ; he preaches only Christ,
and Him crucified, in a simple, convincing man ner. He is, in short,
a minister whom the unregenerate man would prefer at his bed side,
when he feels that he is drifting out upon the great unknown.

It is but just to add that, in his many years of faithful labor at
St. Andrews,

Dr. Paterson has been ably assisted by Mrs. Paterson, who is devoted to
temper ance, benevolence, and every Christian work.


About midway between the villages of St. Andrews and Carillon, at an
angle formed by the king s highway, and a few rods from the noble Ottawa
River, rises a modest stone church. The solitude of its position seems to
invite to meditation and prayer. The young but sturdy greenwood about it
is a proof of the respect with which it is regarded; it is the Catholic
Church of St. Andrews parish, where meet in


prayer the Catholic population of St. Andrews, Carillon and Point
Fortune ; the date of its construction is 1835. Prior to that period,
the Catholics of the locality were ministered to by the parish
priest of Rigaud. Their number having sufficiently in creased to
claim a resident cur, in 1830, they applied to Mgr. Jean Jacques
Lartigue to obtain permission to erect a church. The proceedings
were not a little protracted, however; but in 1835 work was fully
under way, and Messrs. Owen, Quin, Gaspavd de la Ronde, William
Byrnes, A. E". Montmarquet, O. de Hertel and Edouard Dorion petitioned
Mgr. Lartigue to send a delegate to bless the corner-stone and the cross
of the new church.

The church then built was sixty feet in length and forty-one in
breadth. It was

blessed on the iyth of March, 1836, by the Rev. M. Archambault,
arch-priest, cure of Vaudreuil. The text of the Act is as followr, :

On the r 7 tli day of March, one thousand eight hundred and thirty-six,
in the ( forenoon, we, arch-priest and cure of St. Michel de Vaudreuil,
have solemnly blessed a church dedicated to St. Andrew the Apostle,
built in the Seigniory of

Argenteuil, and for the use of the inhabitants of the said Seigniory ;
in the presence ( of Messrs. Pierre Jacques de Lamothe, parish priest
of St. Anne du Bout de 1 Ile de Montreil; of Nicolas Dufresne, priest of
St. Sulpice, missionary at the Lake of Two Mountains; of Jacques Janvier
Vinet, parish priest of Ste. Magdeleine de Rigaud ; a ad of Edouard
Montmarquet, Esquire, merchant of the said Seigniory of Argenteuil,
who have signed with us. the day and the year as above.

It is this same church that still exists, with, however, an extension
of thirty feet, and a sacristy added to it.

The registry of the parish begins in 1833. The first act mentioned therein
is that of the marriage of Eustache Perrault and Sophie Maheu. According
to these acts, we

find eighteen priests who h?,.ve discharged the functions of parish priest
up to the present time. There are actually 260 Catholic families, with a
population of 1400 souls. Seven Catholic schools are in steady, active
work. The best attended are: i st. th? St. Andrews village school, 120
children are inscribed on the roll- call ; and, the Carillon school, whose
roll-call numbers 85 ; 3rd, the convent, with 40 boarding pupils. These
three institutions are under the direction of the Sisters of Providence.
Behind the church, and towards the Ottawa River, lises another substantia
building in stone, three stories high, with mansard roof; it i- Father
Bonin s College If the Province of Quebec be visited, and the question
asked : who were the founders of all the educational establishments
noticed in so many parishes ? the answer would almost invariably be :
it is the work of our parish priests.

By economical living, Father Bonin had been able to lay aside some
savings ; and, like so many of his brother priests, his desire was to
advance the cause of the education of youth. Therefore on the 91)1 of
August, 1848, the Rev. Father Bonin, an ex-Sulpician, the parish priest
of St. Scholastique, proposed to the members of the Fabrique of Saint
Andrews, that they grant him land whereon to build ; and he promised to
erect, at his own expense, a college for the instruction of youth. His


wish was to procure for the children of the place the advantages
of education with out obliging them to leave their homes and their
parents. There was not, at that date, any establishment of the kind
in the neighborhood. This proposal of Father Bonin was accepted on th-
i3th of August, 1848. The ground was given to him on which he built the
house, to-day occupied by the Sisters of Providence.

At its inception, this Institution was confided to the Clercs of
St. Viateur.  It was very prosperous for some seven or eight years,
counting, in fact, as many as 150 to 200 pupils, who received a superior
educat ion, and even a classical course was introduced. A college Had been
built at Rigaud one year after the opening of the Bonin Academy ; these
two houses were in too great proximity to both flourish.  The number of
pupils decreased, rapidly in the Bonin Academy. Classes were continued,
however, up to the month of April, 1878 ; then, there were not more than
20 young boys in attendance.

The Reverend Father L. Z. Champoux, at that time parish priest at
St. Andrews, saw that Father Bonin s generous gift to the parish would
benefit a larger number, and that the bequeather s intentions would
be more truly carried out, if the college were transformed into a
convent. He therefore called the Sisters of Providence to the place,
with the permission and authorization of the Bishop of Montreal. The

Reverend Sisters tcok possession on the i4th of September, 1878.

Father Champoux had wisely consulted the best interests of St. Andrews ;
to day, the Sisters have 250 pupils in their classes, and it may be said
without exaggera tion, that they perform admirable work in the parish,
both by education and by the relief of the sick.

The priest s residence was successively the sacristy of the church,
Father Bonin s house, and, since 1889, the actual handsome presbytery.

A fact worthy of note, and which proves the good will of the Catholics
of St.  Andrews, is, that all thai has been done by them was by voluntary
contribution ; recourse has never been had to the legal means provided
by the statutes."

Rev. F. A. Dugas was born at St. Jacques de 1 Achigan, Co. of Montcalm. He
took a classical four years course at the College of 1 Assumption, and
afterwards, till July, 1878, wasprofessor of Belles Lettresinthe same
institution. He was ordained priest, 7th February, 1878, and was vicar
of St. Roch de 1 Achigan from July to

October of the same year; and of Chambly from the latter date till May,
1884.  During 1884 and 1885, he was fora year Director of the Classical
College of St.

Boniface, Man., and then cure of the Cathedral till July, 1889. After
this, he was employed as lecturer in behalf of colonization till February,
1890, since which he has been cure of St. Andrews.

The Rev. Mr. Djgns is a courteous and affable gentleman, and is respected
by all. He is devoted t:> his work, and is a stiong advocate of
temperance among his parishioners.



(Copied chiefly from the Church records.)

"The Baptist Church at St. Andrews, Lower Canada, commenced in the follow
ing manner :

" In the year 1835-36, Mr. Gilmour, having resigned his charge at
Montreal, spent some time with the people at St. Andrews, and preached
the Gospel much to

their satisfaction, and, it is hoped, not without some success, either
as to the awaken ing of the careless or the comfort and edification
of believers.

"But in June, 18.36, Mr. Gjlmour left 0:1 a mission to Boston, to procure
assist ance to the newly formed Institution at Montreal for the education
of young men

for the ministry, and for the more general diffusion of religious
instruction through the Provinces of Upper and Lower Canada.

" In the month of July, the same year, the Rev. Mr. Tapscott, who had
just arrived from England, was directed by the providence of God to visit
this place.  The meetings held here, and in surrounding neighborhoods,
were well attended, and some good seemed to be effected.

There were several persons, members of the Church of Chatham, who were
regular worshippers with us ; some others had been baptised by Mr. Gilmour
three on the loth, and two on the i5th August, in the North River.

"August i5lh. A discourse was delivered relative to the nature of a
Christian church, after which those present, who had been baptized
on a profession of their faith, gave to each other the right hand
of fellowship, in token of their union with each other as the Church
of Christ.

"The church being formed on the principles of free communion, two persons
were received, the same evening, without being baptized. The church,
at present, consists of sixteen members. May we walk together in the
fear of the Lord and the comfort of the Holy Ghost, and be multiplied.

"March i2th, 1837. Mr. Tapscott having received an invitation to spend
some time in Toronto as an evangelist, and conceiving it his duty to
comply with it,

signified his intention of leaving us as soon as the term of his
engagement expires .

" March 26th. A letter to the Ottawa Association was read, asking to be
received into the Association.

"March 29th, 3oth. The Ottawa Baptist Association held its second annual
meeting with us at St. Andrews, and we were received into the Association
according to our request.

" The meetings were well attended and were interesting. The letters
contained little information of an animating nature ; in some of the
churches unhappy differ ences exist; in others, great apathy. Much
important business was transacted, and great harmony prevailed.

"April 2nd. At a church meeting it was resolved : that an invitation
be sent to Rev. John Edwards, jr., requesting him to spend one half his
time as a minister of the Gospel among the people of St. Andrews.


" The records show that Mr. Edwards accepted the call, and began
his regular labors on the 7 th day of May, 1837, and continued
till October, 1843- After his resignation the Baptists attended the
Congregational Church, of which building they were joint owners with
the Congregationalists; but in 1849, the Baptists became

sole proprietors of the church, and the Congregationalists P repared L
to build a new one.

" In June 1848 in compliance with an invitation from the Baptist Church,
the Rev. John Dempsey arrived, and on the fourth day of that month began
his regular

VA difficulty of rather grave import stood in the way cf Mr. Dempsey
s becom ing their pastor The Church was open communion in practice,
and the majority of

its members in principle. He, on the other hand, was a close Communionist,

could consent to be nothing else.

\ meeting was called on Friday evening, ist September, 1848, to consult
what principle the Church could proceed in future with respect to
the subject of communion. In this meeting, not only the members of
the Church, but all baptized who attended, took a part. The question
was then put whether the should proceed in future on the open or close
communion principle, and a vote taken, it was carried in favor of close
by a majority of one.

After the departure of Mr. Dempsey, the Baptist Church seemed never the
degree of spiritual health and firmness that she had before possessed. A
decline began, numbers decreased, and after a few spasmodic efforts to
rekindle the early zeal and establish vigor, the church as an organization
ceased to exist.

Early in the year 1865, the Rev. J. W. Manning was engaged as pastor,
and his pastorate continued to ,869, when another minister officiated
till 1872. The was supplied the next six years by students, when the
Rev. Mr. Moyle accepted call. His pastoral services terminated in about
a year, however, and with them end all regular services in the Baptist
Church of St. Andrews."

The following sketch of Rev. Mr. Dempsey is an extract copied from the
Canadian Baptist of May i8th, 1893 :

"Mr Dempsey was born near a small hamlet, called Resharkin, in the county
Antrim, Ireland, December 2 8th, 1822. With his parents he came to Canada,
and settled in the township of Oxford, county of Grenviile. From his
earliest years, his religious training was of the stern, unlovely kind,
which was, unhapp.ly, not mon in Scotch Presbyterian families of an
earlier day. Though trained in a ngi< morality, diligent in the study
of the Bible, and strictly attentive to all the ,extt of religion, God was
to him a God of terror rather than a God of love. At seve teen years of
age, his eyes were opened to the necessity of the spiritual change which
alone he could become a child of God. After weeks of intense mental gle
and anguish, the gracious Father sent him the light, and joy came to him,
real and gladsome, and peace so full and sweet !

" Being fully persuaded of the necessity for thorough preparation for
the gr<


work before him, he entered Montreal Baptist College, took the full
four years course, and graduated June ist, 1848, having made a record
for earnest, patient and success ful work. His first field of labor
after graduation was St. Andrews. Entering upon the work under great
difficulties, caused by divisions and bitter contentions which had
been going on in the church for years, he finally got together a little
band of sixteen, over which he was ordained pastor on September i8th,
1848. For sixteen

years he continued in St. Andrews, being instant in season and out
of season, preach ing the word of life. He baptized there over 400
people. During all these years

he did the work of an evangelist throughout the neighboring country. He
left St.  Andrews in 1864, having received a call from the church in
Port Hope.

" A sketch of Mr. Dempsey s life would be incomplete without some
allusion to the evangelistic work he accomplished, apart from his
regular pastoral duties.  While pastor at St. Andrews, he travelled on
foot or on horseback, alone, or in company with brethren King, Edwards,
McPhail or Anderson, throughout the entire region of the old Ottawa
Association. Breadalbane, Notfield, Osnabruck, South Gower, Aug mentation,
Riceville, Lanark, Kemptville, Osgoode, Kenmore, Ormond, Clarence,
Thurso, Papineauville, and many other places from Quebec to Kingston,
have listened to his earnest preaching of Christ. These preaching tours
involved much hard work and hardship, yet it was gladly engaged in,
and God abundantly honored it.

" Mr. Dempsey, besides being pastor and evangelist, was intensely
interested in

all denominational matters. Dr. Fyfe found him a steady friend to the work
in Woodstock. He was secretary of the Ottawa Association ; secretary of
the East ern Convention from 1858 to 1864; secretary of the Superannuated
Society from the beginning. He has been officially connected with our
missionary organizations from their inception; and perhaps to no man
among us has been given a larger share of responsibility and work,
in connection with the planning and advocacy of the united

work of the churches."


BY REV. J. McAoiE.

" The Congregational Church in St. Andrews, which is the only
representative of

this denomination of Christians in the county of Argenteuil, was
organized in 1838.  In its early history the Church was beset with many
difficulties, and its subsequent career has been a chequered one ; yet,
here have been nurtured men and women who, for steadfastness of purpose,
loyalty to principle and to conscience, intelligent in.  terest in the
welfare of the community, and activity in the service of Christ for the
propagation of His kingdom, will not be easily surpassed.

The Rev. Wm. McKillican of Indian Lands, one of the pioneer Congregational
ministers of Canada, and a devoted servant of Christ, had for many
years paid an annual or bi-annual visit to St. Andrews, preaching, not
the special beliefs of his own denomination, but the simple Gospel of
a full and free salvation; and, at length, he had the joy of forming,
in what was then one of the most thriving villages in th c western part
of Lower Canada, a Church of his own faith and order.


In a house, that has since disappeared, on the east side of the North
River, occupied by Mr. Blanchet, the Church was formed; the only clergyman
present being the Rev. Mr. McKillican. The little Church shewed signs of
vigorous life, and was soon engaged in building a house for the worship
of God. But scarcely had their

meeting house been completed, when trouble arose, owing to some
arrangements for a joint* occupancy and ownership with the Baptist
denomination, and it was not until a separation had been effected, that
harmony was restored. This took place in 1848, the Baptists retaining
the building.

On October 25th, 1845, the Church, on the outlook for an under shepherd,

the Rev. Charles McKay, who had just graduated from the Congregational
Theolo gical Institute in Montreal, as the Congregational College
was then called.  That most interesting and solemn occasion, when
the minister is set apart for his work, which is losing much of its
meaning amid the innumerable pastoral changes, now so common, is one
never to be forgotten by the young preacher. It forms a climax and a
turning point in his life. It is for this he has struggled and hoped
and prayed.  Amid the discouragements of later years, he often looks
back for inspiration to that happy occasion. There were present, besides
the Church and Congregation, the Rev.  Thomas Bayne, some day to become
successor of Mr. McKay; the Rev. Mr. Mc Killican, that aged soldier of
the Cross, and sainted father of the Church ; the Rev. I.  J. Carruthers
of Gosford street church, Montreal, so sympathetic and eloquent.  They,
with due solemnity, set the young man apart with the laying on of hands
to the ministry of the word, and the Church rejoiced in the newly formed
relation. ^ Mr.  McKay endeared himself to all by his straightforward
and manly conduct, his inde pendent bearing and his faithful preaching
of the Gospel, and his name is still held in loving remembrance by some
of those who heard the Gospel from his lips.  Never robust in body,
it soon became evident that he could not long sustain the strain of the
severe climate of this new country. He was advised to try the sea coast,
and left St. Andrews at the close of 1848 for St. John, New Brunswick,
and was pastor of the Congregational Church there for a number of years.

The Church was three years without a pastor, when the Rev. Thomas Bayne,
who had been in charge of the churches of Hawkesbury and Vankleek Hill
for several years, was called to fill the vacant office. He did so in
the beginning of 1849. and remained until 1852; but did not lay hold of
the affections of his people, as did his predecessor. During this period
the Church was engaged in choosing the site for

their new meeting house and in its erection, which was not done without
some in

ternal disturbance. A beautiful site was chosen on the west bank of the
North River, and the church, a beautiful brick edifice, was, for the time,
one of the best appointed village churches in the Ottawa Valley. Its
erection was not completed until 1851.  For a year after Mr. Bayne left,
the Church was supplied by the Rev. Mr. Chase,

Rev. John McKillican and the late Mr. Hibbard, until in 1854, when
the Rev.  Alex.  Sim, M.A., was called to the pastorate. Few records
remain of the spiritual con

dition of the Church during this period, but the membership is said to
have been 32 ;


some of these res ding in Point Fortune, Lachute Road, Beech
Ridge, River Rouge, Cote du Midi, Cote St. Pierre, as well as in
St. Andrews. Mr. Sim, who was a gra duate of the University of Aberdeen
and of the Congregational Theological Academy, Glasgow, was ordained to
the " Ministry of the Word," at Aberdeen, on the i2th day of July, in the
year 1853. He came to Canada to fill a position as Professor in Gorham
College, Nova Scotia ; but that institution was reduced to ashes before
he arrived, and has never been rebuilt. Mr. Sim remained for about eleven
years, and during this period the Church exercised an extended influence
throughout the com munity. In addition to his ministerial duties, he added
others of a scholastic charac ter, as teacher of a private and also of
the public school. On leaving St.  Andrews, he went to Franklin Centre,
where he stayed for a short time, and finally took up a section of land
in Western Ontario, where his family still reside. Mr. Sim passed away
a few years ago to his final rest.

From 1868 to 1885 is a long period, but few records remain to tell its
story.  The shepherdless flock held together for a long time, though
diminished in numbers.  The Sunday School was faithfully conducted by
Mr. Devvar, the senior deacon of the church, who remained true to the
cause, amid storm and sunshine, in good and evil report. Among the
students who supplied the pulpit during college vacations, we

may mention Mr. Nighswander and Mr. Cossar.

At length, in the summer of 1885, prospects brightened, and the
little company were encouraged by the Rev. Thomas Hall to make another
effort. The Church was supplied during this and the succeeding winter
by students of the Congregational College, and in the fall of 1887,
the Church called a graduate of the College, who had spent the previous
summer as student supply, to be its pastor. In the presence of many
beloved fathers and brethren, Mr. McAdie was set apart for the ministry
of the Word. During this period the church was renovated and partly
rebuilt, at a cost of over $1600, all of which, save about $roo, has
been paid. Mr. McAdie s relation

to the Church, first as student supply, and then as pastor, continued over
six and one half years. But other events are too recent to be discussed
at the present time, and must be left for a future historian. One member
of the Church remains who saw its beginning. We trust he may not see
its close."

MR. McADiE still lives in St. Andrews, where he has many warm friends. His
time is devoted to teaching and literary work, chiefly to writing for
religious period icals. Mrs. McAdie also has displayed ability in the
same work, and during the past year or two has delivered an occasional
lecture, which was both interesting and instructive.

Since Mr. McAdie retired from the pastorate, the Church has been supplied
by students, FREDERICK LEITCH being the first. He officiated for nearly
two years, with much ability and popularity. He graduated from McGill
in 1894," and is now pastor of a church in Portland, Maine.

He was succeeded by CHARLES ASHDOWN, a clever young man, earnest in
h:s work, and discharging his duties to the great satisfaction of his



Baptists, were once



are * a g ood ly

-h.  ,

census of



at St.  p. ri .h-

The most active con-

funds frorrUhe year 1841 to 1865 inclusive :

Number of members.

Church Relief Fund.

Contingent Fund.

Educational Fund.


*~* r-Z S



1841 1842

1843 1844

1845 1846


1848 1849 1850 1851 1852

* 1853

1855 1856

1857 1858


1860 1 861

1862 1863 1864 1865

[ohn Armstrong, Wm. Dignam


$7 70 9 12

9 20i

6 83

7 53 8 oo 16 oo

12 3 8 12 90 13 07 I 3 27

12 37

12 98

13 75 7 3 2

10 12

7 16 7 75 S 75 7 24 2 3: 2 8;

5 cc 5 IC

$i 79

2 50

3 76

2 63

3 oo

3 7 2 8 50

13 32 11.48 u 68

12 OO 12 CO

7 oo 7 37 5 25 7 3 4 75 i 8 co

) 10 OO

13 26 I 14 15


) 12 OO ) 12 50

[ohn Armstrong, Wm. Morton



3 9


264 280 267 277 280

33 353 440


175 167 248

244 266 258 260 217 220

Wm. H. Williams, John Gemley Wm H Williams, 1 homas Hanna

J Hughes, M. Baxter, J . Annstrong

Michael Baxter. Charles laogait .

$8 56 6 94 6 23 6 27 6 46 6 50 u 50 8 30

3 3 1

7 45 4 12

4 25 4 5 358

David B. Madden, David C. McDowell

David B. Madden, Richard Wilson

Francis Coleman, John Armstrong 2nd

Francis Coleman, Richard M. Hammond

1 homas W. Constable, Richard M. Hammond

Thomas W. Constable, Silas Huntmgton

Thomas W. Constable, Wm. Scales

$5 oo

3 5c 3 oc

3 5 C 4 oc

2 4f


i 6<

2 0< 2 H

Tames H. Bishop, Andiew Armstrong

Edward H. Dewart, Jidmunu ^. a

Edward H. Dewart, tdmunct ,. oweci. .

Robert Brown, Henry F. Bland

Robert Brown, Henry F . Bland

Alfred Andrews, Wm. M. Cooly Alfred Andrews

Wm. D. Brown, Alex. Campbell, 2nd

2 97 3 3 3 35

* Qrenville set off.



Besides her generous support of churches, St. Andrews has been active in
the formation and maintenance of Christian societies. The Bible Society
was formed in 1841, and ever since has been in a fairly prosperous
condition. The first officers chosen were as follows : W. G. Blanchard,
president ; Charles Benedict, vice- president ; Charles Wales, treasurer ;
J.Edwards, jun., secretary. Duncan Dewar

was appointed depositary, and has filled the office ever since, with
the exception of a few years.

The succeeding officers were : The late John Middleton, president; Thomas
Lamb, vice-president ; C. T. Wales, treasurer ; and Rev. Dr. Paterson,

The late Rev. Mr. Henderson was president from 1850 until his death in
1877, and was succeeded by Mr. Finlay McMartin, who was in turn followed
by Mr.  Middleton. The latter held the office until his death.


A Christian Endeavour Society was organized here in 1887, the first in
the County of Argenteuil, and one of the first formed in the Province.

It was organized through the efforts of Miss H. Hibbard, who has ever
since labored assiduously to promote its growth and the success of its
object.  Beginning with a membership of eight, it increased till its
members numbered eighty ; but, owing to removals from the place, it is
not now so large. The meetings are held in the Congregational Church,
though its members represent all the different Protestant denominations
of the Parish.

Alexander D. Dewar, president of the County Union, is also president
of the

Local Union at St. Andrew s.


The W. C. T. U. organized a Local Union in St. Andrews in March,
1883 ; the first president was Mrs. (Rev.) Moyle ; she was
succeeded by Mrs. Finley McMartin, who held the position several
years. Mrs. Chas. T. Wales followed, and three years subsequently 1894
she was succeeded by Miss Julia E. Davis.

St. Andrews has also supplied three presidents for the County Angus
McPhie, Miss Julia E. Davis and Mrs. Wm. Barclay.


On the afternoon of Wednesday, December 8th, 1875, a meeting of the
ladies of St. Andrews was held at the Presbyterian Manse, in accordance
with the notice ,

from the pulpits of the several churches in the place, for the purpose
of organizing a Auxiliary to the Montreal Branch of the Woman s Board
of Missions

There were present : Mrs. Paterson, Mrs. C. Wales, Mrs. A. McPhie,
Mrs ; Wales, Miss Clare, Miss Barclay, Miss H. Davis, Miss M. Sharpe,
Miss A. Wa *, Miss M. Wales.



The following officers were chosen :

President, Mrs. A. McPhie.

( Mrs C Wale 5

_. T . ^ . , 1 ITJL I o * v> i T a, iv, _

Vice-Presidents, j Mrg< Paterson>

Secretary, Miss Wales.

Treasurer, Miss Barclay.

In November, 1891, the Canadian Woman s Board (of which the St. Andrews
had been an Auxiliary for sixteen years) disbanded, having accomplished
the object for which it had been organized ; leaving the members free
to enter more fully into the missionary work of the Churches wilh which
they were connected.

We decided, however, not to disband, but continue as a Union Society,
working together in the cause of Foreign Missions. We have raised, each
year, sums varying from $12.21 to $83.79 : the average being, in the
first six years. $21.56, and in f he last six years, $73.20. Some years
ago we adopted the plan of placing Mission bags, marked " For the Lord,"
in each family, asking the women to put one cent a week

in it, which had the effect of increasing the subscriptions. In this
way, we have been enabled to send sums, yearly, to the Missions of the
Presbyterian, Congrega tional and Baptist Churches. Although never a
large Society, it has been a means of contributing something towards
the spread of the Gospel abroad, and has been

found very helpful to the members themselves.



A Masonic Lodge was organized in St. Andrews in 1813 ; the following
record of the event is copied from the old Masonic Register :

March ist, 1813.  MURRAY LODGE No. 17, Register of Lower Canada.

This day being appointed for the formal installation of this Lodge,
the Petitioning Brethren having assembled at the house of Brother
Benjamin Wales in the village of St. Andrews, at i p.m., the Worshipful
Jabez D. Dewitt, Past Master of St. Paul s Lodge No. 12, accompanied by
the Worshipful J. D. Turnbull, Master of Union Lodge No. 8, Montreal,
arrived from that city, and produced the authority of the Grand Lodge
of Lower Canada, as below specified.

QUEBEC, 2oth February, 1813.  BROTHER :

You are hereby authorized and directed to install this Worshipful Master
of Murray Lodge, No. 17, agreeably to ancient custom, and to deliver
over to him the warrant of Constitution, etc. With brotherly regard,

I am yours in truth,

(Signed), WILLAM DOWNS.  To BRO. JABEZ DEWITT of Paul s Lodge, No. 12,



Lodge opened in the first Degree of Masonry by

Worshipful Jabez D. De Witt, Wl. pro tern.  Worshipful J. D. Turnbull,
J. W.pro tern.  Brother S. Goodrill, J. \V. pro tern.


Worshipful B. Wales, Master Elect. Bro. J. Masham, Sec y Elect

Bro. Elon Lee, S. W. Elect. Arthur Jackson, S. D. Elect

Reuben French, J. W. Elect. Gust. A. Hooker, J. D. Elect.

Ames Matthews, Treas. Elect. D. Flint, Tyler,/ tern.

At a meeting held 6th Jan, 1824, "It was moved, seconded, and unanimously
agreed that the thanks of this Lodge be given Brother Thomas Barren
for the faith- lischarge of the duties of his office in the Provincial
Grand Lodge."  Brother Thomas Barron was unanimously elected to be sent
to the Provincial feud Lodge at Montreal, to assist in framing By-Laws
for the government of that


Among the members of this Lodge previous to 1826 appear the names of

Wm. Beaton Wm. Streeter, jun. John Me Arthur

John Harrington James Proctor Elijah Kello-g

Timothy Bristol James Volla Judah Center

Archibald Rae Richard Mears Justus Barnet

Peter F. Le Roy Benj. Wales Wm. Dixon

Daniel Foss Andrew Simmons P. F. Peabody

Wm. Streeter Wm. McDole W. G. Blanchard.

Later, appear the names of Wm. Zearns, John Oswald, Hugh Dunlop,
D. Beattie, H. Maguire.

This was called Murray Lodge No. 5 " until April, 1825, after which it
was called " St. Andrews Lodge No. 5."

J. A. N. MACKAY is the only representative of the legal fraternity in St.
Andrews Asides Mr. de La Ronde. He was born 1840, in St. Scholastique,
and educated in colleges in Montreal, Ottawa and St. Hyacinthe, the
latter being the place where his studies were completed.

The ancestors of Mr. Mackay were men of military proclivities, and

in the service in which they were engaged. Francis Mackay, who was a
near relative

Lord Roe, had three sons Stephen, Francis and Samuel ; the two former
in their

youth served under the Prince of Orange, as lieutenants of The
Guards. Samuel,

vho was then too young for military service, subsequently, distinguished
himself in

Hungary, in the service of Maria Theresa. In 1756, the three brothers
all entered the


" Royal American Regiment," which afterward became the 6oth Reg. of
Col; Alexander Mackay ; Stephen, the eldest, died while captain in this
Regiment, before t he Conquest of Canada. The two remaining brothers
served during the Conquest, at Montreal, where they remained. Samuel
served at the blockade of St. Johns, and was with Burgoyne during his
unfortunate expedition to the States. He was buried at the foot of Mount
Royal, Montreal, near the garden of the Seminary, where he had formerly
commanded a picket at the taking of Montreal.

The brothers all married French ladies belonging to the most prominent
and aristocratic families of Canada. Samuel Mackay left two sons Samuel
and Stephen ; the former settled in the States ; the latter, as captain
and major, served in the war of 1812. He married Miss Globensky, settled
at St. Eustache, and died there in 1859.  He left several children, of
whom one son was Augustus Mac kay, who practised the notarial profession
for forty-seven years, and died in 1872. J. A. N. Mackay, one of his sons,
and the subject of our sketch, studied law under the Hon. Wilfrid Prevost,
the late Hon. L. T. Drummond, and the Hon. Louis Belanger, Judge of the
Superior Court. During the year 1862, he practised with Mr. Drummond,
and the same year was admitted to the Bar. The prospects for business at
that time being much better in St. Andrews than in the city, he settled
here, and has since practised

with much success.

He has been employed in several murder trials, in which his success has
given him no little celebrity. The following are the most important of
these cases with which he has been connected Queen vs. James and John
Byrne, for the murder of Valiquet in 1867 ; this trial was conducted at
St. Scholastique, before Judge Monk, and lasted fifteen days ; Queen
vs. Barnard Cain, for the murder of James Nagle ; Queen vs. Pierre
Durocher and wife, for the murder of John Mullin ; Queen vs.  Mrs.
Lacroix and daughter, for the murder of a child.

In most of the above cas.-s, and especially the first, Mr. Mackay was the
only lawyer for the defence, and in every case he was successful. In 1894:
he went to England, and argued before the Judicial Committee and Privy
Council of Her Majesty an important water-power case between Hamelin &
Ayre and the Banner- mans. Sir Richard Webster, Attorney General, was
Mr. Mackay s Counsel, with Vernon Smith, Q.C. ; the former argued the
case personally with Mr Mackay.

He was married in 1864 to Miss Papineau of Montreal; she died in 1870,
leaving one son Alfred, now a barrister in Montreal. In 1874 he married
Miss Desjernier of St. Hennas; they have three sons: the eldest, Adolphe,
is in the employ of Messrs. Hodgson, Sumner & Co., Montreal ; the other
two are in college.  Mr. Mackay has an attractive residence surrounded by
well laid out grounds in St.  Andrews, and a fine farm near this village,
which he has brought to a high state of cultivation.

COL. D HERTEL was, for quite a number of years, Registrar of the County
< Argenteuil, and relinquished the office when it was removed from
St. Andrews Lachute. He enlisted at the age of eighteen, and was in the
battles of Pittsburgh


and Chrysler s Farm. Deserving promotion, he was eventually rewarded with
the commission of Colonel, fie came from Montreal to St. Andrews, and
during his residence here was esteemed for his intelligence and probity.

At the time of the Fenian Raid in 1866, several companies of Volunteers
having been called out, they assembled at St. Andrews, preparatory
to their departure for other points. Col. D Hertel, on account of his
position and military experience, naturally was requested to address
them. He was a fine, soldierly-looking man, full six feet in stature,
but the days of his military prowess had passed. In full uniform, bat
trembling from weakness and age, he spoke a few words, and then closed
with the rermrk: "You know I cannot always be with you, boys." He then
returned to his home, which was the present residence of Mr. De la Ronde,
barrister, and had scarcely reached the threshold when he expired.

In 1837, MR - ADAM DRYSDALE and Mary Black were married in Montreal
at the house of James Roy, merchant, and they immediately removed
to St. Andrews. The father of Mr. Drysdale, who was a retired sea
captain, having for many years sailed between Glasgow and Montreal,
came with them. While living at St. Andrews.  Capt. Drysdale taught
J. J. C. Abbott, afterwards Premier, the use of the compass, astronomy
and higher mathematics subjects for which young Abbott, in his thirst

for knowledge, had a great liking.

Adam Drysdale was a wheelwright by trade, and a good carpenter and
builder.  He was engaged in manufacturing plows while he lived here,
and as they proved very satisfactory, many were sold to the farmers
in Argenteuil. In 1842, he returned to Montreal with his family then
increased by three children, Adam, Thomas and Margaret. One of his
daughters Grace was married in 1879 to Joseph B. Taylor, of Isle aux
Chats, Argenteuil County ; she died a few years since.

WILLIAM DRYSDALE, another son of this family, is the well-known bookseller
and publisher of Montreal. He married a lady of Sr. Andrews, as stated
elsewhere ; and it is no discredit to Argenteuil that in the phalanx of
prominent and worthy men with whose associations she is blended may be
numbered William Drysdale. He has had large experience in his present
business, and has ever taken a lively interest in the development and
promotion of Canadian literature.

His establishment on St. James Street, 112 X 20 ft. in dimensions, and
four stories high, is fitted up with all the requirements of the trade,
and every variety of useful books may here be found. David Drysdale, i
is brother, who is also much respected in Montreal, has a large hardware
store on Craig street.

WILLIAM R. HIBEARD is another of the esteemed citizens of St. Andrews.
Many years of his life have been devoted to railroad affairs, and he is
now connected with the Canada Atlantic. In 1853, he purchased a farm for
his parents in St.  Andrews, where they spent the remainder of their
days. William 1\. was married in 1852 to Sarah Cameron, of Montreal ;
they have had six children, of whom one died in infancy ; two sons and
three daughters are now living. The sons are in business,


and of the daughters, the eldest, the widow of George May, sen., resides
in Los

people by theu acts of benevolence, and the earnestness with wh,ch they
have encouraged and aided every moral reform.

HUGH WALSH, the present Mayor of St. Andrews, and propr.etor of the
in. grist mill, came to this village from Ormstovvn, Quo., in 1883.

His grandfather and two of his sons enlisted in the Brmsh Serv.ee,
and lost he r lives in the Peninsular War. His father, R. J. Walsh,
was educated ,n Dublin,

tered the British Navy as midshipman, and after serving seven years,
came O, dt tdw on ofU,e early sealers inChateauguay. He was in Mon.real
atthe Urn of the Riot of ,849, and was writing in the Parliament House
when it was mobbed and set on fire j he died at Ormstown. He had seven
sons and two daughters

""" S Hngh?nt to the youngest son, was married ,6th February, ,869,
to Catherine M Cam bell of Ormstown, and was engaged in mercantile
business ,n that place number of year,. He purchased the grist mill on
coming to St. Andrews, and has improved it and increased its capacity
for work. It is now one o, the best equipped Manufactories in its line
in this part of the Province, and u does a large business.  Mr. Walsh
is a public-spinted, enterprising gentleman, and takes much merest ,n

local affairs-; he has been mayor of the Parish, and chairman o. the
Model School Board several years.

UMES MARTIN from the County Down, Ireland, came with his family to
Montreal in 1828, and after living there till 1830, he settled at
St. Andrews on the River Rouge.  In the fall of 1838 he removed to a
small farm on the Lachute Road, but as he was a carpenter by trade,
his time was almost constantly devoted to ih.s occuit,on Mrs. Martin
died with the cholera in 1832, leaving three sons-Edward, ( James,
and three daughters Mary, Martha and Jane.

Edward died in Illinois in 1894; Charles is still living in Marquette
Co M, and James died in i8 5 4-*ged about . Mary married John McMarUn
of the River Rouge; Martha married George Powers, and died in Ottawa ;
Jane married Jor Parker, and after living in St. Andrews a number of
years, they removed to ( where Mr. Parker died. Mrs. Parker now lives
in St. Andrews with her sis the widow of John McMartin.

Mr. Martin s second marriage was, in 1835, to Clarissa Flint, daughter of
J merchant of St. Andrews, whose store occupied the site of the present
dwell >t M Hibbard. They had five sons and two daughters-two of the
former and one latter died in childhood ; the other daughter died at
the age of 20. Of the remai tlr-e sons, Thomas B. lives in California ;
George H., the youngest, in \ and,



111. John, the eldest of those living, remained on the homestead, and
added to it till it comprises about 120 acres.

Mr. Martin having also become joint owner with A. Le Roy of the
Harrington estate, comprising 240 acres, has recently removed to the
commodious brick dwelling on this estate in the village. He is one of the
leading men of the parish, is a J. P., and secietary of the Model and
Elementary School Boards. He joined Maj.  Simpson s Troop when it was
organized, and after serving in it eight years joined the St. Andrews
Troop, with which he was connected sixteen years, and was at the front
during the Fenian Raids. Mr. Martin has taken a lively interest in the
County Agricultural Society, of which he was vice-presidentfour years,
and presidentfive years, during which period the Society was in a most
prosperous condition. He has been

twice married first, to Ann Mclntyre, 6th August, 1864 ; she died igih
October, 1890, and he was next married to Kate Mclntyre his first wife
s sister in December, 1891. Since the above was written, Mr. Martin has
sold his property and removed to Califcrnia.

THOMAS TURNER, from London, Rng., came to Montreal a short time previous
to the Rebellion of 1837, and was married there, 22nd May, 1837, lo
Elien Walker from Dunbarton, Scotland. A few years later, they removed
to Toronto, and after

living there and at Stowville and Claremont about a quarter of a century,
they removed to this section, being interested in the settlement of the
estate of Mr. Walker -Mrs. Turner s father who had lived near Belle
Riviere, and had recently died.  They settled in St. Andrews, where
Mr. Turner died nth February, 1875, anj Mrs - Turner Qth December, 1878.

They left three daughters Elizabeth, Mary and Helen. Mary married John
Webster, and Helen was married, 2 5th November, 1884, to Win. Somerville,
a farmer of St. Andrews; Elizabeth lives with her sister, Mrs. Somerville;
these sisters are among the respected Christian ladies of this locality.

PETER WEBSTER from Leeds, England, settled in St. Andrews in 1839. He wa $
a tailor, and after plying his trade here eighteen years, he conducted an
hotel at dishing for a year, in the present stone dwelling of R. Hartley.

He then returned to St. Andrews, and about three years later purchased
the lot and erected the brick house where his son J. W. now lives. During
the later

years of his life he was much interested in religion, and was active in
religious work.  He died 2ist March, 1891, at the age of 82 ; Mrs. Webster
died i6th June, 18771

aged 65. They had eight children three sons and two daughters grew up.

William, the eldest son, a steamboat engineer of long experience, died
in Toronto in August, 1890.

Thomas, a merchant tailor in Montreal for many years, died 28th June,

John W., who has long been a popular tailor and citizen of this place,
was mairieJ 151)1 May, 1873, to Mary Turner. He joined Co. No. i of
the Rangers at Us formation, and served seven years. He then joined the
St. Andrews Troop, and

served in that, also, seven years. Mr. Webster has a good farm of about
200 acres in Bethany and another of 100 acres on Beech Ridge.


DANIEL SUTHERLAND was born in 1819, in Cromarty, Rothshire, Scotland,
where his father, William Sutherland, was a contractor, and owner of
a granite quarry.  In his youth, the younger Sutherland had the good
fortune to enpy the friendship of the celebrated geologist and author,
Hugh Miller, who worked in the quarry ; Mr.  Ross, who built the St. Ann
s Bridge, was also his school-mate in Cromarty.

Mr. Sutherland s brother-in-law conducted a large military tailoring
establishment, and it was here that Daniel learned his trade. He came to
Canada in 1842 and settled in St. Andrews, opening a shop in the brick
building opposite the hotel ; he afterwards built the house in which he
has since resided. Mr. Sutherland was married April nth, 1852, to Mary
Ann, daughter of the late Robert Simpson. Mrs. Suther land died in 1887,
leaving two sons and one daughter; the youngest son, William E.  D.,
died 1894 in Pasadena, Cal, whither he had gone hoping to benefit his
health, leaving a widow and one child. He was interred in St. Andrews
cemetery.  eldest son, Robert S., is a commercial traveller in Chicago,
and the daughter, Catherine Mary, is living in St. Andrews with her
father. Mr. Sutherland is one of the respected citizens of St. Andrews ;
owing to advanced age he has retired from business.

WILLIAM CAUTION, from Perthshire, Scotland, came to Canada in 1843 5 lie
was a cabinetmaker by trade, also a carpenter. In 1851 he was married
in Point Fortune to Agnes, daughter of the late John Pitcairn, and the
sirae year he settled in St. Andrews. He opened a cabinet shop here,
and did an extensive business as

contractor and builder, employing many men and several apprentices. He
died in March, 1891, aged 70 ; his widow still lives here.

They had four children three sons and one daughter, but only one son and

daughter are now living.

Alexander, the son, residing herewith his mother and sister, still

prosecute? the business followed by his father.

W. J. MORAW, second son of John Moraw, was born 2 4 th July, 1856,
in Center- ville. He remained on the farm until twenty-five years
of age, when he started in the cheese business with Thomas Ross, at
Point Fortune, and remained with him a year.  He has continued in the
business ever since, and has bought one factory and bull!  four in this
county. Mr. Moraw has also a creamery in this village, which has been
in operation four years. He was married September yth, 1887, to Mary,
daughter < Martin puncheon, of Beech Ridge. They have one son and
one daughter.

JOSEPH ROBINSON, from the County of Antrim, Ireland, came to St. Andrews
in I845 he was married 2 3 rd July, 1852, to a widow, Mrs. Rlizabeth
Colligham.  have had five children three sons and two daughters. Joseph,
one of the when seven years old met a sad death by the destruction of
the St. Andrews 1 an account of which is given elsewhere.

Margaret, the eldest daughter, was married isth June, 1887, to John
Hend< abrass finisher by trade, of Montreal. He died i 4 th May,
1891, leaving one child, a


boy three years old. Mrs. Henderson resides in a fine, commodious,
brick dwelling, beautifully located on the bank of the North River,
where she ably entertains summer guests.

JAMES MIDDLETON was born gth April, 1809, in Cortachy, at the county seat
of Lord Monboddo, Monboddo House, parish of Forden, Kinkardineshire,
Scotland.  After leaving school, he received thorough training in
agriculture and arboriculture, and was yet a young man when he managed
these departments of an estate at Castle Sample. Mr. Middleton left
Glasgow in March, 1842, on the sailing ship " Mohawk," and with his wife
and family reached Montreal after seven weeks. A short time after his
arrival, he took the position of superintendent of Judge Reid s house,
property and grounds, on the spot where Sohmer Park now stands, remaining
here until 1848.  He then came to St. Andrews and farmed for five years,
after which he entered into the management of the late Mr. William Ltinn
s estate, taking charge of it twenty- three years. His reputation as an
arboriculturist may be somewhat appxrent from

the fact that, from 1847 unt il ne ceased active labors, he had gained
650 prizes. In grape culture, he almost invariably won first prizes,
and had no superior in Canada.  He was one of the earliest members of
the Montreal Horticultural Society, and was one of their judges for many
years. Mr. Middleton possessed much ingenuity in handicraft, and some
articles of furniture made in his spare moments especially a finely
carved clock and a centre-table, which was made from 1500 different
pieces of wood, and a diminutive summer house are well worth seeing.

He died at his home in St. Andrews, 2nd November, 1895, leaving a widow,
one son, Mr. J. Middleton of Point Fortune, and a daughter, Mrs. Smile,
of Montreal.


The men who in past years were for some time connected with mercantile
busi ness in this place have already been mentioned, as well as
Mr. Devvarand Mr.  \V:i!es, who are still trading here.

Besides the stores of these two gentlemen, which are of long standing,
especially that of Mr. Wales, which is almost coeval with the village,
there are the stores of Thomas Lamb, J. H. LaFond, the grocery of
Chas. Ladouceur, and the tin shops of

Dorion and Ladouceur.

THOMAS LAMB is a son of the late Wm. Lamb, noticed in the history of
Point Fortune. He came to St. Andrews as clerk for the late Charles
Wales, in 1856, and remained in this position five years. In 1866,
he entered into partnership with Alex ander Dewar, and in 1877 became
a partner of Charles Wales, jr., in the present store of Mr. Wales. In
1886, he commenced trade on his own account, in the store occu

pied for some years by the late Thomas Meikle, and where he still
continues the

business. Having the unqualified respect and confidence of the public,
he receives a good share of public patronage. He is also Postmaster,
having been appointed to the position in 1870. He joined the Rangers in
1862, at their organization, and was


promoted to the rank of and Lieut, in 1866. to that of Captain in 1870,
and to the rank of Major in 1880 ; he has been Paymaster of the Battalion
since 1870.

He was married July i5th, 1869, to Margaret S., daughter of the late Chas.
Wales, sr. Like her husband, Mrs. Lamb is well known for her interest and
activity in Temperance and Christian work, and esteemed for her deeds
of kindness and benevolence. Their only son, W. H. Lamb, is assistant
in the stort hnd post office.

THOMAS MEIKLE, mentioned above, was for several years a prominent man
in this place. On his monument in the cemetery is the following:

" Thomas Meikle a native of Glasgow was for many years Postmaster and
merchant at St. Andrews. He perished with his aged father by the burning
of the

steamer Montreal near Quebec, 26th June, 1857. He was 45 years of age."

F. H. LAFOND is comparatively a newcomer, having opened his store in
this place in 1893. He is a native of St. Hermas, and after spending
some years as clerk in Montreal, he began trade in Lachute in 1887,
where he remained till he came to St. Andrews. He has quite an extensive
stock of merchandise, and seems to be pros pering in his business.

The store he occupies is that built and occupied so long by Mr. Guy
Richards.  Frank Farish also was a merchant in the same store for n"iany
years. He took quite a prominent part in local affairs, and was secretary
of the School Board for some time.  Some of his letters, which are still
extant, show elegant penmanship, and are also very c orrectly written. It
was he who built the present dwelling of Mr. McKay, advocate.

CHARLES LADOUCEUR who has a grocery here, has been in the grocery business
and a successful dealer in live stock for the past twenty years.

HLRCULE LADOUCEUR is proprietor of a bakery, which he has successfully
conducted for many years. His father, Joseph Ladouceur, came to
St. Andrews from the county of Two Mountains nearly sixty years ago,
and died here about 1867.  He had four sons and six daughters who grew up.

Hercule, the third son, spent several years of his youth on the Ottawa,
after which he. found employment for four years in the States. Returning
in 1865, he took up the mason s trade, which he followed a number of
years, erecting, besides the brick hotel of John Kelley in Carillon,
many other good buildings in this part of the coun try. As Mr. Ladouceur
has always been inclined to work, whenever he had oppor tunity, during
the winters of the period when he followed the mason trade, he was em
ployed in different \vays, and sometimes as clerk in a store.

In 1878, he opened a bakery, with which he is still engaged. He was
married in March, 1864, to Ksther Haspeck, whose grandfather, from
Germany, was one of the early settlers of St. Andrews. Of their four
children, three are married.  Mr.  Ladouceur has been Municipal Councillor
nine years, and Churchwarden three.

\V. A. LaFond, who came from St. Hermas in 1894, is the only barber in
the village.


EDWARD DORION was one of the active business men of St. Andrews in
the generation past. He came here a young man from St. Eustache, and
married a Miss Ladouceur of this village. He was by trade a tinsmith,
and followed this through life, much of the time doing quite a prosperous
business. He had four sons and two daughters that grew up.

Ferdinand, his third son, learned the trade of his father, and has
followed it very successfully for many years. During the last decade,
he has employed several hands in the work of furnace setting, plumbing,
roofing, etc. His house is one of the most attractive in the village,
and his shop contains a good stock of tinware and a variety of stoves and
other hardware. He was for several years a member of the local Council,
but. owing to the demand of his business, he declined further service.
He was married 8th April, 1861, to Margaret Hartigan ; they have had six
sons and seven daughteis, but three of the former are deceased. Their
eldest daughter is a nun of Providence of the Sacred Heart at Great
Falls, Montana.

St. Andrews has not been fortunate in her efforts to obtain a railway
the first

one which was to have passed through this parish never having approached

than Carillon.

In 1891, the Parish Council granted a bonus to C. X. Armstrong, for
the construc tion of a railway from Lachute to some point on the Ottawa
near St. Andrews, and a railway station within half a mile cf the iron
bridge. It was supposed that this would form part of a railway crossing
the Ottawa not far from St. Andrew?, and thence

running to some point in Ontario. The road was constructed from Lachute
to St.  Andrews, but the other terms of the contract were not fulfilled
; and as the amount of travel and freight to be carried between the two
places is insufficient to pay the expense of running a train and keeping
the road in repair, especially in winter, there are only a few months
in the year at present when St. Andrews has railway accommo dations.

A daily stage conveying the mail runs between Carillon and Lachute
via St.  Andrews; this line has been in operation for the last fifteen
years under the proprie torship of Magloire Campeau of this village,
who also has a contract for carrying the mail.

The Town Hall, a fine, brick building, was erected in 1881.

Members of the Municipal Council of 1855 the first under the present
municipal system ; the meeting was held in Jones " white house " :-

Robert Simpson, John Hoy, Carillon; Edw. Jones, jun., La Baie ; John
Bur- wash, River Rouge ; John McPhie, Fred. H. McArthur, La Baie j
Thomas Jefferson,

Lachute Road. Robert Simpson was elected Mayor, and Thomas Wanless
appointed Secretary-Treasurer.

Among the different enterprises which have been started in St. Andrews was

that of a newspaper, The Progress, which was first published in 1873,
edited by

- Chambers ; Thomas Dorion, proprietor. Mr. Chambers subsequently was con-


nectecl with The Chronicle (Quebec). During the early part of its
existence The

"vl was Conservative in politics, but afterwards it came under the
eduonal ement of R. P. de La Ronde, advocate, when it became poht.ca
ly .denufied w it Mho Ttral party. It appears to have been a lively,
well conducted, loca, sheet ; but owing to the removal of the printer,
its publication ceased 876

* * *

A Model School was established in St. Andrews about .85, Adam Walker
.the first teacher. For some reason this school did no. prosper m after
years A Gove" ment grant was withdrawn, and the school closed , ,876. t
was e nened n "59,, in a substantial, commodious brick school butldmg,
smce whtch t, been in a flourishing condition ; many good scholars havmg
been fined here for belt mstitutionsof learning, the counting-room,
or other busrness vocauons The Cher, who have officiated since the
opening of the school m ,89. are as Inow - 1 Proctor, A. E. Rivard,
Thos. E. Townshend and F. W. Vaughan

FRED K,CK W. VAUGHAN, the present Principal, was born ,n Coattcook Stan-
stead County Que., in 1875. He attended the village school m Avers rial,

, place his par nts moved in ,876. Until fifteen years of age, h,s

duca, on was a quired at Hatley Model School and Coaticook Academy
from the

u" which he graduated, and matriculated at McGill. He recetved tus Academy

& 1 in .894, a d has since been teaching in St. Andrews wr.h a marked

"ce s the tandard of scholarship under his tnit.on havmg rn.ten.lly

Mr Varan s energy and ability give promise tha, he will be an .mportan,

10 n eo a separate school municipality in March, ,8,,, and the Model
and Elementary Schools arc taught in the same buildrag.

Mr Colin De-ar contributes the following history of the bridges :-

- -te marntenance of the bridge across the North River at St. Andrews
has alw.ys been a heavy tax upon the inhabitants, especially smce some
of the adjommg parishes were released from their liab.lity J confute ^
M, d . men _

The first bridge was erected m 1807 , it was a

d pimitive design, consisting of five spans, supported on four trestles,
and occupymg a much .owe? level than the present structure; as the
country was not then cleared up and drained, the spring freshets were
not so great.

THs bridge, with occasional repairs and renewing of portrons m whole o,
m par, supplied the wants of the inhabitants until r8 3 3, when a new
one was erected

^^r^tJSS.^t*- occurred, by which a man ,ost his life . i was caused by
two of the striken slipping off the trestles taktng a portron

he covering with them, leavmg a large open space, which, unfortunately was
le guarded. A tanner by the name of Daggett (who was the owner of the firs

annery ha. started working in St. Andrews) was coming home late on



night, and not knowing that part of the bridge had fallen down, fell
through the open space, striking his head on a boulder, and was killed. On
Sunday morning, there

was quite an excitement when his dead body was discovered by individuals
on their way to church. The testimony of at least two living witnesses
confirms the above facts, and places the date of the occurrence at
about 1817.

In 1832-33 a contract was given to a man by the name of Pierce, for
the con struction of a new bridge of larger dimensions and different
design, consisting of four spans resting on three cut stone piers and
abutments. The plan and specifications were drawn up by a well-known land
surveyor ; but they, unfortunately, exposed his ignorance of architecture,
as the specifications were in the main points very defec tive, and,
in consequence, the work was not well done.

The bridge was opened for traffic in the summer of 1833, an d in the
spring of 1837 a large portion of one of the piers was broken up by the
action of the ice and high water, causing the bridge to topple down. It
was temporarily repaired to allow traffic to be carried on, and in the
month of September a heavy trestle was substi tuted for the pier, and
with other necessary improvements and occasional repaife it stood until
the igth March, 1859, wnen it was swept away as before. A temporary

foot bridge was made by stretching three strong chains across the open
space, cover ing them with planks, where people could cross in safety ;
while a ferry above the mill dam, and another at McMartin s, served for
horses and carriages, until the bridge was ready for traffic on the 27th
August the same year.

It was not for any great length of time that the rate payers were
exempted from

further expense, as in the early part of March, 1863, a large portion of
the bridge was again swept away ; this time, unfortunately, attended with
loss of life, two young lads who were on it at the time being drowned. A
temporary structure for the con venience of people on foot was placed
opposite Mr. Duncan Dewar s and Mr.  Edward Jones , while the ferry was
again opened above the mill dam, and at Col.  De Hertel s for horses
and carriages. This arrangement continued until 1865, when a new bridge
of a more pretentious and different style of architecture was built by
Messrs. Moody of Terrebonne. It was supported on piers of close crib
work filled with stones, and strengthened overhead with short trusses,
and was opened to the public in September of that year, and lasted until
the present beautiful light iron structure was completed in 1885."

The present bridge was erected at an expense of $.10,200 ; the iron part
of the

structure costing $5,950, and the abutments and approaches forming the
balance of the cost.

The following, the writing of which was suggested by another letter in
The Star, was copied from that paper :

" Your reminiscences, of course, deal principally with the Rebellion, as
it existed in another part of the country from where I was living at the
time : but I have a distinct recollection of the events (being about 14
years of age) from reading the same in the public journals of the day, and
your account brings all these scenes very vividly back to my remembrance.


" I see that you mention the attack and burning of the village of
St. Benuit. I

may state in this connection, that seven or eight companies of Volunteers
from St.  Andrews and vicinity were there at that time, having been
ordered to meet those

coming from Montreal, as you relate. As you may not know why there were
so many

companies of Volunteers organized in St. Andrews, a short statement may
not be out of place. The village at that time was largely settled by
English-speaking people, not many French being among them ; but on two
sides the east and south were the French parishes of Cote St. Pierre and
Les Eboulies. In the latter place, they were red hot Patriots, meeting,
drilling and getting ready for the fray; and on a hill a short distance
from the Ottawa River, not far from St. Placide, on Point Aux Anglais,
they had formed a barricade or fort, with trees and brush, which would
have been of great service had a small number of men come against
them. Early in the

month of November, 1837, a courier came galloping up to St. Andrews with
the intel ligence that the Patriots were preparing to make a raid on the
village and country adjoining. We well knew they meant to plunder, burn
and kill ; and well do I rttiember hearing him cry out, They are in the
Bay ; will be here in a short time !  Anything you have put it out of the
way ! etc. In less than an hour, all who were able were marching into the
village, and such a crowd ! Among two or three hun dred men, there were
not even fifty fowling pieces. The remainder were armed with pitchforks,
clubs, broken scythes, etc., and nothing but an overruling and kind
Providence saved us from attack. If they had come on, as was intended,
they would have had their own way, as there was not sufficient force with
suitable arms to stop them. There was at that time a small detachment of
the 24th Regiment stationed at Carillon, under the command of Capt. Mayne,
who supplied a few old, flint- lock muskets ; and with these, all the
roads leading out of the village were guarded, night and day. Companies
of Volunteers were formed as quickly as possible, so that by

the lothor 1 2th of December seven or eight companies were regularly
enrolled, armed and drilled, and, as already stated, were marched to
Grand Brule, according to orders from headquarters. The expedition was
not attended by any loss of life, the Patriots wisely keeping out of the
way, but it was attended with a great deal of hardship and exposure to
the rigors of a Canadian winter. Owing to inadequate clothing and want
of proper food and shelter, many of them were not the better of that
trip for many a day. A few of the companies were disbanded and allowed
to return to their homes, to be ready, if wanted, at a moment s notice;
the rest were kept in barracks and thoroughly drilled, so as to be ready
in case of another outbreak, which, happily, did not occur in our pait
of the country. I think the few remaining Volunteers of that period

who took up arms to defend their country are entitled to some compensation
for service which ought to have been acknowledged long ago. I have no
personal interest in this movement. My father and two brothers who took
an active part in it have long since passed away to the silent majority
; but I have an old friend who was among the first to join the ranks,
and on his account, as well as on that of others, I should like to see
them paid a small sum in cash, to sustain their declining years.

" Yours truly,


Cote du Midi and the Bay.

The above localities are in the parish of St. Andrews, between the
River Rouge Settlement and the Ottawa, Cote du Midi being, as its name
indicates, a hill or

ridge of land lying north of the Bay Settlement ; the latter settlement
is generally designated as "The Bay," bordering, as it does, on a very
pretty bay formed by the Ottawa.

Though the land is considerably diversified in both these localities,
and the roads hilly, there are some fine farms which are comparatively
level, and the scenery in certain parts is romantic. The farm of Charles
Hunter, a prominent and respected citizen on the Bay road, with its neat
buildings, is attractive, and another large one adjoining it, owned by
A. C. Robillard, one of the ex-Municipal Councillors of the parish. "
Glencoe," the estate of Mr. John McGowan, the old homesteads of the Hydes,
Biirwashes and Albrights are all valuable farms located at the Bay.
"Silver Heights," and ihe farms of John McMartin and Archibald Graham,
are among the most attractive and valuable estates at Cote du Midi.

CAPTAIN JOHN WAINWRIGHT of the Royal Navy, came to Canada with his
family in 1833. He was born in Wickham, Hampshire, England, 3rd May,
1800, his father also being a captain in the Royal Navy. When he was
only eight years

of age, his father took him on his ship to India ; but while there,
he was ordered to proceed up the Persian Gulf, and thinking that the
mission might be attended with danger, he sent his son back to England on
an East Indiaman. Soon after this, he was sent to a Naval School, from
which he entered the service as midshipman, and passing the different
grades of promotion, in time, secured a Lieutenant s commission.

While holding this rank, he sailed with Captain (subsequently Admiral)

who was sent, in the interests of science, on an expedition to the Pacific
and Arctic oceans. On this voyage they came near a small island in the
Pacific, which some

of the young devotees of science insisted on visiting. A heavy surf
rendered the approach to it dangerous, and their boat was smashed in
the effort to land, though all reached the shore in safety. But now a
difficulty arose as to the manner of returning to the ship. One boat
only remained, and this the Captain positively forbade his men to lower,
fearing that this, too, would be ruined ; but he gave orders to construct
a raft with which to bring the men off, and when it was finished, Lieut.
Wainwright, with some others, went to the relief of their stranded
friends. They had to remain for some time a little distance from the
shore before all were embarked, and mean while Lieut. Wainwright,
stripped to the waist, had to stand in the water exposed to a boiling
surf. The exposure was more than his constitution was able to bear,
and he was soon seized with a severe illness, from the effects of which
he never entirely recovered. Eventually, he was awarded a medal for the
part he took in this expe


Not long after his return to England, he was married to Elizabeth Powers,
daughter of Samuel Powers, Esq., of Harley street, London, and soon
afterward he


sai ed for the Mediterranean in His Majesty s ship " Melville." Within a
year however, he was again taken ill from the same cause, it was believed,
that gave rise to his former illness, and invalided home. During his
absence at sea, 2oth December, 1829, his eldest son, John Wroughton, was
born. Though he received his commis sion as captain, Mr. Wainwright, on
account of the debilitated condition of his health never accepted command
of a vessel. In 1833, through the influence of Commissary C. J. Forbes,
who was then in England, and of whose wife Mr. Wainwright was cousin,
he came with his family to Carillon. After remaining a year with Mr.
Forbes he purchased of Archie McVicar, a Nor Wester, for ^roor, the farm
of 400 acres known as " Silver Heights," which is now owned by his son
John Wroughton Wain wright.

This spot, which he chose for his home, possessing naturally rare
features of beauty, he adorned in many ways which characterized it as
an English homestead.

Possessed, as he was, of English ideas with regard to social status, and
having been a naval officer, it is not surprising that he should have
formed one of an exclusive circle and been regarded an aristocrat. But
whatever may have been his ideas of social rank, he performed the duties
of Justice of the Peace, for many years, with strict impar tiality,
careful consideration, and to public approval.

James Francis Ballard, the youngest brother of Captain Wainwright,
became Rear Admiral in the Royal Navy, and was in command of the "
Black Prince," a vessel which formed the escort of the Great Eastern
" when she was laying the Atlantic cable. In 1851, Captain Wainwright
visited the Great Exhibition in London, and later he removed with his
wife and daughters to England, where he died; Mrs.  Wainwright died in
1881. They had six children two sons and four daughters!  They were John
Wroughton, Emily, Harriet Forbes, Mary Elizabeth, Charlotte* Catherine,
and George Hadden Richmond.

Emily, the second child, died at the age of 8 ; Mary Elizabeth, the
third, was married to Lieut. Penethorne, of the Royal Artillery, but
died soon afterward.  George H., unmarried, is a broker in Montreal.

JOHN W., the eldest of the children, has always remained on the homestead;
content with the society of his family and with the enjoyment of his
rural abode, he has had little to do with public affairs. He was married
May nth, 1864, to Amelia Elizabeth Caroline Carter, daughter of the late
Dr. Edward Carter, of Sorel, P.Q.

^ They have had seven children three sons and four daughters. Of their
sons, . E. R. is employed in the Merchants Bank at Calgary; J. G. R.,
who graduated with honors from McGill in 1892, is a civil engineer in
Hamilton, Ont., andS.  F. A.  is a student in the Medical Department of
McGill University.

FINLAY MACMARTIN was born in Perthshire, Scotland, in 1812, and came
to Canada with his father, Donald MacMartin, in 1827, and settled in
Grand Foamier, near St. Eustache. The following interesting letter,
written by his sister, was

copied from the British Whig (Kingston), of October 28, 1890 :


"THE REBELLION 7 OF 1837-38.

" MONTREAL, October 23, .

"To THE EDITOR, _ My brother, Finlay MacMartin, served as a Volunteer
under Captain Globensky, of St, Eustache, County of Two Mountains. He was
at the battle of St. Eustache, i4th December, 1837, and was one of the
party finding the body of ihe rebel leader, Dr. Chenier, shot down trying
to escape, his followers having taken refuge in the Catholic church,
hoping thus to save their lives. I well remember my brother s tale of the
exciting times they had, while waiting at the village of St. Martin (nine
miles from St. Eustache). for the ice to become strong enough to enable
soldiers to transport their cannon and ammunition across the Riviere
du Chene, a branch of the Ottawa. The Regulars were commanded by Sir
John Colborne, who afterwards became Governor-General of Canada. After
imprisoning all who surrendered, the troops fired the church and
village of St. Eustache, then marched to the village, twelve miles west,
St. Benoit, another stronghold of the rebels. Here lived Dumouchelle,
a noted rebel, father of the late Senator Dumouchelle, of Two Mountains,
Although only six years old at the time, I well remember passing through
St. Benoit, when it was a heap of smouldering ruins. My mother, being very
nervous, left home with the younger members of the family, to reside with
an uncle at St. Andrews, where the English population was more numerous;
my two elder brothers were enlisted as Volunteers. My father, then over
sixty years of age, ;ind a farmer, located in the very centre of a rebel
community, was placed in a trying position. He could hardly leave home,
and by remaining would be forced to join the rebels, or be put under
arrest by them. He and my only surviving brother, James MacMartin,
now living on the homestead at St. Eustache, betook themselves

to the woods, then pretty dense, and made dismal by the howling
wolves, which they kept off by burning fires day and night. A.S the
night advanced, they would venture out as near home as they deemed
safe, then my sisters, aged respectively eighteen and twenty, who had
brave y volunteered to remain at home, would set out a signal, when it
was safe for them to come to the house. My father finally got things
satis factorily arranged, such as putting all his threshed wheat into
barrels, and concealing it where the rebels never thought of looking
for it. There was not much to conceal, as threshing was a slow process
in those days. All had to be done with the flail, an implement of which
the farmers of to-day know little. He placed his highly prized gun (after
taking it apart) in an old metal pot, and buried it in the earth. No vile
rebel would ever get that into his hands. He then slatted off, accompanied
by my brother, who was then a young boy, to rejoin mother and family at
St. Andrews.  They had to keep under cover of the wood?, as they were
sure to be arrested if they ventured on the highway. The hardships and
sufferings they encountered were terrible, wending their way through
snow and" half-frozen swamps, up to their knees in water. My brother
was taken ill with inflammatory rheumatism shortly after, and has been
a martyr to that disease in a chronic form ever since. After wandering for


two days and a night, they reached Lichute (instead of St. Andrews)
in the early part of the second night, well nigh exhausted by fatigue,
hunger and cold. They got a hearty welcome from the loyal-hearted
Scottish farmers, who attended to their wants, and sent them on their
way rejoicing to St. Andrews. Of the sisters who remained at home and
attended to the cattle, the youngest. Mrs. Alex. Patton, County Bruce ?
Ontario, is still living; the other, Mrs. Maxwell, mother of John Maxwell,
barrister and Crown Attorney for Prescottand Russell, also of Robert
Maxwell, carriage builder, of Kden Grove. Bruce County, Ontario, died
ten years ago. Finlay MacMartin, whose service as a Volunteer is above
recorded, died sixteen, and his brother died nine years ago.

" Shortly before the battle of St. Eustache, a party of rebels came to
ov.r home^ while my sisters were alone, and asked where my father and
brothers were. They were very civil, with the exception of one, who
shoved his old rusty gun through the window, for which he was sharply
reprimanded by his leader. They asked for fire

arms, money, etc. ; not getting this, they went to the stables, took the
best horse, harness, and an old traineau, for sleighs were not in use
in those days. From the sheep pen, they took of the fattest. Returning
to the house, they gave my sisters a .  note to the effect that payment
would be made when Mie Republic of Canada was |

declared and established.

"The leader of this party, named Jerod, was recognized by my sisters
on the morning of the b.-wtle of St. Eustache, miking his escape on
horseback, without

saddle or bridle, but a halter made of his military sash.

Respectfully yours,


Finlay MacMartin came to Cote du Midi in 1848, and settled on a farm which
he bought from Archibald McCallum, one of the first settlers here. He was
married, April Qth, 1850, to Christi.ia, daughter of Donald McKeracher,
of Dalesville, the first settler of that place. They had four sons and
four daughters. Mr. MacMartin died nth December, 1874. age 1 sixty-two ;
Mrs. MacMartin still survives him, living on the old homestead. Of the
children, Margery A., the eldest, married to W.G.  Cameron, lives in
Ontario ; Jean O., married to M. L. Foley, in British Columbia ; Maggie
L., married to J. E. Playfair. in Ontario ; and Eugenia, who is a teacher,
is also in Ontario.  James A. P., the second son, learned his trade as
bridge builder, and was a contractor in that line; he was last heard
from when in New Mexico, six years ago. Geo.  D., after spending four
years with Mr. Chas. Wales of St. Andrews, in the mercantile business,
went to Montreal and spent six years part of this time in travelling
in the same line of business. In 1891, he went to Chicago, and now has
charge of the office in that city of J. W. Goddard & Sons, wholesale
woollen merchants of New

York. While in Montreal, he was a member of the Victoria Rifles, and
was cham pion shot of Quebec for two years. Colin B., the youngest son,
lives at home.


JOHN F. K., eldest surviving son, was born in Cote du Midi. It was his
inten tion to prepare for business or a profession ; but the father
dying when the family was young, it became necessary for him to take the
management of the farm, in which he is still engaged. Being a teetotaler
from infancy, he early became an active

temperance worker, taking a prominent part in attempting to secure the
passing of the Dunkin and Scott Acts, and also by working as a member of
the Sons of Temper ance, I. O. G. T., and Royal Templars of Temperance,
having filled the leading offices of the different societies for various
terms in succession. He was Master of St. Andrews L. O. A., No. 52,
for a number of years, and was also an officer of the County L. O. A. of
Lachute. He became a member of the active militia of Canada at an early
age, and served as a private and non-commissioned officer ; in 1880, he
went to a Military school, and, having obtained a certificate, was given
the commission of Second Lieutenant in No. i Company, Eleventh Battalion,
A. R., and three years later, the commission of First Lieutenant ;
he is also a commander of the Colors party.

He early took an active part in religious matters, became a member in full
com munion of the Presbyterian Church, and, a few years later, was elected
to the Elder ship. Since the introduction of the Patrons of Industry,
he has been President of one of the Associations, and has successfully
organized a number of Associations through out the County and Province.

In the summer of 1817, ALEXANDER MCGREGOR, of Breadalbane, Perthshire,
Scotland, came to Canada, and found employment at Chute au Slondeau,
Ontario.  On the last day of the following April, he crossed the Ottawa
on the ice, and made his way to Cote du Midi and purchased the two
lots now owned and occupied by his son John. He was a weaver by trade,
and with that thrift characteristic of his country men made a hand loom
earn many a penny during the long winter evenings and days

when he could not wage war on the forest with which much of his land
was covered.  Owing to the scarcity of cloth manufactories, his loom was
an implement of great utility to his neighbors, for whom he wove many
of the fabrics then in common use.  In the Rebellion of 1837, ne an<
^ ms eldest son, Alexander, promptly enlisted in the Company commanded
by Captain Robert Simpson.

He had eight children, but only two of the sons, Alexander and John,
respected citizens, live in this section. The latter, who lives on the
homestead, is a prosperous farmer.

The history of THOMAS HYDE, whose descendants are numerous in this
section, is replete with romantic incidents. His home was in Exeter,
England, and his father was a captain in the Royal Navy.

Thomas had spent some years on the ship of Admiral Rodney, and in company
with a young friend named Ramsey he left the service and came to New
York. Both

had money supplied them by their parents, and they purchased a stock of
goods, and went to the North West to trade with the Indians. But they
met different tieatment from what they had anticipated, and learned the
treachery and barbarity of the


savages ; they were robbed of their goods, and soon saw that their lives
were in danger. Hyde made good his escape, but Ramsey was captured,
bound, and then, according to the custom of the Indians, was subjected
to torture. While lying on his back, stripped, his tormentors amused
themselves by pricking his body with their knives, and then wiping the
blood from them on his lips. But his revenge was at

hand. They had been drinking, from the effects of which they were soon
in deep slumber, leaving him, as they supposed, securely bound. When he
saw their uncon.  scious condition, however, by great exertion he freed
himself from the thongs, seized a tomahawk, dispatched fourteen of his
captors, and escaped. He finally reached

England, but not receiving the welcome from his family which he desired,
and induced by that love of adventure which young men having once
experienced, seldom abandon, he colored his red hair, came to America,
and once more mingled with the Indian^.  His disguise, however, was not
so complete as to prevent recognition, but by some means, of which we
are ignorant, he gained the esteem of the Indians, married a squaw 5
and was granted by her tribe a large tract of land in the vicinity of
the Great Lakes.  Some years subsequently he corresponded with his old
friend Thomas Hyde, who was then ?t St. Andrews, and made him liberal
offers of land, if he would go out and settle near him; but having too
vivid recollections of his former experiences among the Indians, Hyde
declined the tempting offer. After escaping from the Indians, Hyde went
to Michilimackinac, and was there employed by the superintendent of Indian

affairs, as clerk in the Indian Store. While there, he married Margaret
Anderson, a young woman who had been indentured, when quite small, by
her mother to the superintendent, and whose term of indenture had now
expired. Her father lived, at the opening of the American Revolution,
on the Susquehanna River; and being an U. E. Loyalist, his property was
confiscated, and he came to Canada in com pany, it is said, with two
families named Ogilvy and Glassford both having been

exiled by the same fate and whose descendants are no-v prominent citizens
of Montreal. These loyalists were at Michilimackinac, and the celebrated
Indian chief, Brant, was also there at the same time.

Brant, knowing Mr. Anderson, borrowed of him a sum of money, which
was counted and delivered in presence of a number of Indians. Whether
incited to the crime by the sight of the gold, or whether they were
led to it by some other motive, is unknown ; but soon afterward, they
shot Mr. Anderson between the crevices of the logs in the house where
he resided. Being unwell at the time, he was lying on a

couch when the dastardly act was commuted. Mrs. Anderson being thus
left a widow with her young children, was prevailed on to indenture
her eldest child, Margaret, to the superintendent, and it was to her,
now arrived at wominhood, that Thomas Hyde was wedded.

A few years after this marriage, some dissatisfaction having arisen
between the

superintendent an< i the Government, he left his position, and though
he offer.- 1 Hyde the u?e of his house, furnished, if he would re-main at
Michilimackinac, on account of his dislike and distrust cf the Indians,
he declined the offer, and with his wife and


two children came with the superintendent to Montreal. There he was
introduced by the superintendent to Sir John Johnson, Seignior of
Argenteuil, these two gentle men being cousins ; and by Sir John he was
ind ced to purchase two lots of land at St. Andrews Bay, to which place
he removed about 1792.

In the war of 1812, he became Captain of a Miliiia Company, and his
eldest son,

who was born at Michilimackinac in 1789, was Sergeant of the same
Company. In 1815, they were ordered with the Company to Montreal, but
before arriving there

peace was declared, and they returned home.

Mr. and Mrs. Hyde, whose early life had been one of so much romance and
sorrow, lived here until their death. They h a d twelve children ; George,
the eldest, bought a farm at the Bay about a mile from the homestead ; he
also had twelve children, who grew up; he died in 1887. Jane, the eldest
daughter, born at Michili mackinac, married Martin Albright ; she died
in 1879. Sarah, the second daughter, married Edward Jones. Alexander,
another son, bought a farm and settled on the River Rouge; he had eight
children, three sons and five daughters; his own son George, who remained
on the homestead, and still owns it, has recently purchased the fine
old homestead of John McMartin. Charles, another son of Thomas Hyde, pur
chased a farm on the River Rouge near his brother Alexander ; but he had
no children.  Nelson, the youngest son of this old family, never married,
and remained on the home stead till 1880, when he sold it, and now lives
in the village of St. Andrews.  He is another of the octogenarians in this
section, who are witnesses, not only of the salu brity of the climate,
but of the benefit resulting from industry and temperance.

JOHN CAMERON came from Fort William, Inverness-shire, Scotland, and
after living a year in Lachine, came to Cote du Midi about 1802. He was a
Presbyterian, and the first, or one of the first, who preached hereabout
; the reader will find him alluded to in Dr. Paterson s sketch of the
Presbyterian Church, St. Andrews, as one of the early workers for the
Christian cause; his sermons were delivered in Gaelic.  As there were so
many of the same name in this section, he was distinguished by the name
of Preacher Cameron," and one of his sons in turn by the same cognomen.

Mr. Cameron took up the lots of land now owned by his grandson John. While
he was away six weeks in Lachine, on duty as a Volunteer in the war of
1812, a large number of his sheep died from cold and starvation.

His eldest son Hugh, who was in Capt. Simpson s Company in 1837-38,
lived on the homestead. He had seven sons and six daughters ; he died
about 1867.

John and Alexander are the only two living in this section ; Hugh,
a farmer, lives in Ottawa.

SIMEON LERov was the earliest pioneer of whom we have received any record
; he located here as early as 1785.

At the opening of the American Revolution, he, with two or three
brothers, lived in Genesee County, N.Y. ; but their loyalty to the
British Government for

bidding their casting in their lot with those who had thrown off their
allegiance, they felt that safety demanded a removal. Simeon first went
to No/a Scotia, and afie r


spending a few years there, and in other places, he cams to St. Andrews
and settled on the River Rouge, on land now owned by John McGregor and
Stephen Burwash.

At the time the LeRoys left Genesee County, haste prevented their making
any effort to sell their property, hence they left all, glad to escape
only with their lives.  The country then being new, and land worth but
little, they probably did not regnrd the sacrifice they were making as a
great one. Since then, however, the same land owing to the rapid growth
of villages and cities has become very valuable, and,

not many years ago, an effort was made to find the heirs to the real
estate vacated by the LeRoys. An agent visited this section of Canada,
and endeavored to induce descendants of the LeRoy brothers to Ijok up
their claims to the property ; but

believing they had no right to the improvements which had been mide
thereon, and regarding it of little value when their ancestors abandoned
it, they, conscientiously, decided to have nothing to do with the matter.

Mr. Simeon LeRoy lived on the land where he first settled on the River
Rouge till his death ; he had three sons William, Simeon, Henry, and
two daughters Sophia and Hannah.

The homestead was divided between William and Sim^o;i ; Henry bought the
lot now owned by John Me Martin. He sold out not many years subsequently,
and moved to East Hawkesbury, where he spent the remainder of his
days. William

was the only one who remained in this section. He married a daughter of
Martin Jones, an early pioneer at St. Andrew s Bay, and spent his life on
the horn - stead.  They had ten children five sons and five daughters ;
six of these three sons and three daughters settled in East Hawkesbury,
Ont., one son and two daughters in Montreal, and another son, Martin,
bought a farm on the Rivjr Rouge. He was married to Mary, daughter of
Malcolm McCallum, a worthy pioneer of this locality.  They had twelve
children eight sons and four daughters.

Mr. LeRoy died ist January, 1893; Mrs - LeRoy, ist November, 1889. Of
the children, six settled in the State of Michigan ; one daughter in
Manchester, N.  H. ; Malcolm, the eldest, in Calumet Island ; Archibald
C., and Miry, who married Martin LeRoy ; in Hawkesbury, Ont.

ALEXANDER is the only one who has remained in the neighborhood of
his birth.  He is one of the highly respected citizens of the parish,
whose counsel is sought in matters of moment to the municipality ;
and he has served it in the capacity of

Justice of the Peace for a decade, and as School Comnissio:ier about
the sanu time.  He married Hannah, a daughter of Henry Albright, in
187 i. They have three children jiving, and Osman Edgar, their eldest,
is a graduate of McGill and ha; obtained au A -ademy Diploma. Mr. LeRoy
has lately purchased the Harrington Estate.

The BURWASHES, of whom there are many in this section, are am >ng
the sober,

thrifty and industrious citizens who do credit to their country.

Nathaniel Burwash was born i:i Kent, England, and his f.ith-r dying while
he was very young, he was adopted by an u icle captain of a vessel in
the Merchant

Marine. He was employed several years on this vessel, during which time
it was


captured by the French and retaken by the English. Finally, he came to the
United States, married, and settled in Vermont ; but preferring to live
under the British flag, and induced by the cheapness of land, in 1 802,
he came with his eldest son to Canada to prospect for a location. They
had but one horse, and this they rode by turn?.  They came to Carillon,
and after surveying different lots, selected three on the River Rouge.

After returning home, Mr. Burwash learned that his mother had recently
died in England : and on going there, he received as legacy a sum of
money, which placed him in good circumstances, and enabled him to purchase
lands in Canada for his sons. Soon after returning from England, he moved
with his family to this section, and took up his residence on the River
Rouge, on land now owned by his great- grandsons, Martin Burwash and
Martin Albright. A few years subsequently, he divided this farm between
his two elder sons, Adam and Stephen, and purchased another tract which
forms a part of the farm long known as " Silver Heights."  Later, he
bequeathed this to his youngest son, James, who soon sold it to Archie
McVicar, a Nor Wester, and moved to Plattsburg, N.Y., where he died.

Mr. Burwash, sen., after seeing his sons well settled, made his home
with the eldest, Adam, and lived with him till his dea h, yth November,
183 r, at the age of 88.

Adam Burwash had ten children seven sons and three daughters, but only
one of these, John, is now living. Four grandsons of Adam Burwash are
clergymen, three of the Methodist and one of the Baptist denomination.

Stephen Burwash, the second son of Nathaniel Burwash, had eight children
who grew up six sons and two daughters. Of the sons, Matthew and John
still live here, the former in St. Andrew s village, though still owning
his farm : the latter, on the River Rouge. Mr. Bunvash died :8th January,
1887, aged 60.

Matthew, the third son of Nathaniel Burwash, whose farm given him by
his father was located at St. Andrew s Bay, was drafted in the war
of 1812, and though not a participant in that engagement, was within
hearing, marching toward it, when the battle of Chrysler s Farm was
fought. Two years previous to his death, he was awarded a pension by
the Government. He died i3th September, 1876, aged 87 ; Mis. Burwash,
in 1890, aged 95. He was married to Mary, daughter of Ewen Mel achlan,
who came from Scotland and settled on the River Rouge in 1802. Mr.
McLachlan sold his farm and purchase 1 one in Point Fortune, on which
his great

grandson, Victor Angus, now resides. One of his sons, Ewen, built the
mill at Arn- prior, which is now owned by his own so;is, Hugh F. and
Claude McLachlan.

The only children of Matthew Burwas\ sen., now living are Matia in St.
Andrews, and William at Southampton, Out. His son Matthew remained on the
homestead, and during his lifetime was one of the influential farmers
of this section. His widow still lives on the homestead, which is now
managed by her son Thoma^. a Municipal Councillor, and a member of the
St. Andrew s Troop. His brother Harry, also a member of the Troop, is
c erk in the store of Mr.  Banford, Lachute. Thomas, the fourth son of
Nathaniel Burwash, though very young, was drafted during the war of 1812,
but he soon died from the measles which he caught in camp.

River Rouge.

This settlement is an important and beautiful district of St. Andrews
parish, about five miles in length, commencing about a mile east of
St. Andrew s village, and terminating at the east line of the county. It
embraces two ranges of lots one on each side of the river called the
Rouge, a small stream about ten miles in length, rising in the county
of Two Mountains, and pursuing a devious course westerly into the North
river near St. Andrews village. The locality is elevated, affording an
extensive view, and as an agricultural section it is rarely equalled,
the farms being beautifully located and possessing a strong and productive
soil. Among the fine

farms here many of which are mentioned in the following sketches is that
of R.  P.  De La Ronde, barrister -af St. Andrews, which contains over
300 acres with good


WILLIAM S. TODD, eldest son of Andrew Todd, was born in 1852, in St.
Eustache; he was married in 1882 to Agnes, daughter of Joseph Rodgers. In

he bought his present farm, the old Peter McMartin place, on the north
side of the R iver Rouge.

WILLIAM McKwEN came from Perthshire to Canada in 1818 ; he was a
carpenter, and worked at his trade in Montreal for some time, then
came to River Rouge, and bought the farm now owned by James McOuat. He
was married in Montreal to Catherine McLean, of Breadalbane ; they had
thirteen children eight sons and five daughters. Donald, the eldest son,
born 1820, always remained in this locality.  In 1838, he became a member
of Captain Simpson s company of Volunteers, and was married the same
year to Elizabeth, daughter of Peter McMartin. They had three children,
one son and two daughters. Catherine, the eldest, married John McGivern,
and died in Montreal in 1877, leaving one daughter.

Margaret, the second daughter of Donald McEwen, married to J. C. Lock,
is now living in Montreal. William A., the son, remained at home ; he
was married June 4ih, 1884, to Catherine, daughter of Alfred Center, of
Centerville. They have four children, three girls and one boy. Mr. Donald
McEwen now lives on the old homestead, his father having retired from
active work.

JAMES, eldest son of WALTER McOuAT, was born 1818, in Montreal. In 1825,
he removed, with his father, to Lachute, and in 1844 was married to
Jeannette, daughter of the late John Christie, of the East Settlement ;
she died 251)1 August, 1888. In 1845, Mr McOuat came to the River Rouge,
and bought the farm now owned by Mitchell Fournier; he afterwards sold
this, and bought his present fine farm of Charles Albright. Mr. McOuat
has six children three of each sex. Of the

daughters, Elizabeth, the eldest, lives at home; Jane is the wife of
Nelson Albright;


and Jeannette, who married Gavin J. Walker of Lachute, is deceased. Henry,
the youngest son, remains at home; John R. is a merchant in Lachute ;
and James, the eldest, lives on the south side of the River Rouge ; he was
born 8th November, 1848, and removed to his present farm, Lots 28 and 29,
in 1876. On the 2ist November } 1888, he was married to Agnes, daughter
of the late James McAdam ; they have two children both boys. Mr. McOuat
has a good farm, fine brick residence, and all his surroundings betoken
enterprise and thrift. He circulated a petition lo have a Post Office
established here, and that object was accomplished in July, 1894. The
Post Office, bearing the name of Kilo wen, is at the east end of the
River Rouge settlement, and from it the mail is distributed twice a
week. Mr. George Giroux is postmaster.

PETER MC/MARTIN, whose ancestors were Highland Scotch, came to Canada from
Stirling, Scotland, with his family in 1830. They were eleven weeks making

the voyage across the Atlantic, being shipwrecked during their
passage. Mr.  M Martin first began work in Vaudreuil, remaining there
two years. He then came

to Carillon Hil 1 , and hired the farm of Peter McArthur, now owned
by Henry Bar clay, dying there at the end of eleven years. He had five
children, of whom two

daughters, Catherine and Elizabeth, and one son, Peter E., are no.v
living.  Catherine is the wife of Dr. Christie, M.P., of Lachute, and
Elizabeth is married to Donald McEwen. Peter McMartin, the sen, who was
born 1822, October 6th, came with the family to River Rouge in 1844,
and bought the farm now occupied by Andrew Doig. He afterwards sold ii,
and bought his present farm from Thomas Fournier.  He was married in 1849
lo Susan, daughter of the late William McEwen, and has seven children -
four girls and three boys. Peter James, the eldest son, after spending
several years in New York and Montreal, where he was employed three years
as shipping clerk lor William Johnson & Co., relumed home in 1890, and
is now man aging the farm ; Alfred, the second son, is living in Iowa;
and Norman, the youngest, is with Wm. Johnson & Co., Montreal. Margaret,
the eldest daughter, is in Montreal; Charlotte, a teacher, is at home;
while Caroline and Priscilla, the yo.mger daughters, who are both trained
nurses, are working at their professions the former in New York and the
latter in Massachusetts. Mr. McMarlin, their father, and the subject of
the latter part of iliis sketch, has taken an active i^art in military
affairs, having been Sergt.-Major of the 6th Cavalry Regiment, of which
he was a member thirty years, and he was in the Eastern Townships with
the Volunteers du-ing the Fenian Raid, 1870. He has been Municipal
Councillor of St. Ar.drews Parish for seven years.

WILLIAM YOUNG, a Scotchman, was an actor in the American Revolution,
and also served under Admiral Nelson, as sailor in a British man-of-war,
and was in the battle of Trafalgar. He retired from a sea-faring life,
and came from Stirling, Scot land, about 1825, first settling in Chatham;
he afterwards sold out here, and went to Huron County, Ontario, where
both he and Mrs. Young died. They had six sons and two daughters : of
these, Elizabeth, married to William Fraser of Bethany, and Thomas, the
second son, born 1821 in Stirling, Scotland, are the o >ly ones in this


I 49

country. In 1849 Thomas came to River Rouge, and bought hib present farm
; the same year he was married to Jeannette, daughter of John McOuat, of
"Burnside Farm," Upper Lachute ; she died 26th June, 1886. They had six
daughters and on a son, of whom all but one daughter are now living. Of
the others, Elizabeth and Ellen live in Kansas; the former being the
wife of Alexander Mustard, and the latter of James Mustard. Margaret, the
eldest, Janet, Mary and William live at home.  Mr. Young has a large farm,
owning one lot on the south side, and two on the north side of the river,
also one hundred acres bush land in the rear of Lachute.

NICHOLAS B. MCKERRICHER, a Highland Scotchman, was one of the early
settlers on the River Rouge, coming here about 1831. He was twice married
the first time

to Miss Clark; by this marriage they had one son, who went to Missouri
years ago, and has not been heard from since. Mr. McKerricher married the
second time Catherine McOuat, and became the father of three children,
of whom only one, Nicholas, is now living. The latter, born in 1843,
lias always remained here; he was married in 1885 to Mary, daughter of
Ewen Cameron, Cote du Midi ; she died five

weeks after the marriage. Mr. McKerricher s father having died soon after
the b rth of his son Nicholas, the latter lives with his mother on the
old homestead, where he has a fine farm of 270 acres. His grandfather,
Donald McKerricher, came to Canada in 1802, settled on the south side
of the River Rouge, and afterwards went to Cote du Midi.

JAMES GORDON came from Scotland to this place about 1835 > ne was
married to

Catherine, daughter of John McMartin ; they had thirteen children seven
sons and six daughters all of whom are living. Of these, Peter A., John,
and Ellen, the wife of Charles McGregor, live in this place. Mr. Gordon
died 5th March, 1886, at eighty- six years of age, and his wife died
2yth January, 1886, age J seventy-nine.  John, on of the sons, bought
his present farm on the north side of River Rouge from D.e Howard about
1875; his brother, Peter A., the youngest son, born February, 1847.,
lives on the old homestead. He was married in 1894 to Anna, daughter of
David Paul, of Bethany.

JAMES McADAM, from Ayrshire, Scotland, was one of the early settlers
in this place, coming here about 1849. He was mairied in I.achute to
Catherine, daughter of John Mclntyre ; they had ten children eight
sons and two daughters all of whom are living. Mr. McAdam died February
5111. 1884, aged seventy-three. Mrs.  McAdam died 25111 March, 1888. Of
the children, Agnes J., married to James ( .  McOuat, is living on the
south side of River Rouge; Alexander, Thomas A. and Elizabeth live on
the homestead, and the other sons are in the Western States.  David in
Kansas, William and Andrew in Nebraska, James and Quintin R. in C rado,
and John in California.

JOHN FRASERcame from Inverness-shire, Scotland, and was one of the first
settlers here. James, his second son, was married to Ann, daughter of
John McMartin, and

bought the farm now owned by Alexander, his son, and lived here until
his death,


which occuired 6th January, 1876. Mrs. Fraser died 2$th October,
1882. They had eight children, of whom three daughters and four sons
are now living; ; the

daughters and two sons, Angus and Alexander, being on the homestead,
while James and Samuel are, respectively, in California and Missouri.

DUNCAN MCGREGOR came from Perthshire, Scotland, and settled in the States.
On the breaking out of the Revolutionary War, being too loyal to fight
against King George, he came to Canada, and remained in or near Quebec
city until 1802. In this year he removed to River Rouge, and bought the
farm now occupied by his grandson, John McGregor. Mr. McGregor was a
Captain of the Militia during the war of 1812; he died in 1819. His son,
Gregor McGregor, remained on the home, stead; he was married to Susan
Robertson, and had five sons and two daughters; the latter are both
living; but of the sons, only one remains. Mr. McGregor died in

1850, aged fifty-two, and his wife died ten years later.

JOHN MCGREGOR, their son, now living here, has always remained on
the home stead. In 1848, he was married to Miss McArthur, daughter of
Archibald McArthur

of Dalesville ; they have eight sons and one daughter. Of the sons,
Gregor A., the eldest, is with Sheppard, Knapp & Co., and Arthur A. is
with Oppenheim & Sons, both in New York city ; Robert S. is studying
medicine in Columbia College, New

York; John R. is with J. C. Wilson & Co., Montreal; Peter C. is studying
for the ministry in McMaster University, Toronto ; Harold W. D. is with
Dobson Bros., New York; and Herbert D. and Norman F. are at home. Miss
McGregor is attend ing college in Montreal.

MALCOLM McCALLUM came from Argyleshire, Scotland, located in the River
Rouge Settlement in 1820, and bought the farm now owned by Mrs. David
McAdam.  Donald, his son, who was born in 1817, always took an active
part in the military affairs of the country, and in 1837 was a member
of Captain Jones Company.  After the Rebellion, he became a member
of the militia, and held the rank of Captain, when the soldiers were
disbanded. He was married to Mary, daughter of John McMartin,

of River Rouge, in 1850. They had two sons and five daughters, of whom
one son and three daughters are now living.

Beech Ridge.

This locality is in the eastern part of the parish of St. Andrews, and
received its name from the quantity of beech growing here at the time
of its early settlement. A post office was established here in 1878
; A. B. Bell, who settled here in 1851, being appointed post-master
a position he still holds. Mr. Bell has also won the esteem of his
fellow-citizens the fact being attested by his election as Municipal
Councillor of the Parish.

The first settlers here were Nichols, Jacob Minkler, William, Stephen
and David Bond, and another, whose surname was Borden. Nichols settled
where William Drew now lives ; Minkler on the lot now owned by William
and Malcolm Smith. A man named Ward Smith had located on land now owned by
G. W. Bond, whose brother, Stephen Bond, purchased it of Smith. In 1824,
the latter sold 200 acres of land to WILLIAM CATION, who for some years
previous had been in business at St. Andrews. He had been an officer in
the British army, and was a good linguist, being able to speak several
different languages. He rather astonished the inhabitants of this
section by the stock of merchandise which he brought, with the view of
engag ing in mercantile pursuits having, besides a lot of fancy goods,
a large stock of the finest and most expensive silks. A few years later,
deciding to engage in farming, he sold the land he had bought of Bond,
and purchased a tract about a mile further east, where his two sons,
George and James, now live. The old log house which he erected in the
days of his pioneer labors is still standing. He remained here till
his death, and his sons, who are among the industrious and respected
citizens of the locality, have continued the improvements he began,
developing good farms with corresponding comforts.

In 1825, the improvements made by Borden were purchased by THOMAS COOK,
who in company had been engaged in the jewelry business in London,
Eng. The firm was known as Cook & Walker, and they had a branch house
in Montreal. Mr.  Cook, however, did not live long after his removal to
Beech Ridge, for in 1832, while on a visit to Montreal, he was suddenly
seized with the cholera, and died. His son Thomas remained on the farm
at Beech Ridge, and cleared much of it.

In 1834, DONALD LOYNACHAN, from Argyleshire, Scotland, came to Canada,
and in 1837, bought a lot on the Ridge, now owned by John Webster of
St. Andrews.  There were only two acres cleared on it at the time of
his purchase, and Mr.  Loyna- chan, in common with the other pioneers,
endured many hardships in clearing it and providing for the wants of
his family. Bears were not numerous, but wolves made

frequent raids on the cattle and sheep, rendering it necessary that
the latter should be kept in folds, from which they were not released
till late the next morning.  Wood, as may be supposed, was not of much
value. Mr. Loynachan in those days bought


cow valued at $30, agreeing to pay thirty cords of hard maple wood for
her, and

deliver it at the village of St. Andrews. About twenty years after he came
here, one of his small boys, one day in summer, finding a large wasp s
nest in a stump near the house, and little knowing the consequences, set
it on fire. The wind soon blew the fire into another stump, which in turn
kindled others, from which the fire was com municated to the woods. It
continued to rage for six weeks, covering a large area of forest land,
destioying much timber, bark, shingles and cordwood. Mr. Loynachan

died in 1886 ; his widow still lives here.

ANGIS D. LOYNACHAN, one of his sons, an intelligent farmer, married
the daughter of Mr. r l homas C. Cook, and until recently lived at the
Ridge, his time being employed between the duties of farmer and that of
auctioneer ; he removed to Montreal about a year since.

Through the influence of Donald Loynachan, a friend of his, named
ANGUS LDYNACHAN, also originally fiom Argyleshire, Scotland, settled
at Beech Ridge in 1842. He arrived in Canada in 1837, and a short time
subsequently joined the Glengarry Volunteers. In the- fall of 1838, he
joined a Volunteer company of artilleiy in Montreal. On coming to the
Ridge, he purchased two lots of land, where he still reside-. Through
strict industry, integrity and good judgment, he added to his estate,
and provided a competency for his declining years. His wife died in 1889
and he now lives with his son-in-law, R. Morin.* He has had ten children,
six of whotr- four sons and ivvo daughters are m-w living.

The eldest . on, Duncan, and second, John B., are with the Shedden
Company, Montreal ; the third, Angus A., is in company with Ford, and they
are milk dea ers, 29 Coursol street, Montreal : the youngest, Donald H.,
is in company with Scriver, and they are wholesale commission merchants,
321 and 323 Commissioners street, in the same city. Mary Jessie second
in the family, now Mrs. Robert C. Morin lives on the old homestead ;
Flora Jane, fourth in the family, lives in the same place with her sister.

As above mentioned, one of the first settlers in Beech Ridge was STEPHEN
BOND, who came with his family, among whom were three sons William,
David and Stephen from Randolph, Vt., about 1797, and bought five hundred
acres of land on the road from St. Andrews to the Ridge. He afterwards
returned to Vermont, and died there. Stephen, the youngest of the three
sons, was born in 1792; he was married in 1827 to Miss Dorinda Powers
of Bethany, and took part of his father s farm, which is now owned by
John Lr.ynachan. He lived there a number of years, and afterwards sold
it, buying the lot opposite, where he died in 1858, aged sixty- five ;
Mrs. Bond died in 1844, aged thirty-eight. Mr. Bond was drafted into the

militia in the war of 1812, and was stationed three months on Isle aux
Noix ; he served a year altogether. Mr. and Mrs. Bond had two daughters
and four sons ; of these, George W., the second son, is the only one
of this family now living in Quebec.  He was born nth June, 1835, an
d has always lived in Beech Ridge ; in 1860, he was married to Fliza,
daughter of the late Walter McVicar, of Chatham. They have two

* Mr. Loynachan died 2nd Feb., 1896.


sons, George W. and Franklin, who are both merchants in New Mexico,
the former being in Wagon Mound, and the latter in Espanola, about 185
miles apart.

SAMUEL RENNIE came from Belfast, Ireland, to Canada in 1838. He was an
engineer by occupation, and was employed as such in Montreal for seventeen
years ; during that time he was with William Dow, J. H. Molson, Handyside
and Wm.  Johnson. He was also a distiller, bul owing to ill-health was
obliged to give up this business. He came to this place in 1851, and
bought the farm now occupied by his son, with whom he is living, still
active at ninety-three. George, the youngest son, born 1852, who remained
a 1 home, deals extensively in live stock, taking it to the Montreal
market. He was married in 1879 t Jennie, daughter of the late John Oxley
of Montreal ; they have one son and one daughter. Mr. Rennie is Municipal

Councillor of St. Andrews.

THOMAS SMITH was born in Dundee, Huntingdon Co., Que., May 24th, 1829. He
was twice married the first time, to Catherine Stewart of Huntingdon ;

by this marriage, they had two sons, Malcolm and William Scott. In 1855,
Mr.  Smith came to this place, and bought Lots Nos. 4 and 5. Mrs. Smith
died in 1867, aged 37, of diphtheria one of the first cases known in the
country. Mr. Smith was married the second time in 1864 to Mary Ann Ford,
of Huntingdon ; Mrs. Smith died in 1875, aged 37, aud Mr. Smith died ten
years later, on his 66th birthday; they had two sons and one daughter
one son is now deceased. Janet L., the daughter, married to F. McArthur,
lives in Montreal ; and Thomas F., the son, is in the milk business in
the same place.

MALCOLM, the eldest son, born June, 1855, remained at home, and
was married in June, 1887, to Jane, daughter of HughCleland, jun.,
of Jerusalem ; they have three children. Mr. Smith lives on Lot 4 the
old homestead ; he has taken an active part in the County Agricultural
Society, having been director of it for several years. He is also
licensed auctioneer for the District of Terrebonne and agent for the
Canada Carriage Co. He has a fine farm, on which he has this year been
awarded a silver medal; he has also engaged extensively in fruit growing,
having an orchard of about 700 trees ; 25 different varieties of fruit
from these were shown at the County Fair in 1894.

WILLIAM SCOTT, second son of Thomas Smith, was born iath September,
1858, and was married loth September, 1884, to Ellen, daughter of
Captain Kenneth Urquhart, of Glengarry ; they have four children, all
boys. Mr. Smith lives on Lot 5, half of the old homestead ; he also
takes much interest in fruit-growirg, having an orchard of several
hundred trees.

JAMES COWAN was born in Co. Antrim, Ireland, in 1792. On first coming
to this country in 1823, he settled in Jerusalem, and in 1841 removed
to Beech Ridge, where he lived for eighteen years on a farm owned by
David Bond. He then bought

the farm, Lot No. i, now owned by his son Thomas. Mr. Cowan took an
active part

in the movements of the Militia, being with them at St. Eustache in
1837-38. He

died in 1871, aged seventy-nine; he had five sons and three daughters,
of whom three



sons are now living. James is living in New York State ; William in
Vermont ; and Thomas, the youngest son, born 1833, remains at home. He
was married in 1^63 to

Isabella, daughter of the late Francis Carson of East Settlement;
they have three sons and one daughter, all at home. Mr. Cowan has been
Municipal Councillor and School Trustee for several years, also a member
of the St. Andrews Troop cf Cavalry for eighteen years.

JOHN FRANCIS MITCHELL was born in Brussels, Belgium, and when 10 years
of age came to Canada with his father s family. He was married to Hannah
M. Lawson

of Sheffield, England, and came to this place, hiring the farm, Lot 22,
on the south side of Beech Ridge. This he bought a few years later,
and has since put it under a fine state of cultivation, making many
improvements, and building anew residence; he

keeps a stock of sixteen head of cattle and three horses. Mr. Mitchell has
three boys and three girls ; Hannah, the eldest, married to William Hume,
lives in Bethany ; Harriet is in Montreal ; Hugh B., the eldest son, in
Minnesota ; John F. is in Montreal; and the two youngest remain at home.

The following sketch of pioneers of this locality was prepared at our
request by a former citizen of the place :

" About the year 1829, Beech Ridge was inhabited chiefly by New
Englanders, whose habits of neatness and thrift, with fair practical
knowledge of farming, resulted in giving the locality a prominent position
in the county.

" The Pecks, the Bonds, the Minklers, the Greens, Centers, McArthurs,
Coles and

other pioneers of that comparatively olden time had cut away the
forests, erected comfortable dwellings and substantial out-houses,
planted orchards, laid out gardens, and, generally, created one of the
prettiest rural settlements in Lower Canada.  The very few who remember
the widow Peck s residence and surroundings, some sixty- seven years ago,
will have difficulty, even now, in finding an equal in all respects even
in progressive rural Ontario. The homestead with its immense barns,
byres, stables, sheep houses, cheese room, corn house, swine pen,
driving sheds, and all necessary buildings, large orchards and gardens,
well tilled and fenced fields, and fine sugar bush, was too attractive
to remain long without a purchaser, after the owner had decided to cast
her lot in the embryo village of Chicago. The new proprietor, anxious to
have early possession, had already sent in some servants with furniture,
before the widow, her two sons, and old " Uncle Bill" had fairly started
for the new home in the far West.

" Capt. McLean about this time bought the Dr. Green property ; Thomas
Cook, Esq., the farm opposite Peck s, besides the disposal of several
other farms to new comers, among whom were Mr. Catton, Capt. McCargo
and Major May ; but the Yankee settler made no objection to this foreign

" No man could be more respected and beloved by his neighbors than James
Kennedy Johnstone, Esq., of Ayreshire, Scotland, who succeeded Mrs. Peck.
Though highly educated, by birth an aristocrat, and son of an aspirant
to the titles and estates of Annandale, yet he appreciated the quiet,
honest, pious, respectful people among


whom he had come, and in their religious meetings and Sunday School
he took an active part, thus gaining the affection of old and young,
especially of the latter, upon whom his smiling countenance and pleasant
words of advice made an indelible im pression. In religion, Mr. Johnstone
was Scottish Episcopalian ; in politics, Conser vative. At the time
of his death in March, 1833, he had arranged to visit Scotland during
the summer, with the object of pushing his claim to the Marquisate and
estate of his forefathers in Annandale. Five sons and two daughters with
their mother were left to mourn his death. The sons were James Kennedy,
Wellesley, Quintin, Samuel and Washington Joseph, and the daughters
Matilda and Elizabeth.

" James, without issue, died at St. Andrews, after having long retired
from active business; Wellesley, with a family in the West his son James
being inspector of gas, Toronto, devotes himself to the political press,
favoring responsible government and every real reform, entire free trade,
beginning with the Mother land, standing in the front. He sometimes
expresses serious dissatisfaction vvith the ignorance of political
economy evinced daily by Canadians in the House of Commons, who claim
to be statesmen. Quintin adopted the profession of land surveyor. He
died at Thorold,

Ont., leaving a family ; one son James Kennedy Johnstone, M.D. Samuel had
long resided in New Orleans, where he died leaving a family. Washington
and his son of the same name entered the Civil Service the former
as inspector of weights and measures, the latter in the Post Office
Department. Matilda and family reside in the State of New York. Elizabeth
died early, at the old homestead on Beech Ridge, deeply regretted. Like
her mother, she never sent the beggar away empty-handed or hungry. Her
chief happiness in the absence of children of her own was in doing good,
and not refusing the cup of cold water in His name.

The residence of W. J. Johnstone, Esq., vvith its orchard and well laid
out grounds, still helps to preserve the fair name long enjoyed of Bonny
Beech Ridge."


This is the name of a Post Office established in 1860, nearly midway
between St.  Andrews Village and Lachute. It is on the road connecting
these places, and which has always been designated as the "Lachute Road
"the name being much more frequently used to distinguish places, even
in proximity to the Post Office, than Geneva.

The Lachute Road settlement has always been an important district,
both in the parish of St. Andrews and in the County from the fact that
it possesses superior agricultural qualities, and for two or three
generations has been inhabited by a class of most intelligent, upright
and thrifty farmers. There is neither a poor farm nor a poor farmer on
this road, in St. Andrews parish; and a drive along this route in summer
is one of interest to any individual interested in agriculture. Those of

whom the following sketches are given reside in St. Andrews, and have
good farms, and besides these are the fine farms of William Todd, Wood,
Jas. Bradley and

some others.

Early in this century, GUSTAVUS ADOLPHUS HOOKER, a young man who had
worked in a paper manufactory in Boston, came to St. Andrews, and was
employed for a number of years in the paper mill in that village. He
was born in Boston, 3rd April, 1784, and was the son of one of the
revolutionary heroes, whose name was

Zibeon Hooker. History informs us that the latter was born in Sherburne,

I2th February, 1752, and that he was one of a company of " Minute men"
organized in the place of his nativity, who proved themselves deserving
the title assumed, by proceeding to Lexington on the igth of April, 1775,
as early as intelligence of the battle at that place reached them. They
were not in season, however, to aid the

inhabitants in defending their homes from the invading foe. From the same
source we learn that Mr. Hooker commenced his military career at the
age of seventeen, as a musician. During the engagement at Bunker Hill,
the drum which he carried was

pierced by a shot of the enemy. Divesting himself of this now useless
instrument, he seized the musket of a fallen companion and rushed into
the heat of the battle.  This circumstance attracted the attention of
the commanding officer, and he was

raised above the rank of a common soldier, from which appointment he

succeeded to a lieutenantcy. Having joined the Continental army under
General Washington, he never grounded his arms until peace was concluded
in 1783. From a sermon delivered at his decease, we copy the following :

" As a man, our departed father possessed great moral worth, the
strictest inte

grity, uncommon purity of character, and in the most exemplary manner
discharged the relative duties of life. Such was his peaceful disposition
that, during an unusually protracted life, never was he known to beat
variance with any human being. Of him it can with truth be said, he had
not an enemy in the world. Above all, our


departed father was a sincere Christian ; no man entertained a more
becoming sense of his own unworthiness than this Israelite, indeed."

Not long after, his son, Gustavus Adolphus, came to St. Andrews, he
purchased a

gore in this parish, known as Lot 5, comprising about 200 acres, and
a part of which is now owned and occupied by the family of his son,
G. A. Hooker.

On January 6th, 1808, he was married to Pamelia McArthur, daughter of
Peter Me Arthur of Carillon Hill. After the paper mill was closed, he gave
his attention to his farm, and, like the other pioneers of those days,
he made many a barrel of potash, with which to procure the necessaries
of life. He was Captain of Militia many years, and in the troubles of
1837-38 was a member of the Home Guard. It is quite probable, therefore,
that, had the opportunity been given, he would have emulated the bravery
of his father. He died 7th April, 1870; Mrs. Hooker, ist April, 1876.
They had twelve children who grew up six sons and six daughters. One son,
George, and four daughters are now living. Of the latter, Mrs. Giles
resides in Lachute, one in Illinois and two in Glengarry, Ontario.

George in his younger days bought a farm in Centerville, Chatham,
on which he lived till a few years since, when, selling it to his son
George, he moved to St.  Andrews. He has been one of the substantial men
of Chatham, has served as Muni cipal Councillor, two or three times as
Assessor, and as President of the County Agricultural Society. He was
married June i4th, 1845, to Sarah Jefferson from the North of England,
by which marriage he had eight children. Mrs. Hooker died i5th November,
1870, and he was again married in September, 1873, to Annie M.  Hoare,
from Surrey, Eng., and by this marriage has three children.

Gustavus Adolphus, who remained on the homestead, preferred to give his
atten tion to his farm rather than to public affairs ; he, however, was
a School Commissioner, and accepted the position of Post-Master when the
post-office was established, holding it until his death. It was at his
suggestion that the office received the name Geneva.  He was married in
1864 to Alice, daughter of Peter McMartin of the River Rouge Settlement;
four children two daughters, twins, and two sons were born to them.

Mr. Hooker died 20th August, 1895, and his loss was deplored by a large

JAMES BUCHAN, with his wife, his son David and three daughters, from
Perthshire, Scotland, settled on the Lachute road in 1817, taking up
a large tract of land, part of which is now owned by his grandson,
William Buchan, and the balance of it by

Mr. R. VV. McGregor, who still occupies the stone house built on it
by Mr.  Buchan.  He was followed, in 1823, by his son, John Buchan, who
settled on part of the land taken up by James Buchan, and which part is
still in the possession of the family.  John brought with him his wife,
four sons, Thomas, Peter, James and Andrew, and

one daughter. Andrew died soon afterwards. Thomas and James went to
Ontario and settled near Hamilton ; the former died in 1895, James is
still living.  Their father, John Buchan, died in 1876, and their mother
in 1873, both of them being

upwards of ninety years of age.

David, some years after their arrival, purchased land at L Orignal,
which is now in the possession of his son Andrew. David married Flora
McLachlan, sister of


Hugh McLachlan, Esq., of Arnprior, and had a large family, of whom two,
David and Daniel, died, the former early in 1896, and the latter about
1877. Another sou,

William, lives at White Lake in Ontario, and Andrew and a daughter, Mrs.
Campbell, still live in L Orignal. William, the youngest son of John
Buchan, and his sister Mary were both born in Canada, and both have
remained at the homestead. In December, 1851, William married Katharine
Stewart; they have had five sons and four daughters, but four of the
sons are deceased. Peter, aged twenty-one, died

July 2nd, 1875. William, aged eighteen, died April 2ist, 1882; Andrew,
aged sixteen, died at Los Angeles, California, the 28th of November,
1888, and another died in infancy.

John S., the only son now living, graduated from McGill University in
1884 and is now a successful Barrister in Montreal. He married on the
i5th September, 1885, Katharine, second daughter of Mr. F. McMartin,
of St. Andrews. She died in August, 1894, leaving two children, John
Stuart and Katherine McMartin Buchan.

Katherine, the eldest daughter of Mr. and Mrs. William Buchan, married
David Todd, and lives on the farm adjoining the homestead. Annie, another
daughter, married Duncan McGibbon, and lives in Brownsburg. Mary and
Margaret, the two remaining daughters, live with their parents.

Mr. Buchan is one of the thrifty, intelligent and highly respected
residents of the county, and for a number of years filled several public
offices with great ability.

Among the early residents of the parish was "Johnny " Blais, who was for
many years almost the only French speaking settler in Lachute Road. He
owned the farm next to that belonging to John and afterwards to William
Buchan, where he lived

with a large family until his death, about the year 1860. His funeral
was attended by almost the whole of his neighbors, by whom he was held
in the highest respect in his lifetime.

Walter Galloway lived on the farm adjoining that of Mr. G. A. Hooker. He
was a typical Scot, and very popular with his neighbors. His son James
lived for some years in Carillon, but died in middle age. His daughter
Isabella married J. A.  Sharman, who lived until the time of his death,
in 1874, on tne Galloway farm, where he also carried on a tailoring
business. After his death his son, Walter G.  Sharman, lived in the
same place, and carried on the business until about the year 1884,
when he sold the farm and removed to Montana, where he is now living.

Thomas Jefferson was a typical English Squire. He owned the large and
fertile farm now the property of Mr. Robert Watson, where he employed
a large number of people, and prospered from year to year. He always
practiced the best methods of farming, and by his success demonstrated the
truth that business methods pay in farming as in any other pursuit. After
selling his farm to Mr. Watson he lived for some years on a piece of land
opposite the homestead, which he reserved, and eventually removed to
St. Andrews, where ha died. This sketch would be incom plete without a
reference to James Foley, long the trusted foreman for Mr.  Jefferson.
"Jimmy," as both young and old loved to call him, was capable,
hard-working, and of sterling integrity. When the Jefferson farm was
sold he moved to Point Fortune, where he purchased a farm, and farmed
it with the success which he well deserved.


BENJAMIN COLE, from New Hampshire, was one of the earliest settlers on
the Lachute Road, and he lived here till his death.

Willard, one of his sons, bought the lot on which his own son Benjamin now
lives; he was married in 1818 to Susan McLaughlin, of St. Andrews. They
had two

sons and seven daughters of whom only one son, Benjamin, and three
daughters are now living. Benjamin lives on the homestead with one of
his sisters, Isabel Cole ; neither of them has ever married. Mr. Cole is
very particular respecting the care of his cattle and horses, of which
he always has a superior quality.

RICHARD WILSON MCGREGOR was born in Perthshire, Scotland, in October,
1815 ; he there learned the carpenter s trade, and followed it until
the spring of 1841, when he came to Canada, remaining for a time with
his brother on the LachuteRoad.  He worked at his trade in this locality,
St. Andrews and Carillon, for five years. In 1848, he was married to Jane,
daughter of the late Dr. McGregor, of Lachine, and came to live on his
present farm, which he had bought from David Buchan, two years previously.

Mr. and Mrs. McGregor have had three sons and five daughters, all of
whom are living. Margaret, the eldest daughter, and Anna, are both in
California; Mary, mar ried to Wm. Elliott, grocer, lives in Montreal;
Isabella, married to \Vm.  McOuat, lives in Brownsburg ; and Catherine
is at home. Norman P. is a Commercial Traveller in Minneapolis ; John
and Andrew live at home.

Mr. McGregor has taken an active part in the affairs of St. Andrews
Parish, having been Councillor several terms, Chairman of the Board
of School Commis sioners fifteen years, and Justice of the Peace and
Commissioner for the trial of small causes for twenty years ; he was
also a member of the Militia for a number of years, and held the rank
of Sergeant when the Militia was disbanded ; he was Quartermaster of
the Argenteuil Rangers, and retired with the rank of Major.

JOHN FRASER came from Banffshire, Scotland, to Canada, in 1834, with
his wife and eleven children. He first settled in Thomas Gore, remaining
there one year,

and then went to Hill Head, where he lived seven years ; he afterwards
came to Lachute, and bought the place now owned by his youngest son,
Hugh. After this, he spent seven years on a property near Back River,
Montreal, returning at the end of that time to the Lachute farm, where
he and Mrs. Fraser both died. While in Hill Head, Mr. Fraser conducted
a distillery five years.

George Fraser, the third son, born 1824, remained at home until sixteen,
at which age he went with his father to Montreal, remaining on the farm
at Back River seventeen years. During that time, he had opportunity
to help back to health some of the victims of the terrible ship fever
raging in Montreal, by supplying them with buttermilk, carrying to them
140 gallons, daily. He was asked one day by the doctor who attended the
emigrants if he was not afraid ; upon his answering " No," the

doctor remarked " I do not want to stop you, for taking the buttermilk
means life to them." As is well known, hundreds, even thousands of these
poor people perished ;


Mr. Fraser says, he lias seen them die by the dozen in the large
emigrant shed.  He at last gave up supplying with buttermilk from fear
of spreading the disease.  He was married in 1848 to Miss E. Carmichael,
daughter of Donald Carmichael of St.

Eustache, and in 1864 came to Lachute Road, and bought from the
late Andrew FcGregor his present farm, on which he has made many
improvements. Mr. and Mrs. Fraser have had three sons and three daughters,
of whom only two sons are living, Daniel, the elder, is farming on the
Island of Montreal, and John, the younger son remains at home. Miss
Jessie Carmichael, sister of Mrs. Fraser, also makes her home with them.

ANDREW TODD, third son of the late Wm. Todd of East Settlement,
was born Au gust. 1831, at Lachute. When sixteen years of age, he
commenced learning the black smith s trade with John McAllister of
East Settlement. He was married in 1851 to Margaret, daughter of the
late David Roger of the same place, and first started in business for
himself in St. Eustache. He opened a shop there,, remained two years,
and was afterwards in Lachute ten years, and in Beech Ridge the same
length of time. In 1874, he bought his present farm from John McConnell,
but still has found time to work occasionally at his trade. Mr. and
Mrs. Todd have six sons and four daughters ; Robert, the youngest of
the family, and Jennie, are at home.  The former, having taken a course
in the Military School at Quebec, is and Lieutenant in Captain Wanless
Company of Cavalry at St. Andrews.

DAVID, third son of DAVID RODGER, was born in East Settlement in 1838. In
1868, he bought his farm here, and in 1869 was married to Alice Young,
adopted daughter of the late Dr. Barr of Belle Riviere. Mr. Rodger has
been one of the prosperous farmers of Argenteuil, bringing his farm
into a fine state of cultivation.  Mrs. Rodger died in 1878, and her
death was followed, twelve years later, by that of the oldest son,
David John. The latter was an exemplary young man in every respect,
and his early demise at the age of twenty years was deeply deplored.

Agnes H., the daughter, was married in July, 1895, to David Taylor of
Isle aux Chats. William George is attending Military School in Toronto,
and holds a com mission in the St. Andrews Troop. Mr. Rodger has retired
from farming, having sold his farm to his brother in 1893.

JAMES ARMSTRONG was born in 1803, and came from County Monaghan, Ireland,
to Canada about 1825, and died May 7th, 1873. Mrs. Armstrong died in 1878,
at the age of seventy-five.

JAMES, their second son, was born April lyth, 1836, in the Seigniory, and
remained at home until about twenty-six years of age ; he was married Feb.
25th, 1862, to Margaret, daughter of the late James Scott of Lakefield,
and after living ten years on the farm given him by his father, sold it
and bought his present one from Dr. Christie. Mr. Armstrong has erected
several new out-buildings since coming here, and made other improvements
; he has always been a liberal supporter of the Presbyterian Church,
and has been Elder in Henry s Church, Lachute, for the past


twenty-five years. Mr. and Mrs. Armstrong have had four sons and six
daughters ; of whom two sons and five daughters are now living. James,
the elder son, has taken an active part in the Y. P. S. C. E. of Lachute,
having become a member soon after the Society was organized, and was
President of it for a year; Bella teaches the Geneva school ; Catherine
A. attends the Lachute Academy ; and Mary, Elizabeth E., Lucinda J. and
George S. remain at home.

The following sketch is contributed by Colin Dewar:

JOHN DENNISQN was the man chosen for Captain by the Volunteers of Lachute
Road at the breaking out of the Rebellion in 1837 5 ne was a cooper by
trade, which at that time was a good paying business. He was a man in
the prime of life, active and intelligent, and although moving in the
humbler walks of life, was well fitted for the position to which he had
been chosen, and which he filled to the complete satis faction of his
commanding officer, as well as that of his Company. He was passion ately
fond of hunting and fishing, a circumstance he turned to good account,
as wolves were very numerous and a great nuisance to the farmers ; and
he was successful in capturing quite a number, for which he received
the Government bounty of ten dollars each.

He left St. Andrews a few years after the close of the Rebellion, and
as the part of the country he went to had few postal facilities, there
was very little heard of him, and in a short time he was in a measure
forgotten. About the year 1880 or 1881, I noticed an article taken from
a Renfrew paper mentioning the death of John Dennison. and giving some
details of his previous life, which sufficiently identified him as the
former Captain of the Lachute Road Volunteers. The article went on to say
that Mr. Dennison, although well up in years, still kept up his habit of
hunting, and had left to visit his traps at some distance from his house,
and not returning at the usual time, search was instituted, with the
terrible result, that his dead body was found very much mutilated; and
every indication of a fearful encounter having taken place, as the dead
body of a large bear lay close beside him ! What a fearful struggle that
must have been to a man nearly eighty years of age, and at what a cost !

Mr. Dewar says: "The summer of 1847 brought that terrible scourge, the
Ship Fever, into Canada. A few emigrants from an overcrowded steamer
going westward landed at Carillon, and two of them, a man and his wife,
left there to seek friends living beyond Lachute. They got as far as
Andrew Shield s house on La- chute Road, and being unable to proceed
any farther, were cared for by his wife, who, with the help of some of
the neighbors, placed them in a nice, clean, airy build ing, and nursed
them for many weary weeks. But with all their care, the husband

succumbed to the disease, and was decently buried in the cemetery on
Carillon Hill.  His wife eventually recovered, and was sent on to her
friends. In this case, those who nursed and cared for this suffering
pair, for so many long weeks, were those who had their own daily tasks
to perform, which at times were none of the lightest, but they never
shirked the duty, faithfully attending them, night and day.  Truly, it


was a labor of love, for there was no reward in prospect, only the
satisfaction of a good conscience ; and it is worthy of remark that none
of them took the disease."

JOHN WATSON came from Glasgow to Canada, and started in business in
Mont real,* in the boot and shoe trade. He was married in this country
to Miss Janet

Cumduff, by whom he had three sons and three daughters. After leaving

he went to East Hawkesbury, and bought the Island at the foot of the Long
Sault, now owned by Henry Stevens. He afterward removed to Melbourne,
Que., and became superintendent of the slate quarry in that place.

Robert Watson, his eldest son, born in 1845, remained with his father
until 1873 ; he was married in that year to Jane, daughter of Mr. George
Hooker of St.  Andrews, and went afterward, with his wife, to California,
where they remained six years. On his return, Mr. Watson bought the old
Jefferson farm on the Lachute Road. His father lived with him until his
death, which took place in 1883; his mother is still living.

Mr. and Mrs. Watson have four sons and three daughters all living at
home, with

the exception of Roy, the eldest son, who is in the milk business in


This place, the name of which in French denotes a chime of bells, is
located on

the Ottawa, two miles west of St. Andrews, and is famed for the beauty
of its scenery.  It is a part of St. Andrews Parish, and was incorporated
as a village in 1887.

Land here had been granted to individuals by the Seignior previous to
1800, but

there is no evidence that they ever settled on it. Peter McArthur was
undoubt edly the first actual settler in the limits of what is now the
corporation ; hence we are to understand that the subject of the following
sketch was the first in what is generally regarded the village, i.e.,
the most populous part.

CAPT. JACOB SCHAGEL is said to have been the first settler, and to have
built the first house in Carillon ; this house (of course a log one)
was located on the river s bank, just in rear of the present hotel of
John Kelly ; this occurred about the year 1804. He came from the States,
and lived a while in Stanbridge, one of the Eastern Townships, before
coming to Chatham. Soon after this, he sent to Stanbridge for

his brother Samuel, who, on joining him., erected for an hotel the long,-
low building IK,W owned by Mr. Kelly, which stands a little to the west
of his present hotel. This building he used as a public house fora number
of years ; he died at Carillon in 1839.

Mr. Jacob Schagel, soon after his arrival, took a contract from Government
for carrying freight between Carillon and Grenville, a business he
followed several years.





In 1809, April 2nd, he married Polly, a daughter of Captain Noble. The
latter came from England, where he obtained his title from having command
of a militia

company, and had settled in Chatham on a lot of wild land, a few miles
from Caril lon. Quite a good sized creek crossed this land, and on this
he erected a saw mill ; he died some time previous to the Rebellion of
1837. This farm became the property of his son-in-law, Captain Schagel,
who spent many years of his life on it, and died there, i6th May, 1874,
attheage of 88. Captain Schagel s military title was conferred on him a
short time previous to the Rebellion, he having been appointed Captain
of Militia ; his Company was ordered to the front, and he gained much
credit for his activity during the troubles of that period. Before his
death, he was promoted to the rank of Major.

In the early part of his residence in Chatham, he purchased a tract of
land ad joining that of Captain Noble, and which is now owned by William
Graham ; he lived on it till he sold it in 1851. That Captain or, more
properly, Major Schagel was much respected, and a man of influence,
is evident from the manner in which his

name is always mentioned by those who still remember him, and its
association with every important local event of the generation past. He
had fourteen children, of whom one son and eight daughters grew up.

Jacob D. Schagel,* the son, was married, i7th December, 1850, to Phillippa
Grace Mount-Stephens, and in 1856, or the following year, he bought the
homestead on which he still resides. He built a new saw mill on the site
of the old one erected by his grandfather, Captain Noble, and it answered
its purpose well for several years ; but owing to the partial drying
up of the stream, as the land was cleared, the mill fell into disuse,
and the only vestige now remaining is the dam ; this is a stone struc
ture, and now, covered with soil, makes an admirable bridge. Mr. Schagel
ably sustains the fair reputation of his ancestors, and while giving
due attention to the cultivation and improvement of his farm, he has not
neglected those things tending to the moral and intellectual growth of his
family. He has had ten children five of each sex ; two of the sons are
deceased. Of the daughters, Charlotte Amy, married to William Nichols,
lives in Ottawa; Julia Agnes, married to W. S. Gliddon, also lives in
Ottawa; Alice Phillippa, the wife of George W. Bixby, resides in Steele
county, Minnesota; George S., one of the sons, living on the homestead,
was mar

ried 6th September, 1894, to Justina Elliott ; he was licensed by the
Methodist Con ference as a Local Minister, 22nd February, 1892; he is
also Secretary of the Argen- teuil County C. E. Union.

PETER MCARTHUR was one of the very early pioneers in this section,
having located on Carillon Hill. His house, which was a large two-story
building, occupied the site of the present residence of Henry Barclay. The
hospitality of the family was well known ; and for a number of years
this house often afforded a home for

Scotch immigrants until they could secure homes of their own.

* Mr. Schagel died in December, 1895, since the above was written.


Mr. McArthur had lived in the States previous to corning here, and had
married in Vermont, Phcebe Lane, a sister of Jedediah Lane, who purchased
the tract of land in Lachute known as " Lane s Purchase."

They had six sons Lane, Royal, Peter, Erick, Armand and Arthur ; and
four daughters, Lurena, Charlotte, Phoebe and Pamelia.

Of the latter, Lurena was married to Moses Davis ; Charlotte, to John
Harring ton ; Phoebe to Robert Simpson ; Pamelia to G. A. Hooker.

Erick McArthur remained on the homestead till he sold it to James Barclay
in 835> vvnen he went to Ottawa, opened a public house, and remained
there until he died. Lane McArthur, the eldest son, erected a large
building in St. Andrews, where he kept hotel for a number of years,
and owned a stage line.

His two sons, Crosby and [Frederick, followed mercantile life _ the former
in Ontario, the latter in St. Andrews, having purchased the store of W. G.
Blanchard whose adopted daughter he married. He was killed by accident,
in Montreal, leaving one son, William, now living in St. Andrews, and
a daughter who married William

Larmonth, a merchant in Montreal. Arthur McArthur, the youngest son
of Peter bought a lot in Lachute, and lived there some years ; but he
finally sold out and left the county.

Royal, another son, studied surveying, moved to Ohio, and surveyed much
of the wild land of that State.

MR. C. THOMAS, : WA JanUary 23


A history of Argenteuil would be incomplete -without more than a passing

ot that lovely spot well known as Carillon Hill.

In point of situation, nothing can surpass its loveliness. Standing on
the brow

of the hill, and taking a survey up and down, whichever way you turn,
your eyes rest on the natural beauties of both land and water the view
of the Rapids and country ay to the west, the lovely appearance of the
country to the south, the course of hat magnificent expanse of water,
as it flows on until it seems to be lost or shut in ligaud Mountains,
and the pure invigorating breeze as it rises from that stream of water,
always spoken of in early days as the " Grand River."  No wonder this
lovely spot could always boast of an intelligent and industrious

icnest yeomen ; and if it be true that he who makes two blades of grass o
grow instead of one " can be called a benefactor, so well might they be
called by the lame, as all of them did their best, not only to beautify
their homes, but also

>enefit future generations (and it was from no fauh of thejrs tfa Jn
after their labors were destroyed).

This thrift could be witnessed by the splendid gardens and orchards

the shade trees and cherry trees growing along the highway, the pastures


filled by nut-bearing trees, as the hickory, oak, beech and butternut
; all of this, and more, could be seen in the first decade of this
century, when such men as my grand father Dewar, Major Muir and Auer
Mathews occupied the property now known as " Bellevue "Peter McArthur
owned where Mr. Barclay lives, Peter Benedict wheie Benj. Wales, and in
later years John Dewar lived, and Mr. Donnelly was on the farm now held
by Hugh Robertson.

It was a sight well worth witnessing for one to pass through their gardens
and see the beautiful flowers and vegetables, and to go through their
large and extensive orchards and see the lovely and delicious apples
and plums growing in such rich pro fusion, scarcely a vestige of which
is to be seen now. Scientists may be able to explain the cause of the
destruction which came upon the fruit trees in that locality ths fact
remains that they have nearly all disappeared.


From the deck of a steamer ascending the Ottawa, the traveller notices
as she rounds a headland, away on his right, a high ridge, or bluff,
descending abruptly to the river. Cultivated farms with good looking
dwellings and white picket fences in front stretch along the brow of this
ridge, and these, with the fruit and ornamental trees around, give the
impression that the proprietors are well-to-do as well as per sons of
taste. The river, still preserving its noble breadth and volume, flows
quietly on but just ahead are rapid, tumbling waters, and, beyond, the
imposing Dam of Caril lon stretching from shore to shore. On the left,
the land, for the most part pasture and meadow, and clothed here and
there with groves of trees, rises gently as

recedes from the river.

The steamer now draws nigh to the wharf, yet the traveller is scarcely
cons( of the fact, so engrossed is he with the scenery around him. The
ridge above re.  ferred to, receding at this point a little farther from
the shore, leaves a leve ground near the river, at the eastern end of
which is Carillon Park, shaded with thick growth of hickory, oak and
maple. Standing vis-a-vis on opposite sides of the river are the small,
quiet villages of Carillon and Point Fortune, the white cot., of which,
with their green fields and evergreen trees in the background, form,
esre cially at sunset, a most beautiful picture.

A number of substantial brick and stone houses are also found in ea
and especially the Government houses in Carillon, in which dwell the
officials nected with the canal, are attractive, as well as the grounds
around steamer s wharf is a long, low building, which serves as station
and freight both steamers and the railway. Several rods distant, and
the first structure entrance to the village from the east, stands a
very large and imposing stone bu.  which a sign proclaims is the <
Sovereign Hotel," but which for severa has been known through all the
country side as " The Barrack


But directly back of the station, on the brow of the ridge, one hundred
feet or

more above the river, is a clump of buildings to which the traveler
ascends in order to enjoy the wide view which their location commands. But
his attention is soon

engrossed by the buildings and surrounding objects ; everything has
such an evidence of care and prosperity in years bygone, that he will
inevitably wish to know the history of the early proprietor.

A delightful grove of pine, butternut and acacia trees, in which squirrels
chatter and gambol, nearly approaches the buildings on the east. Passing
through this, one enters an extensive pasture, where a number of horses,
sheep and cattle are grazing, or seeking shelter from the sun, in the
shade of gigantic elms, oaks and maples. A few yards in front, a lakelet,
formed partly by nature and partly by art, sends its waters in a babbling
stream down through a deep gorge, rendered dark by overhanging trees
across the park to mingle with the Ottawa. On the farther side of this
gorge, located in a bower of evergreens, stands the cottage of Mr. John
Halsey. the engineer on the Carillon & Grenville Railway. Twenty yards
in front of this are the roofless walls of a stone structure, enclosing
trees whose tops shoot many feet above them.

And thus one may wander for a day, over a tract of land stretching from
the Ottawa half a league back to the North River ; and at every step will
be discovered some memento of a time when energy and wealth were expended
with lavish hand to render this a beautiful and productive homestead. Here
and there tumble-down stone walls nre found in woods where once were
cultivated fields. Here, the last decaying timbers of an old mill ; and
there, in the forest, are moss-covered mounds, which tradition says are
the resting places of the servitors of the "Lord of the Manor "the toilers
who helped to clear these lands and rear the structures now in ruins.

During this survey of so many vestiges of the past, the impression has
been stead ily growing, that the early proprietor of this estate must
have possessed means far exceeding those of most of the early pioneers,
and that he used it in opening up busi ness, the extent and character of
which seem unique in the features of a new settle ment. The researches
incited by our curiosity develop the following facts :

One hundred and six years ago, or in 1790, the lot on which the house
and out buildings stand was granted to a man named L OIive. In May of
the same year, however, it was reunited to the domain, by a judgment of
the Court of Common Pleas ; and on the 3rd of May, 1792, it was granted
anew to M. J. Ladouceur. It

seems, however, that it must have once more returned to the
Seignior, as it was again granted, Jan. 7 th, 1800, by Maj. Murray to
J. Whitlock. Eight years later, it was sold to Peter Dewar, who retained
it till the year 1819, when he sold it to Maj. Muir.  27th May, 1827,
Maj. Muir conveyed it to Commissary General C. J. Forbes, during whose
ownership the buildings house, barns, hotel, brewery, malt house and
-were erected, and the large improvements made, the place receiving
the name < Bellevue," by which name it has been known for more than
three-score years. By


Sketdl haS been P re P^* ^ one familiar with the


CHARLES JOHN FORBES was born in Hampshire, England, Feb. xoth, i 7 86
and dunng his hfe on the Ottawa, the loth of February was as well known
to his C circle of friends as Christmas or New Year. At an early age
he was Allege of Altona in Denmark, and when only fourteen, L "recked"
el LV England on the coast of Holland. While waiting for a ship to carry
them to their des tmation, be was taken by the Captain to a country Fair,
and such was his wonder ul memory and genius for poking up languages,
even at that early age, that he learnt fcere a song, sung by the
peasantry, and afterwards discontinued by order of the Govei ment, but
remembered and repeated by him in a visit to Holland in his seventv-
th year. On his return to England, he entered the Navy ; but when he
was nineteen he went into the army, and first saw active service in that
unfortunate affair in E-ypt under Sir John Stuart. He was taken prisoner
and confined in the dungeons of the citadel qf Cairo but was fortunate
enough to attract the notice of Mahomed Ali and a friendship struck
up between the English boy and the powerful Pasha The following year,
he again served under Sir John Stuart, at the battle of Maida, and then
the En-lis arms was victorious. For several years he saw service in the
Mediterranean bein* present at the taking of the Ionian Islands and the
taking of Sicily. He was alsc daring enough on one occasion, to swim out
under a heavy fire with despatches to the Admiral of the fleet, for which
service he received the thanks of Government and a gold snuff-box. He
served in the Commissariat department through the Peninsu lar war, where
his knowledge of languages made his services very useful Fro; there, he
was sent to join the army under Sir James Packenham, and was present at
the battle of New Orleans. In a letter, now in possession of his family
written to uncle in England, immediately after the battle, he describes
that unfortunate affair and the misapprehension of the feeling in the
Floridas and Louisiana, which led to such a small force being sent ;
but he always retained a profound respect for General Jackson.

" On his return to England, the following summer, he married Miss
Sophia Mar garet Browne, and their bridal tour was from the church
door to Waterloo. Imm- d.ately after that decisive victory, Mr. Forbes,
accompanied by his wife, was sent to Vienna, to take charge of the money
lent by the Rothschilds to the British Govern ment for the payment of the
Prussian troops. Mrs. Forbes often described the heart-rending scenes they
witnessed; whenever they stopped to change horses, they saw women who,
having heard of a great battle, were hoping to get news of hu.sb.uuK
lathers and sons.

"The peace of Europe being now established, they went to Florence,
where they continued to reside for some years, their eldest children
being born there.  Daring their sojourn in that delightful city, they
made acquaintance with some very cele-


brated people, among them, the Countess of Blessington, Lord Byron and
the Abbe

Mezzofanti, known as the greatest linguist of his own or any other day,
being able to speak and write seventy different languages. In 1825,
Mr. Forbes was ordered to Nova Scotia, leaving Mrs. Forbes in England. She
followed him as soon as possible under the escort of an old friend,
whose son was afterwards Principal of the Lennox- ville College. From
Halifax, Mr. Forbes was transferred to Montreal, but as that town was
not healthy for his children, they decided to buy a place where they
might be sent. Accordingly, they bought the property known as Bellevue
at Carillon, on the Ottawa, from Major Muir. They liked their home on
the Ottawa so much, that they bought two other farms, one from Major
Burke and the other back of the village of Carillon from Mr. Cameron,
which was ever afterwards known as " Cam eron s Land.

" The society of Montreal was at that time exceedingly good, as, besides
the mili tary, there was the old aristocratic French element, the De
Montenachs ; the De

Lotbinieres, whose daughters inherited the seigniories of Rigaud,
Vaudreuil and De Lotbiniere ; and many more of the old French families
who formed at once the most exclusive and charming of societies. There
were, besides, the Scotch merchant princes of Montreal, whose dignified
hospitality added so much to the delight of Canadian life.

"This pleasant style of life continued, partly in Montreal and partly at
Bellevue, till Mr. Forbes was ordered to the West Indies, at the time of
the emancipation of the slaves. While there, he had two attacks of yellow
fever in three months, and was invalided home. He returned to Canada,
and took up his abode permanently, at Bellevue. His only official duty
from that time was acting as adviser to Sir John Colborne, Governor
General and Commander of the Forces, during the Rebellion in

1837-38. He also acted for many years as Paymaster to the old
pensioners,, and was once unanimously returned as Member for the county of
Argenteuil. A curious thing happened in connection with his election. At
a dinner given at Bellevue to his constituents, a quantity of silver was
stolen, but was shortly afterwards returned by the priest, who requested
that no questions should be asked, as it was restored under the seal of
confession. Families of old friends and relations had, in the mean time,
come out from England, and settled in the neighborhood ; the society
was delightful : Mr. \Vainvvright, R.N., bought a place which he named "
Silver Heights, from the white daisies growing on the hill at the back
of the house; Mr.  Cunning ham, afterwards Sir Francis, at Milnecraig,
called after the family residence in Scot land, and whose house as they
insisted on being their own architects was found to be minus stairs or
a support for one of the gables, which had to be built on a heavy beam
through one of the bedrooms ; Mr. Stikeman, at Rose Cottage, across the
river, one of whose sons married Mr. Forbes second daughter, Florence;
and Mr.  William Abbott, the genial clergyman of the parish, without
whom no festivity in the neighborhood was complete. His still more
talented brother, the Rev. Joseph Abbott, was also a constant visitor,
while his son afterward Sir John Abbott spent a great


deal of his early life at Bellevue. Prior to this, the building of the
canal from Caril lon to Grenville brought a large military force into the
neighborhood, the officers of which generally made their headquarters
at Bellevue ; and for many years afterward, soldiers were stationed at
Carillon for the protection of the canal the military ele ment adding
much to the social enjoyment of the neighborhood. In connection with
military matters, may be mentioned that, during the Rebellion, Bellevue
became the House of Refuge of the ladies who were left defenceless from
their male relatives going off to join the volunteer companies then
formed. Some of these ladies thought the cellars, which run the entire
length of the house, would be a hiding place, in which no adventurous
rebel would ever find them, and insisted on dragging bedding and other
things down there. Mrs. Forbes, however, who felt the warlike spirit
strong within her, remained on deck, spending one whole night casting
bullets, as Mr.  Giraud, one of the leaders, and who had been tutor to her
sons, knowing how well the place was victualed, declared his intention
of eating his Christmas dinner there. His intentions, however, were
frustrated by the determined defence made by our Volun teers. Mr. Forbes
son-in-law, Mr. Edward Jones, immediately formed a Cavalry company,
in which Mr. Forbes eldest son, Carlo, served as cornet. They did va
liant service, both at Grand Brule and St. Eustache. Many deeds of
valor were done by heroes from that section, a son of Judge McDonell,
of Point Fortune, driving down on the ice and capturing some of the
enemy s cannon, and dragging them up behind his sleigh. Quiet was at
last restored, and Mr. Forbes, who always had a mania for building,
was able to pursue his favorite occupation in peace.

" His fancy for building and agriculture never proved profitable, the
brewery, which was built in 1833, being a constant bill of expense, and
the Barrack, which was built in 1830, became useless after the troops
were removed ; the powder magazine had only the advantage that it blew
up without hurting anybody, and the saw mill only led to a feud with
his old friend, Col. Johnson; the Seignior. In right of the seigniorial
law as at that time established, he prevented his using his saw mill for
anyone s benefit but his own. The agricultural arrangements were not much
more profitable, except so far as it enabled unbounded hospitality to
be at all times exer cised. Arthur Young, the great English authority,
was constantly consulted; but what might have suited English farming
did not suit Canadian, all root crops had to be transplanted ; a lime
kiln was built, to keep a constant supply of lime on hand for the land;
large holes were dug in the bog to extract the marl at the bottom ;
and though the farm included 500 acres of woodland, a number of Irish
laborers were con; employed to make peat to burn in the house, as the
ashes were supposed to be gooc for turnips. However, all these theories
gave constant employment to the peopl around there ; those who wanted
work were never denied it ; and if sickne them or their families, they
were always generously provided for.  social life was of the pleasantest :
people of distinction constantly coming stay Sir John Colborne, the Earl
of Dalhousie, Sir James Kempt, Sir Charl >t,

Sir Charles Metcalf and Lord Sydenham-all Governors of Canada-have
been enfe



tained at the old homestead. Sir George Simpson, Governor of the Hudson
Bay Company, was a frequent visitor, while Monsignor Forbin de Jonson,
the Catholic

Bishop, who put up so many of the crosses on the Catholic churches in
Canada, staytd at Bellevue, and even claimed relationship, as he said
his family were origin ally Forbes, but the French pronunciation had
changed it to Forbin. Of the Epis

copal Bishops, Stuart, Mountain and Fulford always made Bellevue their

place on their parochial visits up the Ottawa. While, in spite of
political differences, Mr. Papineau was a welcome guest, his courtly
French manner being delightful.

Of the children of Mr. and Mrs. Forbes, only four are alive. The oldest
son, Charles, or Carlo, became a civil engineer, and is now living at
St. Paul, Minn.  The youngest, Frank, is in the City Engineer s office in
Chicago. The second daughter, Mrs. Stikeman, removed after her husband
s death to California, as did the youngest daughter, Elizabeth; while
of the two nieces of Mr. Forbes, whom he took as children and brought up
as his own, the eldest married Captain Powell, of the 9 th Regiment, and
the youngest married Dr. Mayrand, of St. Andrews, who is related to some
of the old French families. Bellevue, as a home of the Forbes family, has
long ceased to exist; and the life in the old homestead is only a pleasant
memory of a by-gone time to many scattered in various parts of the world."


Mr. Forbes died 22nd September, 1862; Mrs. Forbes died 23rd June, 1869.

The latter had been on a visit to " Silver Heights," accompanied by one
of her nieces. In returning, the horse, a spirited animal, took fright,
the carriage was over turned, and Mrs. Forbes being thrown violently
against a rock was instantly killed.  Her untimely death was the cause of
much sorrow in the community, especially among those who had experienced
her kindness and benevolence. She was a woman of excellent judgment,
active temperament, generous and kindly disposition.

Mrs. Palliser, now living in Carillon, spent several years of her early
life in the service of the Forbes family, and has many interesting
reminiscences of Bellevue.  She remembers particularly the benevolence
of Mrs. Forbes, and how generously she always supplied poor families
with fruit at the season of fruit-gathering.

In those early days, serious and bloody fights were of frequent occurrence
among the raftsmen on the river, which were usually followed by the
arrest of one or more of the most vicious combatants on their arrival
at Carillon.

The culprits were usually brought before Mr. Forbes for trial, and a
strong- room in the basement of Bellevue confined the prisoner till
the hour of his trial arrived.  The door of this "lock-up," together
with a padlock, which looks as if it might have done service in the
Bastile, still remain as mementoes of those rude scenes which, happily,
no longer occur.

In 1864, the Bellevue property, consisting of 700 acres of land and four
houses, was purchased by the Ottawa River Navigation Company, of which
the late R. W.  Shepherd, sen., was president, and his son R. W. SHEPHERD,
jun., is now manager.



The latter left school in 1865, and entered the office of the Company
as clerk.

During the time thus employed, he overlooked the building of the steamer "
Dagmar, in the Company s shipyard, learned much about boats, their speed,
construction, etc., knowledge which was of much service to him in after
years. In 1866, when the " Dagmar " commenced running, he was appointed
purser on her, and remained two years, when he became purser on the mail
steamer " Prince of Wales," and held the position till 1870. In February,
1871, he made a trip to Europe, and on his return, the same year, was
appointed assistant manager of the Company a position he occupied till
1882, when he became general manager.

The construction of the palatial iron steamers "Sovereign " and " Empress
" was

entirely under his control and supervision, and the designs for them
were prepared by him, after several trips to the States to obtain the
most modern and suitable plans for river steamers designed for pleasure
travel. That he attained his object is abun dantly proven by the fine
appearance of these steamers and their popularity with the traveling

Mr. Shepherd was married 26th June, 1879, to Miss Margaret A. Robertson,
daughter of Hugh Robertson, of " Milncraig," Carillon Hill, Quebec.

Military affairs have also engaged a share of his attention, and during
the Fenian raids, he was ensign in the Cotno Rifles, and was stationed
with his company to guard the approach to the bridge at St. Ann s. For
eight years, he was an officer in the Prince of Wales Rifles, ist
Battalion, and retired with rank of Captain. He saw

active service when connected with this Battalion, during the Fenian
excitement, the Guibord interment, and the Bread Riots in Quebec, in 1878.

He has taken great interest in horticultural matters and fruit growing,
and for

several years was director and vice-president of the Montreal
Horticultural Society, and is now vice-president of the Pomological
Society of the Province of Quebec a Society indebted chiefly to him for
its formation. Fruit growing has engaged much of his attention for more
than twenty years, especially the cultivation of* the best table apples,
and his fine nurseries at Como are now well known in this part of the
Dominion. He was assistant Commissioner of this Province for the World
s Fair at Chicago, and the fine collection of fruit sent from Quebec
was collected under his supervision.

Carillon, even for a country village, is remarkably quiet ; a bakery and a
carpen ter shop comprising all its manufactories. It has neither church,
minister, or lawyer, and but one store. The Roman Catholics attend their
church at St. Andrews, and the Protestants the different denominational
services of the same place, or the service held occasionally at the
residence of Mr. Sharman in this village.

But notwithstanding the lack of mills and stores, there is considerable
travel through the place even in winter ; and when the spring opens and
the boats begin to run, the aspect of Carillon, as a business place,
is greatly improved. This being the terminus of the steamboat line from
Montreal, as well as that of the railway running


to Grenville, it is a depot for both passengers and freight ; and when
summer advances, and people seek the refreshing air of the country,
numbers flock .to Carillon ; its beautiful and expansive water front
and otherwise charming scenery attracting num bers which, through July
and August, greatly enhance the life and gayety of the

village. .

The store referred to above is worthy of notice, not only on account
of its anti quity, but from the events which have therein occurred ;
more than one of the occu pants having acquired a competency, while
others have experienced the lot of bank-


It was built, sometime in the third decade of this century, by
A. E. Monimar- quet from Montreal. Having no competitors in the place,
he soon became forehand

ed, and possibly, it may have been from the opportunity he had, of making
what the Scotchman called " four per cent." profits, really four times
the cost. However this may be, he acquired much influence in the County,
and the following letter, copied from one in the archives of Quebec,
shows that he was not devoid of public spirit.

CARILLON, Sept. i6th, 1846.  To the Supt. Schools,

Canada East.

g IR \ve have received a petition from the inhabitants of the school
district of

Carillon, asking for help towards erecting a school-house in said district
; and as we are not aware that there is any money in the Government hands
to be appropriated to this district, we would feel extremely obliged if
you will let us know whether you have any to spare, and what will be the
amount you will be able to grant them.  An answer will greatly oblige
the inhabitants of Carillon school, particularly Mr.  A. E.  Montmarquet,
who is taking great interest in having a school-house erected in said


We are, sir,

Your obedient servants,


Secretary- Treasurer. Chairman.

When Mr. Montmarquet left Carillon, rumor claimed that he was worth the
snug sum of $100,000 ; it is said that he was one of the founders of
the People s Bank at Quebec.

In 1837, hi s store was tne scene of a startling occurrence. At the
time when the greatest excitement prevailed in St. Eustache, many of
the inhabitants of that place fled from their homes, leaving them to
be plundered by any who might feel so disposed. Very soon, therefore,
the work of pillage began. Stock was drawn off,

hen roosts and pig sties were rifled, houses broken open, and their
contents carried off or scattered along the street. In such a condition
of things, it was quite natural that many who would scorn to be the
first to enter a house to appropriate its effects, should pick up and
carry off things which they well knew would otherwise soon be come the
prey of others.


On the Saturday night following the fight at St. Eustache, a man named
Hoyle was in the store of Mr. Duncan Dewar of St. Andrews, declaiming
loudly against those who would appropriate the property of the absent
proprietors. At that moment Mr. Jamieson, a brother-in-law of C. J. Forbes
of Carillon, and who lived on the Forbes estate, chanced to pass with
a single bleigh load of the confiscated property from St. Eustache. The
opportunity was favorable for Hoyle to advertise his hon

esty and achieve notoriety; and abruptly leaving his auditors, he rushed
oat, caught up with the sleigh on the bridge, seized the horse by the
head, and launched into a furious philippic against the astonished
Jamieson. The latter merely replied that he deemed himself quite
responsible for whatever property he had taken, and drove on.

On the succeeding Monday, Hoyle inquired at the store of Mr. Dewar fora
quantity of his favorite brand of tobacco, and Mr. Dewar having none,
he informed him that he could procure it of Montmarquet, at Carillon. To
the latter s store, therefore, Hoyle proceeded, and Jamieson, in whose
breast the insult recently offered him was still rankling, seeing
him pass, and divining that he had gone to the store of Mortmarquet,
followed. His first words on entering the store and seeing Hoyle were :
" How dare you insult me, sir, as you did Saturday night in St. Andrews ?
and at the same moment he struck him across the back with his cane, word
of warning, Hoyle instantly drew a pistol from his pocket and shot him.
crowd soon collected, in which there were three physicians, who pronounced

wound fatal.

Hoyle quickly placed himself under the protection of Maj. Mayne, <
the two companies of soldiers at the Barracks, who refused to deliver
him to the in dignant citizens clamoring for his trial, according to
the code of Judge Lynch,

do not know," he said to them, " that Hoyle has committed murder ;
Jamieson may

yet recover ; " and he did recover.

Forty-one years afterwards, when he died, the bullet and a part of a
suspend buckle which it carried with it were found in his body.


Rl-LICS OF 1837.

Mr Jamieson, of Point Fortune, Quebec, who died in this village on Monday
last at the residence of his sister, Mrs. Cunningham, requested a few
days ago that if the attach from which he was suffering should prove
fatal, his body should be opened before bunal, and made for a pistol
bullet and a portion of a brace buckle which he had been carrying ,
within him for about forty-one years.

In ,8,7, the memorable year of the Rebellion in Canada, Mr. Jam^on then
a young

strong man, res.ded at Caullon in the Lower Province. One day in the
post office .  arguing politics with a rebel, whose language became so
insulting or otherwise provol M? . JamLon struck him, whereupon he drew
a pistol and fired at his loyal oppone, I he MM

broke the iron buckle of the right suspender, and then entered Ins breast,
inflicting.  nearly proved fatal, and from which he was laid up fur six
weeks. At the expuaUon of Uu was ne Lly well again, and never afterwards
felt any ill effects from the hurt ; but as the bull.


been extracted, and as it was believed to have taken the missing part of
the buckle with it, Mr. Jamie- son often expressed the wish during his
last illness, that, after his death, the locality of the "foreign bodies,"
as medical men would call them, should be ascertained ; and Drs, Allen and
Bryson searched for and were successful in finding them on Monday last.

They were near together and close to the spine the bullet resting on
the diaphragm, and entire ly enveloped by a cartilaginous formation
of considerable size, while the other article was partially hidden by a
deposit more nearly resembling flesh. The bullet is for a pistol of rather
large size, and \vas originally round, but is much damaged at one spot,
no doubt where it struck the buckle, which was broken by the blow. The
part with the tongue or tongues attached probably remained fast to the
suspender. The portion driven in by the bullet formed three sides of the
buckle, and is of the simplest description, being merely a piece of iron
wire about two inches long and bent at right angles, a little more than
half an inch from each end. It is only rusted in spots, and not deeply,
and the mark made by the blow of the bullet is still plainly visible.

Mr. Jamieson died 28th December, 1878.

After two weeks, Hoyle was sent to Montreal to be tried, but received
bail the same day, and nothing further was heard of the case.

A. E. MONTMARQUET sold his store and other property in Carillon to
Mr. Schnei der, and left the place in 1860. In 1871, Schneider sold
to John Fletcher, a young man from Rigaud, who had spent the four
previous years in Scotland in acquiring a know ledge of mercantile
business. He died, however, a short time subsequently, and his brother,
Wm. L. Fletcher, became his successor in the store and post office.
The latter was married in June, 1872, to Miss O. Charlebois, daughter
of the postmaster at Rigaud. During the few years that he survived,
Mr. Fletcher was an active citizen, and filled municipal offices. He
died 23rd November, 1877, and Mrs. Fletcher was appointed postmistress,
a position which she still retains, assisted by her daughter Maud.

Five or six years ago, the Montmarquet store was purchased by M. Dwyer, of
Kingston, who had been in trade in this village for several years. Success
attended him, and after sixteen years residence in Carillon, he left in
the Spring of 1894 for Kingston, several thousand dollars better off
than he was when he came here. As he had always dealt fairly with his
customers, and on leaving took special pains to accommodate his debtors,
the good wishes of the community went with him. About two years before
his departure, he sold his store and stock of goods to R. V.  Gauthier,
a young gentleman who had acted as clerk for him during the six preceding

Mr. Gauthier springs from stock whose energy and loyalty form an heir-loom
of honor to their descendants. His grandfather, JOHN BAPTISTE GAUTHIER,
was born 2ist October, 1796, at Montreal Junction. At the age of 18, he
enlisted at Montreal in a regiment of Voltigeurs, and took an active part
in the battle of Chateauguay, for which service he subsequently received a
pension. In the Rebellion of 1837, he joined a company of loyal Cavalry,
and was often employed in carrying dispatches.  After the Rebellion,
he settled at St. Anne, where he died in 1886, upwards of 90 years of
age. He left two sons and two daughters.

Victor, one of the former, a man of much enterprise and intelligence,
learned the


trade of carpenter, and for some time was employed by the Great North
Western and Montreal Telegraph Company. In charge of a number of men,
he erected many of the lines of this Company in Ontario, and in 1872,
as a stationary mechanic of the Company, settled in Carillon. In 1867,
he v/as married to Hermine Crevier of St.  Anne. During his life in this
Village, he took an active part in whatever promoted its prosperity. He
was a member of the Municipal Council, and also of the Board of School
Commissioners; in the latter, owing to his desire for the encouragement
of education, he was particularly active.

He seems to have been one whose natural endowments and powets of observa
tion compensate for the lack of a liberal education, and his charts
display no little skill as a draughtsman. He died in 1890, leaving a
family of children whose modesty and politeness reflect no small degree
of credit on their parental training.

His eldest son, R. V. GAUTHIER, took a commercial course at Rigaud
College, from which he graduated in 1887.

While there, the same devotion to duty which has characterized his
subsequent career, enabled him always to take either first or second
place in his classes, and win honors of which a young man less modest
might sometimes boast. He won the highest prize offered for proficiency
in the study of commercial law, political economy and bookkeeping ;
the first prize in science, grammar, analysis and themes ; and in 1887
he won the silver medal offered by Messrs. Fogarty & Co., of Montreal,
for pro ficiency in the study of commerce, besides the $30 prize awarded
by the Institution.  Since his purchase of the store in 1892, his trade
has steadily increased, custom ers being attracted, not more by the fair
prices than by the probity and courtesy of the merchant. His younger
brother, Thomas, entered the boot and shoe store of James Leggatt of
Montreal, in 1889, as clerk ; he has been their manager, and is now
tra veiling for the same firm. Donat, a brother still younger, is the
assistant of R. V.  in his slore.

JAMES BARCLAY, who lived for many years in Carillon, was one of her
most enterprising and influential citizens, and was well known and
popular throughout tiie County. His father had taken an active part in
the political troubles by which Scotland was agitated, and his radical
principles incurring the animosity of the Gov ernment, his property was
confiscated and a price set on his head. But he succeeded in escaping,
and in 1820, with his wife by a second marriage, and his only surviving
son James, then 17 years of age, came to America. He remained two or
three years in Montreal, and then removed to New Glasgow ; but the
place, at that time especially, offered but little encouragement to
men of enterprise and ambition : and after a residence there of three
or four years, the father and son decided to go to South America. With
this design they had gone as far as Montreal, when, by one of tlv

simple events which sometimes effect great changes, they were led to
throw up their plan and remain in Canada.

The younger Barclay happened, unexpectedly on the street, man named John
Wanless, whom he formerly knew in Edinburgh, but who then live.


in St. Andrews. On learning Barclay s intention of going to South America,
so eloquently did he portray the risk he was incurring in going to that
semi- barbarous and tropical country, and so effectually did he plead
the advantages afforded by Canada, that young Barclay and his father
decided to return with him to St. Andrews.

One Sabbath morning, while living in this Village, James strolled out
on the road leading to Carillon, and as he passed over the " Hill," and
saw the beautiful gardens and the fine orchards just then gorgeous with
a profusion of blossoms, he thought he had seen no other spot in this
country so attractive, or one which reminded him so forcibly of Scotland ;
and he then said to himself that, if he ever purchased a farm in Canada,
it would be on Carillon Hill. After a residence of a few years in St.
Andrews, he removed to Carillon Village, where for a long time his
enterprise contributed to the activity of the place. Besides opening
a boot and shoe shop, he started a stage lire between this Village and
Grenville, which at that time, before the construction of the railway,
was an enterprise of great utility*

In accordance with his determination mentioned above, in 1835, ne
purchased the farm on Carillon Hill which had been owned by Peter
McArthur. It was some time, however, before he lived on this farm,
though he employed men to cultivate it.  He was for some years agent
for the McPherson & Crane Forwarding Company.  When the Carillon &
Grenville Railroad was completed, he was the first conductor on it ;
but soon afterward, advancing age compelled him to resign this position,
and his last years were spent in quietude on the pleasant farm still
occupied by his children.

During the Rebellion of 1837, his knowledge of the country and extensive
acquaintance with its inhabitants, added to his good judgment and
activity, rendered him a very useful servant of the Government, and
he was frequently employed to carry despatches between Montreal and
St. Andrews. One night, having occasion to stop at a wayside tavern to
have his horse fed, he found there a number of rebels who suspecttd him,
and intended to take him prisoner ; but one of their number, who some time
previously had, been in his employ, followed him to the stable, revealed
the plot of his fellow rebels, and advised him to escape. Trusting the
man, and

deciding to follow his advice, he mounted his horse, and putting spurs
to him, was soon clear of the place, but only in time to escape the
volley of shots fired after him.  It is perhaps needless to say that he
did not draw rein until he was well out of their reach. The despatches
were carried between the soles of his boots.

In politics, he was a staunch Conservative, being a warm admirer of the
late Sir hn A. Macdonald, and his influence in behalf of Conservative
candidates was always displayed, in no small degree, in times of elections
; indeed, he was one whose abilities were worthy of a broader field of
action. He was a man of sterling integrity and inflexible will, yet he
possessed a great fund of humor, and enjoyed a good practical joke.

Mr. Barclay was twice married : the first time, in 1832, to Ann Hayes
of Limerick, Ireland, who died in 1839, and he then married her sister,
Joanna, who died in 1866.


By the first marriage he had four children, but only the eldest, John,
is now alive ; he is engaged in an extensive commission business in
Glasgow. By the second mar

riage, he had a large family of children ; but of these, only four sons
and two daughters

are now alive.

William, the eldest of these, and a man of ability, is a commercial
traveller for the house of Frothingham & Workman, Montreal; he was married
in 1873 to Adria Haines of that city. His family resides in St. Andrews,
where the influence of Mrs.  Barclay in support of temperance and
Christian work is strongly exerted. Hanam,

their eldest son, is pursuing a course of study in mining and engineering,
in Chicago.

George, the second son of James Barclay, is engaged with Mclaughlin Bros.,
lumbermen, in Arnprior, Ont. Henry, the third son, after spending some
years in

Montreal as machinist, returned to Carillon ; and now lives on the
homestead with his sisters, Joanna and Florence all, like their parents,
deservedly esteemed by the community around them. Colin Campbell, the
fourth son, is in Rico, Colorado a dealer in hardware and mining supplies.

ALEXANDER MC!NTOSH, from Lochaber, Scotland, spent part of his early life
in England, and in 1850 went to Australia, being in the latter country
while the gold fever was at its height. He afterward returned to Scotland,
and in 1866 came to Can ada and bought the " Prioiy " on the " Field Farm
" in St. Andrews. This building was then the property of Mrs. Abbott,
widow of the late Rev. William Abbott.

Mr. Mclntosh was married in England to Miss Ward, and they had three
children all daughters; he died in St Andrews in 1884. Mrs. Mclntosh
survives him, living with her daughter, Mrs. McNaughton.

The latter, who is the youngest of the three sisters, married Dr. Donald
Mc Naughton of Hudson ; they removed to Carillon, and purchased the
present pro perty of Mrs. McNaughton, " Dunderav," formerly known as
" Milncraig," a beau tiful place on the road leading from Carillon to
St. Andrews.

Dr. McNaughton died in December, 1888, leaving a widow, one son and five


The eldest daughter, Anna, married to C. V. De Boucherville, lives in (
Eliza, married to Martin S.Albright, lives at Prospect Place, La Baie ;
Eleanor, married to James Machan, lives in Grenville ; Grace M. and Flora
are attending Dunham Ladies College; Duncan, the son, is in the States.

Miss AGNES TAYLOR, of Carillon Hill, has been a resident of this place
for several


Her parents, James and Elizabeth (Beattie) Taylor, came to this Scotland
in 1837, and first settled in St. Andrews. Mr. Taylor was employed,
s after his arrival, as foreman on the estate of Commissary Forbes,
Carillon ; Rebellion was then in progress, in going to and from his work
lenged by sentinels posted between the two villages, and compelled to
word. He afterwards removed to Isle aux Chats, where he di Taylor died
in 1888. They had four sons and six daughters.


James, the eldest son, is the proprietor of a fine farm in East Hawkesbury
; David, the second son, is in Independence, Oregon ; Joseph, third
son, lives on the homestead ; and Robert, the youngest, in British
Columbia. Of the daughters, five married, and all who are now living
remain in Canada. Mary A., one of the daughters, married to James Taylor,
lives at Isle aux Chats.

Agnes R., who is the fourth daughter, came to this place in 1889,
and purchased

the residence, of her brother David, who was about leaving for the
West. Miss Taylor has made many improvements, and her pretty residence,
known as " Rosebank Cottage," with its fine view of the Ottawa and
profusion of flowers in summer, adds much to the attractiveness of
the street.

JOHN A. SHARMAN, a native of Norfolk, England, a tailor by trade, came
to America in 1830. He soon returned to his native country, but came
back again in

J 833, and before 1849 na d crossed the Atlantic with his family nine
times, on a few occasions as super-cargo, thus saving the expenses of the
voyage. On one of these trips, the vessel, when returning to England,
heavily laden with lumber, encountered a severe gale, and sprang a
leak. The storm continued three days ; the hands were all set at the
pumps, and to encourage them, the captain supplied them liberally, as well
as himself, with rum, till, with the exception of the carpenter, they were
all drunk. Mr. Sharman, seeing the condition of things, and knowing that
their escape from death depended entirely on the ability of the sailors
to work the pumps, assumed command, and with the aid of the carpenter
managed, with much difficulty, to keep the sailors at work. So badly did
the vessel leak, that for some hours he could not see that the water in
the vessel diminished. Concealing this fact, however, from the sailors,
and exhorting them to persevere, the ship out-rode the storm, and even

tually, badly water-logged, reached port.

During the year that Mr. Sharman lived in this country, he plied his
trade in different places : New York State, East Hawkesbury, Ont,
Chatham and St. Johns,

Que., and lastly on the Lachute Road, St. Andrews, where he died, 24th
January, 1875, aged 79.

He lived in New York about the time the Canadian Rebellion was
approaching ;

and his outspoken English opinions were not calculated to make friends
in that

locality, hence he came to Canada. Mrs. Sharman, his second wife,
died i4th

November, 1852, aged 44. He married a third time, but had no children,
save by

the second marriage ; these were two sons and two daughters.

ALONZO L., the eldest son, followed the trade of his father, which he
still pur- s in Carillon. He was married 26th October, 1865, to Mary
Gordon. She died zoth

June, 1875 ; they had tsvo sons and a daughter. He married a second
time, 25th ebruary, 1878, Mary L., daughter of the late John Dewar ;
they have one son and

one daughter. Mr. Sharman is a Christian man, and an earnest advocate
of temper

ance. In the fall of 189.1, aided by Mrs. Sharman, he organized a Sabbath
School in this village, which is held at his residence.


Th e Carillon & Grenville Railway is only a section of a road which was
to be built from Montreal to Ottawa ; and though it commenced with a
fair prospect o f success, it ended disastrously for its projectors.

It was begun in 1857 by two brothers from England, William and Samuel
Sikes, both skillful mechanics, and one, at least, being a mechanical
engineer. The money for the enterprise was to be provided by an English
banking firm, SikeF, DeBerg & Co., of which firm, Alexander Sikes,
a brother of the two named above, was a member.

Labor on the road was commenced at different points, Montreal,
St. Eustache, St. Andrews, etc., a steam mill being erected at the latter
place, near the River Rouge, to saw lumber required in the construction
of the road, and artesian wells were sunk to provide the mill with water.

The work had progressed favorably for nearly two years the men employed
had been promptly paid, and the money to pay the last sum of indebtedness
for labor had been sent from England, when a sad accident abruptly
terminated the whole project.

Immediately after the last instalment of money had been sent, Alexander
Sikes took passage on a vessel for America, with a view, it is supposed,
of inspecting the work in which his company had invested so much money
; but the vessel, with all on board, was lost. When this sad accident
became known in England, the company of

which the deceased, Mr. Sikes, had been a member sent to their
representative here, requesting him to return the money he had lately

The order was obeyed, and thus the Sikes brothers on this side of the
Atlantic were without means to accomplish their object. Unwilling,
however, to abandon the work, they invested what little capital they
possessed, which being soon swallowed up, the work, from necessity,
was abandoned.

Others besides the Sikes brothers lost heavily in this unlucky venture
perhaps, more largely than Sydney Bellingham, M.P.P. for Argentcuil.

The only completed portion of the road was that between
Carillon andGrenvil and this coming into possession of the late
Hon. J. J. C. Abbott, solicitor for

managers, was, by him, sold to the Ottawa River Navigation Company
in 1863.

JOHN McGowAN, the present superintendent of the abcwe Railway, and one
of prominent citizens and business men of Carillon, was born in Balmagh
parish, g land. He came to Montreal in 1842, and was first employed
by a i near the city, with whom he remained two years. He then engaged
Thomas Masson, Notre Dame street, Montreal ; but at the erpiration of ilm
declining health compelled him to abandon the store. His father s fam.l
in this country, and in connection with his father, he bought a farm
at where he was engaged till about 1858. In the year previous, he was
marnc McCuish, who died in 1870, leaving eight children. Four of these
died and two more after reaching the age of eighteen. In 1859, Mr. M<
to the Ottawa River Navigation Company, and for five years was loca


In 1863, the Company purchased the Carillon & Grenville Railway, and
the following year he came to Carillon to act as superintendent for
the Company.

While thus engaged, he has not been indifferent to the public
affairs of villas and has taken special interest in schools. He was
Secretary-Treasurer of the School Board when living in Hudson, and is
now Secretary-Treasurer of the dissen tient school of this village. He
was Miyor of the village in 1893, and once since has been elected to the
same office. In 1874 he went to Scotland, and while there was married
to Jane Edgar. Mr. McGovvan is a man of much energy and activity, and a

very proficient and careful manager of the interests committed to his
charge.  John, his eldest son, who was employed several years as purser
on the steamer Princess," the duties of which position he discharged to
the unqualified approval ot the Com pany and the public, has recently
been appointed Captain of the new steamer

" Duchess of York."

George, the only son by his second marriage, who has lately attended a
Com mercial College in Montreal, is now ai home.

Isabella, his only daughter, was married in May, 1893, to Ernest Howe,
of the firm of Howe & Mclntyre, commission merchants of Montreal.

JOHN HALSEY, the engineer on the C. & G. Railroad, was born of English
parents in Dublin, and cam; to Canada in 1870. His father and grandfather
had been in the Navy, and the former served at the blockade of Kiel, and
in Egypt won three medals for his proficiency and bravery. He afterward
entered the Coast Guard service, and moved to Dublin.

Mr. John Halsey served his apprenticeship as locomotive fitter on
the Great Southern & Western R.R., and received the most flattering
testimonials from the


After going to Montreal, he worked two years in the Grand Trunk shops,

three years in Brockville for the Can. Central R.R., after which he
worked another

year in the Grand Trunk shops at Montreal. He then accepted the
position of

Locomotive Engineer for the Ottawa River Navigation Company, and has
held it, to

their great satisfaction, for eighteen years. He was married, 22nd June,
1876, to

Margaret, eldest daughter of James Beaton, of Her Majesty s Customs,

Island of Lewis, Scotland. They have had nine children eight sons and one

daughter, of whom six sons are living. The eldest, Robert, who is learning
the trade

of machinist, has been with the Ingersoll Sergeant Drill Co. of St. Henri,

March, 1893.

KELLY S HOTEL, which has been known to the public for nearly fifty years,
is the only one besides the Sovereign, in Carillon. Large as these two
houses seem for so small a place, they are inadequate in the summer
season to accommodate the number applying for board.

JOHN KELLY, the oldest English-speaking resident of Carillon, is a son
of J.  Kelly, one of the early settlers of Grenville, and he came to
Carillon in 1848.  Patrick


lo I

Murphy who had kept a public house in this village, was now deceased,
and Mr Kelly married his widow, and became proprietor of the hotel. Being
active/and po .es of an enterprising spint, as well as shrewdness, he
engaged in whatever nT of business besides hotel keeping presented to
him an opportunity of making money

In those days, before the advent of railways, the travel through Carillon
"far exceeded w,,at it has since. The large number of lumbermen who were
employed on the upper Ottawa and its tributaries all passed to and fro
through Carillon, and be umber manufactured at the Hawkesbury and other
mills, which now is borne off by

locomotives, all came down the Ottawa in rafts, manned by a number of
men whose

patronage added not a little to the profits of the hotel-keeper. At
that time the business of towing, in which Mr. Kelly largely engaged,
was not the least profitable source of his income, and, besides, he
also became a dealer in wood. He had several horses, and their constant
employment in conveying travellers, towing and drawing wood and freight,
together with his farm, secured to him a good income Whi]

thers slept, or whiled away their time to no purpose, Mr. Kelly was hard
at work three and four o clock in the morning being not an unusual hour
for him to begin

In those days of greater financial prosperity, his income from different
sources often exceeded $150 a day - $800 sometimes being realized between
Monday morning and Saturday night. To the credit of Mr. Kelly it can
also be said that, while he was economical, his economy never bordered
on penuriousness, his purse

always being ready to encourage charitable objects or public
improvements. " Money is power;" and when to this its possessor adds
shrewdness and affability, he exerts an influence among his fellows
which those who seek favors at the hands of the public are always sure
to court. For this reason, the aid of Mr. Kelly has not infre quently
been sought in election campaigns ; and a history of the scenes of
political excitement and political chicanery he has witnessed would
alone fill a volume.  In 1875, he was induced with some others to place
a steamer on the Ottawa, to rim in opposition to the old line between
Carillon and Montreal, he advancing the money for the purpose. The first
boat purchased was the " Manitoba," at a cost of $ 4,000 which, after
running for four years, was condemned by the inspector. The company then
purchased the " T. B. Maxwell," but after a while financial difficulty
arose, in consequence of which the shareholders- with the exception of
Mr. Kelly and Nelson Burwash withdrew, Mr. Kelly again advancing money
to purchase the shares of the retiring partners. After running the boat
five years longer, and not finding it a remunerative investment, they
sold out to a company in Toronto.

Mr. Kelly was a member of the Municipal Council of St. Andrews for a
period of fifteen years, but seeing the necessity of sidewalks and other
improvements in his own village, he took steps to have it incorporated
into a separate municipality, which event was secured in the fall of 1888,
against determined opposition ; he was Mayor the first four years after
its incorporation, and has recently been elected Mayor by acclamation. In
1874, he erected his present hotel, which is of brick, and thclliu-st
building in Carillon ; he has retired from active business, having given
the mana- ment of his business affairs to his son, T. P. Kelly. The
latter was married 5th


February, 1890, to Emma Burrows, of P.ospect, Ont. They own considerable
real estate in this section, the taxes on which amount to a large share
of all levied in the


Mr Kelly s first wife died i 9 th September, 1870 ; he was married, 2?th
October I875 , to Julia, second daughter of the late William Lawler,
Esq., of Hawkesbury;

she died i8th October, 1889.

The " SOVEREIGN HOTEL," which, as stated elsewhere, has long been
called Barracks," is a fine commodious stone building located near the
Ottawa. Though erected for an hotel in 1830 by Commissary Forbes, it was
found to be too large and expensive for that period, and has not been
used as a public house until recent years.  For the last three years it
has been under the management of N. L. LADOUCEUR, an active young mm,
who has discharged the duties of his calling efficiently, and to the
satisfaction of his patrons. He is the youngest son of Odilon Ladouceur,
noticed in the succeeding sketch. In his early days he learned the trade
of machinist, which trade he followed ten years, and then conducted
a grocery for a while in Ottawa. H< was married, i 7 th January,
1893, to Victoria Clairmont of Rigaud ; she died 2 4 th March, 1894;
and Mr. Ladouceur was next married, isth July, 1895, to Helen Deschamps
of Montreal.

In 1858. ODILON LADOUCEUR came from St. Scholastique, his native place,
to St.  Andrews, where he still resides. He is a builder and contractor,
and has followed this occupation throughout this section ever since his
arrival. He married Mdlle.  Mathilde Lalonde ; they have had seven sons
and three daughters that have arrived at maturity.

One of the sons, EDMOND A. B. LADOUCEUR, is a member of the Montreal
Bar.  He was born at St. Andrews, 8th October, 1866, received his
early training at the school of the Viateur Brothers in that place,
and entered the Bourget College, at Rigaud, in 1879. His course there
was a very successful one; he was at the head

of his classes, and thus, naturally, won the approbation of his
professors. He also displayed a taste for literary work, and several of
his essays, some of which were in verse, secured for him many compliments.

In 1885, having completed his studies, he settled in Montreal, where he
was suc

cessively attached to L Etendard and La Patrie.

In 1886, he was admitted to the study of law, took his law course at Laval

University, being attached at the same time to the office of
Hon. J. J. Curran, now judge of the Superior Court, and to that of
Mr. J. L. Archambeault, the Crown Pro.

secutor. While a student, Mr. Ladouceur wrote for several publications,

to the Monde Illustri, under the noni de plume of Lorenzo; several of
his poems

were accorded much credit.

He is a fluent and ready speaker a talent that he has used effectively
on the

political hustings in behalf of the Liberal cause.

He has spent some time in the New England and Western States, and,
while in

Michigan, took part in the presidential campaign of 1892. He afterward
settled in

Biy City, where for a time he had editorial charge of the French newspaper



Le Patriote. Attachment to Canada, however, led him back to Montreal,
where he was admitted to the Bar, i3th January, 1893.

DENNIS GAHERTY, a gentleman well known among contractors and business men,
is at present a resident of Carillon. He came from Dublin with his father
about 1827, when he was but three years of age. In 1843 ne was given an
important Government contract on the Ottawa, and since that time has been
employed chiefly with large contracts of various kinds. His extensive
experience and correct judgment with regard to labor have caused his
services to be largely sought; and many difficult and dangerous jobs
given up by others have been brought by him to successful completion. He
has also engaged quite extensively in running boats and in boat building,
having at different times owned thirteen boats which plied between Quebec
and Kingston. In 1879, in company with two others, he received a contract
on the new canal at Carillon, and lived here ten years ; he returned in
1891, and was superintendent of repairs on the Dam a structure in which
he had before made extensive repairs on account of breaks. For nearly
a year he has been employed at Lachine and St. Anns.

Mr. Gaherty has been twice married ; the last time to Miss Ellen Davis,
a sister of his first wife. By the first marriage, he had t\vo sons and
three daughters ; one of the former is deceased; the other, D. G. Gaherty,
is an M.D., who, on account of ill health, gave up an extensive practice
in Montreal, and now resides in Carillon.

Though Carillon has no important manufactory, this want is in a great
measure supplied by the Canal a goodly number of men having found
permanent employment on it, ever since its completion, sixty years ago;
and while this benefit, added to that of its aid to commerce, renders
it a work of great public utility its value to the place, as a work
of art, is a matter not to be ignored its massive cut-stone locks,
the trees that adorn its margin, with the pleasure always afforded by
running water along a ^raveled route, make up a feature in the landscape
of which the visitor never tires.

It was the hope of the writer, that he would be able to publish so:neof
the corres pondence and documents relating to ihe canal at its beginning
; but, as will be seen by the following letter, such papers are not in
existence. The letter was written in reply to an application of Mr. Colin
Dewar, on behalf of the writer, for information

respecting the subject in question :

OTTAWA, 20th July, 1894.


At the request of Mr. Brophy, I send you some information regarding
the canals in front of the County of Argenteuil, the most of which was
extracted from printed reports in this office.

Mr. B. says some valuable papers which belonged to his late father,
and which would have given many details not now available, cannot b>
found ; but he tr

that some of the dates furnished may not be too late for the object
Mr. Thomas has

in view.

Yours truly,



Enclosed with the above letter was the following brief but valuable
history of the

canals :

" The Grenville Canal lies on the north shore of the Ottawa, and carries

tion around the Long Sault Rapids. It is excavated partly through
solid rock and partly through earth ; the locks are of cut-stone. It
was designed and commenced by the Royal Staff Corps, for the Imperial
Government, in 1819; but owing to the limited amount appropriated to
this work each year, its progress was very slow.  As in the Carillon
and Chute au Blondeau canals, the original designs contemplated locks
corresponding in size to those of the Lachine Canal.

" Three of the locks were commenced and completed on these dimensions;
but in 1828, the enlarged scale of the Rideau locks was adopted for the
four remaining.

" All records relating to the establishment of these three canals the

Chute au Blondeau and the Grenville were kept in the Ordnance office in
Montreal, and were destroyed by fire in 1849. ^ appears, however, from
information given by parties engaged in the construction of the works,
that the Grenville canal was completed in 1829, the Chateau Blondeau
in 1832, and the Carillon in 1833; an d, - further, that on the 24th
of April, 1834, the canals were opened, and the steamer St. Andrews,
with two barges in tow, made the first passage through them.

" These canals were transferred to the Canadian Government about forty
years ago, and since that time their capacity has been greatly enlarged."

It will be seen by this that there were three different canals, though the
Chute au Blondeau has not been used since the erection of the dam. Two of
them the Carillon and Chute au Blondeau, however, are short, the former
not being more than half a mile in length, and the latter about one-third
of a mile. The Grenville Canal begins at Grenville and terminates at
Greece s Point, the distance between the two places being six miles.

Previous to the erection of the Carillon Dam, in order to increase the
depth of

water in the canal, a channel was dug from the North River, near the
Isle aux Chats, about a mile to the canal. This ingenious device,
to augment the value of the canal to commerce, was aptly termed the "
Feeder," a name that still not infrequently

rouses the curiosity of strangers.

After the dam was constructed, a new canal also was made, a little
shorter and nearer the river than the first; and as the water has since
been quite sufficient in quantity, the "Feeder" has fallen into- disuse.

As stated above, the canal was constructed by the British or Imperial
Govern ment, the Canadian Government at that early day scarcely being able
to afford the outlay for such public works. Two companies were enlisted
in England for this purpose, composed chiefly of sappers and miners, and
were called the Royal Staff Corps a name that will often be mentioned
on succeeding pages. Besides these, many other transient laborers were
also employed on the canal. Labor was first commenced on the canal at
Grenville, and it was several years before work was begun at Carillon. The
present Sovereign Hotel, formerly known as " The Barracks," was


occupied by the officers of this Corps during the time they were in
Carillon, hence the name "Barracks."

Mementoes of those days and those who were employed here, and of which
few of the present inhabitants of Carillon have ever heard, are still to
be seen.  On the shore of the Ottawa, at a point nearly opposite that
where "The Feeder" formed a junction with the old canal, are the stone
foundations of an old building, now, owing to the encroachments of the
river on the land, almost perpendicular with the water. Trees and bushes
have grown up so thickly in and around these walls, that they may easily
be overlooked.

Here, about the year 1824, a Scotchman named Hugh Chisholm erected
a dis tillery. Farmers, in those days, found a good market at this
for the little grain they raised ; but, unfortunately, they nearly all
accepted, as compensation for it, the whiskey into which their grain was
converted. It is stated as a fact, that men sometimes took a quantity
of grain there, hoping to obtain with it a little money, and, meeting
congenial companions, would begin with a social glass, and before leaving,
would exhaust not only the price of the grain, but be in debt to the pro
prietor. But though he had such patrons, the business of Mr. Chisholm did
not prosper ; and, after a period of four or five years, he abandoned
it, went to Bucking ham, and became the partner of Mr. Bigelow, a
lumberman. In this vocation, he was more successful, so that in a few
years he was able to retire. During the last years of his life, he was
a Christian and an active supporter of the cause of temperance.

Mr. C. Dewar thus writes :

" At the time of giving you the sketch of Mr. Chisholm, I forgot to
mention an incident that occurred when he lived at the Old Distillery,
and which goes to show the instinct and sagacity of the brute creation,
and their wonderful powers of compre hension. Mr. Chisholm always lived
alone, and was in the habit of talking to his pets as if they were human
beings, a fine collie dog being his constant companion.

"One day he had been at work in the hayfield on the Island with my father,
and on his return home found that he had lost the key of his house. He had
small hopes of finding it, but, calling the dog, told him he had lost it,
and ordered him off to find it. The dog started off, but returned in a
short time, very dejected and crest fallen ; he was scolded and sent off
again, his master repeating over and over the words find it. In a short
time became bounding over the hill with every demon stration of joy,
having the key in his mouth, thus performing a feat that a human being
could not do. 1

The building used as a distillery by Mr. Chisholm was afterward occupied
by members of the Royal Staff Corps, during the time they were employed
on the canal.  A rough frame work for a bell tower was erected near it,
and a bell was rung to warn the men of the hour of beginning and closing
work and to call them to their meals.  In proximity to this distillery was
a log building, which was originally used for a house, and subsequently
for a blacksmith shop. It was vacant at the time the canal laborers came
here, and they used it as a blacksmith shop in connection with

their own work till the completion of the canal.




JOHN FORBES, who had been in the British service, connected with an
Artillery Company, came to Carillon about 1842, and soon afterward
was appointed Lock Master ; he died about 1860, leaving three sons and
three daughters.

William B., one of the former, succeeded his father as Lock Master,
and, later,

was promoted to the position of Superintendent. A short time before his
death, which occurred in 1889, he purchased the homestead of the late
Lemuel Gushing, and repaired and embellished it at much expense. He left
one son, John William, who

was married to Alice Rodger.

George Thomas Forbes, brother of William B., succeeded the latter as
Lock Master. He died April 26th, 1872, leaving a widow (who, before
her marriage, was Miss Schneider) and three children two sons and a
daughter. Of the former, George Archibald, the elder, married to Elise
Bissette, of Quebec, is employed as Bookkeeper with James Whitham & Co.,
boot and shoe manufacturers, of Montreal. Arthur Thomas, the second son,
has early in life attained a responsible position, being manager and buyer
in the retail department of J. Eveleigh & Co., wholesale trunk and bag
manufacturers of Montreal. He was married i4th June, 1894, to Margaret,

daughter of the late Captain J. H. Leslie.

DANIEL MURPHY, the present Collector of Tolls on the Canal, is a son
of Patrick

Murphy, who was born in Kilkenny, Ireland, in 1774; the father became
a sailor early in life, and came to St. John, N.B., in 1798, and was
for some time Captain of a fishing vessel connected with that port. He
afteiward returned to his native land, entered the navy under Nelson,
and was in the battle of Trafalgar. Subsequently

he came to Quebec, where he was stevedore, and then conducted an hotel
till about, 1840, when he came to this section and Jived on a farm a
while, in Chatham, which he left to keep hotel in Carillon. He died here
in 1848, leaving one son, Daniel.  His widow, a woman of much tact and
energy, married Mr. John Kelly, who con tinued the hotel business.

After his school days were ended, Daniel became manager in the
hotel. Business at that time was most lively in Carillon, and his
activity and faithfulness in the dis charge of his duties being noticed
by Mr. Sipple, chief engineer on the Canal, the latter gentleman suggested
that Mr. Murphy should apply for his present position, that

of Collector. After some deliberation, he acted on the suggestion,
and, aided by the influence of Mr, Kelly, received his appointment in
1872. It will thus be seen that he has held the position twenty-four
years, and during this long period has dis

charged his duties faithfully, and to the approval of commercial men
and the public; he has also served several times as Assessor for this
municipality. He was married 28th January, 1891, to Emma Jane, daughter
of Patrick Kelly of Grenville.

WILLIAM BROPHY came from Queen s County, Ireland, to Montreal in 1823.
About two years later, he went to Hawkesbury, Out., where he remained


years, and then removed to St. Andrews, in vrhich village he worked
several years at his trade of shoemaker. About the beginning of the
Rebellion, he moved to Lachute, and enlisted in Capt. Quinn s Company of
Volunteers. He went with that Company to Cornwall where he became ill,
and died in 1838 ; he left one son and four daughters.  Margaret, one
of the latter, taught school in Lachute for a number of years.  John,
the son, at an early age, went to live with an uncle in St. Andrews,
and remained with him until his marriage to Mary Banfield in 1864. Miss
Banfield s father was a sergeant in the Royal Staff Corps, and after
the canal was completed, he was appointed Lock Master of Lock No. 2,
Carillon. He died in 1841, leaving two sons and three daughters ; the
sons are now deceased, and the two sisters of Mrs. Brophy, Anna

and Susan, the former married to Rufus Lamkin, and the latter to William
McKeever live in Cambridge, Mass.

Mr. Brophy is a carriagemaker by trade, to which he has devoted many
years of his life ; in June, 1872, he was appointed Lock Master at this
place, and still holds the position. He has most carefully provided
for the education of his children, who have proved themselves worthy of
his solicitude.

John C., the eldest son, received a thorough training at the private
school of George Wanless of Carillon, and then attended Montreal
College, from which he graduated in 1885 with the highest honors,
winning the Lansdowne Medal, and taking first prize in every branch of
the curriculum. After a few years study of Philosophy and Theology, he
received his degree of Bachelor of Divinity, and in 1890 went to Rome,
where he pursued his studies for two years, and received the degree
of D.D.  Before returning to Canada, he visited France, England, Ireland,
and other countries of Europe. On his return, he accepted a Professorship
in his Alma Mater, and is now Professor of Theology in the Grand Seminary.

The two remaining sons of Mr. Brophy Thomas J. and William P. are both
employed in the General Post Office at Montreal, the former in the
Money Order,

and the latter in the Registry Department.

Mary J., the daughter, attended the Convent of the Sisters of St. Ann s,
at Lachine, where she also received the Earl of Derby Medal, in 1893.

, JOHN MASON of Wolverhampton, England, at the age of 18, enlisted
at Charllon,

on the 24th April, 1820, in the Royal Staff Corps. He was made a corporal
in his company, which was commanded by Col. Duvernay, Mrs. Duvernay
accompanied her husband to Canada, and her maid was a girl named Mary Ann
McCue. Between this maid and John Mason, an attachment sprang up after
they had arrived in Canada, and, in time, they were married. The young
couple were deservedly esteemed by the Colonel and Mrs. Duvernay, who,
cherishing the best wishes for their prosperity, advised them, when the
canal was finished, to remain in Canada.  IHit John Mason had decided to
return to England with a number of his Corps, who could not be induced by
the offer of free grants of land to remain. After vainly endeavoring to
dissuade him from his purpose, his wife appealed to her mistress and the


1 88

her behalf, so her husband was finally induced Colonel to i-^^S^Jto rt
position on ,M canal, no, already filled, that


U,. r^mnine^ tVipre until his ChUar \N c

that appointment. He reman school, when, for the purpose

em-gc, ^^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^

that appomtmem. * 1 ^ ^^ advantages , hc

1 B-> renville. Theresa, the youngest daugh.er, , marned in ,866 to
Joseph Bryarton, bailiff of Carillon.

RV the youngest son of Mr. and Mrs. Mason, after being employed many

h Otuwa was appointed, ,st August, ,87., to his father s pos.t.on as
years on the Otta .^ ^ ^ Qf the same year

X^eorH^Cvi.ag, .^ his father ; Mr Mason is desirous of Tducadng his
children, and has sen, his ,on Herbert to R.gaud College.

P G,RD, who lives in Carillon, is foreman on the canal, and also
Secretary- Treasurer of the Village Council and Board of School Commoner,
H,s nat.ve is Point Levis, Quebec, and there he learned the trade of
h,s father who was 1 buiWer In connection with him, he built many of
the fine boats now plymg lake of Canada. In the fall of ,871, he came
to Canllon to bu.ld the

- **** Mary Boyerof this vil-

- " hey have eight children-four of each sex. Since that penod, h,s
home has

alfvaU been at Carillon, thonghfor a year he worked in Ottawa and was also
three North West building boats for the North West Navigat.on Company.
ir,^: h w P ott ed tin on the canal, and after the Superintendent, Mr
George Simpson, was incapacitated through illness, Mr. G.rard performed
the ofTe office tar sixteen months, or until the appointment of the
present super,,,

tpnrlent Mr Herbert Simpson. .

Mr. Girard is a careful and efficient business man, and possesses the

and courtesy of the people of his nationality.

FREDERICK POULIN, who has a farm and a fine brick residence in Carillon
has been an employee on the canal for many years ; he was formerly foreman
of the Mechanical department ; he married Miss Boyer of Carillon. Godfrey,
his eldest

is employed in the boot and shoe store of Mr. Mallette, McGill street,
Montreal .  Alphonse, his second son, is checker for the Richelieu &
Ontario Navigation (

TORN HODGSON, a native of the county of Vaudreuil, has been employed as
mechanic by the Government, for several years ; he has recently erected
a gc "sidence in Carillon. Mr. Hodgson was married i 5 th June, 1887,
to Elizabeth,


daughter of the late James Beggs, of East Hawkesbury. Both Mr. and
Mrs. Hodgson

are staunch and worthy members of the Methodist Church.

WALTER MCGREGOR, a young man of industrious habits, has been a faithful
employee here for the last eight years. His parents formerly lived in
Carillon, but removed to Ottawa in 1889, where his father has since died.

THOMAS FAG AN, who owns the stone residence formerly known as the
Wanless Academy, is employed by the Government as diver; it often
being necessary to descend to the bed of the canal to make repairs. A
water-tight rubber suit, supplied with life line and hose, through which
air is pumped to the diver, renders the occu pation a comparatively safe
one, though somewhat gruesome to the novice.

ALEX. BERNIQUIER and C. RAFFERTY are lock-men at No. 3 ; the former
has been employed on the canal 10 years. During this time, he has spent
his winters

in the lumber-woods, where he formerly worked.

The river boats, also, obtain several employees from Carillon.

ISIDORE LEFEBVRE has been an engineer on the Ottawa 32 years. His
eldest son, Isidore, is assistant engineer on the steamer " Hall,"
and his second son,

Florimond, holds the same position on the " Olive ;" Olier, another son
of Mr.  Lefebvre, is one of the noted cheese-makers of Argenteuil.

ALFRED BOILEAU, a very industrious and skillful mechanic of this village,
has been in the employ of the Ottawa River Navigation Co. for 32 years.

Carillon, besides being supplied with three mails a day in summer,
and two in winter, has a telegraph and a telephone office. The forner
is in the house of N.  Raymond ; his daughter, Miss Donalda Raymond,
being the operator. The telephone

is in the office of the Canal Superintendent.

J. B. GAUTHIER, a brother of the late Victor Gauthier, has long been
in the employ of telegraph companies as a mechanic, and is now in the
employ of the G. N. W.  Company. He came to Carillon from New Brunswick in
1889, leaving there his two eldest sons, Edmund and Joseph ; the former
has succeeded to his father s position, and the latter is engaged quite
extensively in the electric light and telephone business. Victor and John,
two younger sons of Mr. Gauthier, who live at Carillon, are also in the
employ of the G. N. W. Telegraph Co. Victor, besides possessing

much mechanical ingenuity, is also quite a skillful taxidermist.

The succeeding paragraph or two, and account of the robbery at Carillon,

sent us by Colin Dewar.

* The water was very low in the North River during the summer of 1840,
a considerable difficulty was experienced in passing heavily laden
barges through the canal, as the " Feeder" could not get the supply. To
remedy this, a large money was expended on the dams at the mouth of the
" Feeder," in the spr 1841, which, however, was not of permanent benefit.

In 1842, John Brophy, Esq., C.E., was appointed Superintendent of I and
Grenville canals, a position which he held for many years.


Owing to the-constantly increasing traffic through the canals, the old-
fashioned system of working the lock gates by means of a capstan was
too slow and tedious, and Mr. Brophy had them removed, and the windlass
introduced instead *hich proved a great benefit. Under his directions
the dams on the North River were greatly improved by filling up, and
preventing the waste of water thus keeping up a uniform height. It
was also under his directions that the Upper Locks were taken down and
rebuilt, a defect in the fuddling " when they were constructed causmg a

continual leakage.

On the night of the "Cattle Show" in September, 1844, the Government omce
at Carillon was broken into, and robbed of a large sum of money. The
robbers had procured an old ricketty ladder, which they placed against
one of the upper windows in the rear, and entering the cashier s office,
secured the small iron chest, which at that time contained over one
thousand dollars, as pay day was near at hand, threw the chest out of the
window, where the marks were visible, and earned it down near the locks,
where it was found in the morning, broken open and empty.

Three or four suspected persons were arrested, and sent to Montreal ;
but as nothing could be proved against them, they were discharged,
and that was the end of it


Mayor, John Kelly ; Councillors, Mercien Desjardins, ex-mayor, Andre
Vivarais, Fred. Poulin, Gedeon Thibodeau, Emile Rochon.

M. DESJARDINS, owner of a pleasant brick cottage in this village, has
long kept

a boot and shoe shop here, assisted by his son Gedeon ; the latter
received a two years course in the Commercial Department of Rigaud
College. Hilaire Desjardins, father of the ex-mayor, now 88 years of
age, lived at St. Eustache during the Rebellion of 37, and was wounded
in the leg while watching the combat.

Mr. THIBODEAU was engaged in teaching for many years ; he was also
Secretary- Treasurer of the School Board at Hochelaga, previous to coming
to Carillon. A few years since, he married Miss Boyer, of this village,
sister to Mrs. Poulin and Mrs.  Girard.

E. ROCHON has long been a skillful blacksmith in this village ; he has
a penchant for fine horses, of which he always has one or more.

ANDRE VIVARAIS, eldest son of Andre Vivarais, was born in Brown s
Gore. Ar- genteuil County, in 1848 ; he lived there until March, 1886,
when he sold his farm, and bought from Robert White the one on which
he still lives in Carillon. He has been twice married, first to Agnes
Ploof, who died in 1883, leaving two sons ; and the second time in 1885,
to Adele Beaudry, widow of Baptiste King. Mr. Vivarais has

been Municipal Councillor of Carillon for the past five years. His father
died here in 1894, and Mrs. Vivarais, sen., resides with her son, who
is one of the industrious farmers of the community.


WILLIAM MAN SON is proprietor of the bakery referred to elsewhere. He is
a native of Como, and was married ist June, 1880, to Miss Louisa Parsons,
of Hudson.  He has lived in Carillon but four years, during which he has
prosecuted his business with a good deal of energy, and the productions
of his manufactory have given general satisfaction. Mr. and Mrs. Manson
have three children, one son and two daughters.

Among the several fine stone dwellings of Carillon is that of
T. Pagan. This was erected about 1830, by Rinaldo Fuller, contractor,
for an academy, and soon after wards was bought by John Wanless, who
lived in it, and conducted a private school many years.

Mr. Wanless was from Scotland, and was a graduate of one of the Scotch
Uni versities. On coming to America, he was first employed in teaching
in New York,

and afterward, about 1827, came to St. Andrews, and for a year or two
conducted a private school in the building which is now the Anglican
parsonage. While there, he married a cousin named Wanless, and moved to
Carillon. He was a fine scholar, a

strict disciplinarian, and his school was highly popular, being patronized
by the sons and daughters of all the leading citizens of this section,
the late Hon. J. J.  C. Abbott being of the number. He died in 1882,
and his former pupils, from respect to his memory, erected at their own
expense a tombstone at his resting place in the St.  Andrews cemetery.


The Carillon Dam, across the Ottawa, is one of the great works of art
and triumphs of engineering s kill of the present century. It was built
by the Canadian Government, in the interests of commerce, to increase
the depth of water in the

canal, constructed at this point to overcome the obstruction of rapids
in the river ; it cost $1,350,000. On account of the great expense,
there was much opposition to the project, and for this reason, during
the McKenzie administration, work on the structure was wholly suspended ;
but it was resumed when the successor of McKenzie came into office.

The Dam is 2,400 feet long and 12 feet high ; its construction was
commenct in 1873, the engineer being Horace Merrill, late Superintendent
of the Ottawa River Works ; and the contractors were F. B. McNamee &
Co. It was made of cribs filled with stone, which was supplied by the
neighboring farmers, at 45 and 55 cts.  yard. Near the middle, is a
slide for the passage of timber; this is 28 feet wide, feet long, and
approached by 2800 feet of boom ; an apron, at the top and foot the slide,
regulates the quantity of water required, and " stop logs" serve the

purpose in the passage of timber. A house, painted red, covering the
entrance slide, is quite a conspicuous object on the Dam, and serves to
attract the curie

of strangers.

The structure was completed in the fall of iSSr, and when the closed,
and the water had reached its full height, it was found that it mis
water at Greece s Point six miles up the river two feet.


In 1883 a portion of the Dam gave way, and was repaired at an expense
of $ 20 coo Although the bed of the river, where the Dam crosses it,
is entirely of rock it was found to be so soft in character, that the
water had undermined the

Dam thus causing the breakage. Since that, much money and labor have
been expended to add to its strength and durability, and it is believed
it will now effectually withstand the assaults of water or ice.

Mr John Middleton,of Pt. Fortune, slide master, reports that in 1882, 73
r passed through the slide ; in the years following, the number varied
considerably, and in 1895 only 6 passed through. But the rafts of late
years have been much larger than formerly; one composed of 50 cribs used
to be regarded a raft of good size, while now one of 210 is not uncommon.

Notwithstanding the large number of men employed for so long a time,
and the danger of the work, only one serious accident occurred during
the construction ot the Dam. On the day the sluices were closed, a man
named Dernier, who had been employed on the work, slipped as he was
walking on the Dam, fell into the river, and

was drowned.

A few years later, however, an accident occurred, which, though not
attends with loss of life, escape from so sad a result seems due to
nothing short of a miracle.  Late one summer night, a steam tug came down
the river, having in tow several barges laden with lumber. Just as the
tug entered Lock No. 2 at the Dam, the nearest barge struck the end of
the pier; the tug gave a vigorous pull, but instead of bring- in- the
barge into the lock, the tow line parted, and the barge swung outward
into the swift-flowing river, a few rods above the Dam. Capt. Smith,
the owner of the ill fated barge, and his wife, both quite aged people,
were on board.

Like an electric shock, news flew through this little fleet that
Capt. Smith and his barge were going over the Dam. Quick hands seized
ropes, and soon the men were on the broad pier running at right angles
to the Dam, and several feet above it.  Through the vapor and darkness,
they descried the outline of the barge fast hasten ing to its doom. But
there was no need of light to show them where to direct their aid,
the cries of Capt. Smith and his frantic appeals for help defined
the spot. A rope thrown by dexterous hands falls on the barge at the
Captain s feet. He is safe.  Alas . he is not ; hi sees it, but the
roaring of the grim monster, now but a few yards distant, which he
feels will in a few seconds devour him and all that he holds most dear,
has filled him with an awful dread, and rendered him powerless to act.
The barge is gliding on, and the rope falls into the water, astern ;
but still there is a moment left, which the anxious, beating hearts
on the pier are determined to improve. Again the rope shoots out, and,
fortunately, this time rests on the Captain s shoulder ; now, surely,
he will grasp it and be saved, but no, he sees it slip downward, glide
across the deck, and drop into the water ; he is too paralyzed to move.
His last chance has flown, the awful moment has arrived, yet, strange
to relate, his facul ties return, reason resumes her throne. He knows
that his wife has descended to

the cabin, and believes it to be the most dangerous place. He calls her,
and then,



throwing himself flat on the deck, he thrusts his arm through a large
hole in an upright plank before him, bends his elbow, and to this object
clings with desperation.  The other arm encircles the waist of his wife,
who has thrown herself beside him. They were not kept long in this awful
suspense. Fortunately, the water was low ; the barge struck the Dam,
and quickly swung around, so that she lay broadside against it.

The water, thus checked, raised the opposite side sufficiently to throw
her entire deck load of lumber, consisting of many thousands of feet,
into the abyss below.  The barge, now buoyant, rose to the surface, and
so quickly followed the lumber, that it rested fairly on it, and thus
was prevented from being submerged. The boil ing waters, however, soon
carried away the lumber ; the barge, borne down twenty yards or more,
struck broadside against a large rock, and there, nearly broken into
two parts, remained. The Captain and his wife retained their recumbent
position, till they found the barge moored against the boulder, when
they rose to take notes of their strange situation, and calculate the
probabilities of once more seeing New York.  It is to be presumed,
however, that, like Christian people, their first act was to thank God
devoutly for their late miraculous escape from death.

But like the novelist, we must now invite the reader to another scene in
this story. After the barge went over the Dam, the men on shore hastened
to the nearest point whence they could see the barge, and shouted to
ascertain if it con tained any living occupant. No answer being returned,
they turned away with sor

rowful hearts, to ponder and discuss the awful doom of their companion
and the sad tidings they must bear to his friends. But not long
afterward, Mr. Mason, the Lock Master, who had been roused from his
sleep, discovered, as the mists from the river rose occasionally and
floated away, that there were living people on the wrecked barge ; but,
to his surprise, he could obtain no answer to his shouts. The next

morning, he and one or two more with a skiff rescued the ship-wrecked
couple, and then learned that their shouts had not been heard, every
other sound having been drowned by the roaring waters of the Dam.

We may add that Capt. Smith made two or three trips up the Ottawa,
after his per ilous adventure. His barge was insured, but the lumber it
carried was a total loss.


The Isle aux Chats is a small island in the North River, located about
a mile from Carillon. It contains no inhabitants, but the fact that it
has been the site of mills for many decades, and that there is a small
settlement of intelligent farmers near it, has rendered the locality
quite noted. The Island itself is in Chatham, but the settlement, which
is always called " Isle aux Chats," is in St. Andrews.  The name, it
is said, was given to the Island on account of the number of wildcats
infesting it when the country was new. It is quite evident, also, that
Indians used to frequent it, as many Indian relics have been found here.


HUGH ROBERTSON came to Canada from Glasgow, with his wife and family,
in 1857. After spending some time in Quebec and Three Rivers, he came
to Carillon,

and bought the property owned by Mrs. McNaughton, giving it the name
of" Ottawa

Lodge." Later, he came to Isle aux Chats and bought the Island, and the
saw, grist and woollen mills, which did quite an extensive business,
giving employment to a number of hands. Mr. Robertson had six sons and
two daughters, of whom all but one son are now living. Hugh William, the
eldest son, born June, 1848, in Glasgow, was nine years of age wh en his
father came to Canada. He was educated in Bishop s College, Lennoxville,
Que., and afterwards took the mills and farm from his father, who went
to Owen Sound, where he still resides. Mrs. Robertson died there i6th
Match, 1895, and was interred at St. Andrews. Hugh, the subject of our pre

sent sketch was married in 1874, to Miss De Hertel, daughter of Daniel
De Hertel, of Centerville. They have six sons and three daughters, all of
whom, with the excep tion of the eldest son, are still at home. The son,
also, Hugh William, after spending some time in the office of Molsons
Bank, Montreal, went to Owen Sound, where he

has a position in a branch office of the same Bank.

Mr. Robertson continues to keep his mills in operation, and also manages
his farm, which comprises Isle aux Chats and half a lot in Centerville.

Town of Lachute.*

This place, the chef-lieu of the county of Argenteuil, is located on the
North River, 9 miles from the Ottawa and 44 north of Montreal. It is also
on the line of the Canadian Pacific Railway, formerly the Q. M. O. &
O. Railway. Its location is very pleasant, level, high, the center of
a good agricultural district, and the scenery around, especially along
the river, is picturesque. The name was first derived from the fall or
chute, and was formerly written La Chute (The Falls), but afterwards
the two words were united, hence the name Lachute. No one seems to know
how the name of the Parish St. Jerusalem d Arg enteuil of which Lachute
forms a part?

* Lachute Town shall be that portion of the parish of St. Jerusalem in the
county of Argenteuil, contained within a line drawn as follows, to wit ;

Commencing on the line dividing the said parish from the township of
Chatham, at a point due west of the south-west covntv of lot 1419 of
the official plan and book of reference of the said parish (tope-walk),
thence northerly, along the said line to where it intersects the base of
the mountain on Jot 1692, and on said plan, eight hundred and fifty -eight
feet English, from the centre of Chatham road north ; thence eastward,
along the base of the said mountain (east of Leggo s farm house), to
where it joins the North River, thence ascending the centre of said river,
to a point formed by the inter- ection of the northerly continuation of
the eastern boundary line of lot 329 A on said plan with the


originated ; but it has been stated we know not on what authority that
the name

was suggested by Governor Metcalfe.

As the place has grown up chiefly within the last quarter of a century,
it natur ally has a youthful appearance, nearly all the best buildings
being new. From no one part of the corporation can a view of much of it
be obtained, hence, on traveling over it, one finds it much larger than
he had supposed.

The main street, from the West End, through Upper Lachute is two miles in
length, and there are several shorter streets well populated. Many of the
private dwellings, both from their location, and architectural neatness,
are attractive, while some of the public buildings the Registry office,
Ville Marie Bank, Argenteuil Hotel, the Academy, the establishments of
J. Roby and J. A. Bedard, besides the

immense structures of J. C. Wilson, are most imposing in appearance.

Fortunately for us, nearly half a century ago an effort was made to
collect a few facts with regard to the early settlement of this place,
and preserve them for fuuire use. Commendable as was this act, and
valuable as are the few facts thus trans mitted, it is to be deplored
that the researches were not far more thorough and


While we are told that, in 1796, a man named Hezekiah Clark came from
Jericho, Vermont, with his family, and planted the first cabin here,
the antecedents of Mr. Clark, and his motive in coming so far into the
wilderness, are left as matters only for speculation. It would, indeed,
be interesting to know why he sought this particular place for a home,
inasmuch an many leagues of land just as fertile, covered by forests just
as dense, with scenery equalling it in beauty, Jay between this place
and Jericho. Within half the distance from that town to Lachute, lay
a great part of what is now the Eastern Townships, but then an unbroken
wilderness. Why, then, did he come so far ? Was he a fugitive from justice
? Not at all ; for we are inform ed that he was soon followed by a number
of others, and that all were observant of Christian ordinances. We can
no more answer the question, than we can tell why some of the pioneers
located on rough, stony, rock-bound land, when they could just as easily
have procured the finest land in the country.

The most probable reason that we can assign for the course he pursued is,
that he calculated the chances for getting to market, and found that,
compared with other places, they were decidedly in favor of Lachute. In
no other unsettled section, di he find such a natural highway to other
settlements and to Montreal, as was present ed by the North River and
the Ottawa. It is possible also, that with that prophetic

said centre of ,iver (Morrison s Bridge) ; thence southerly, along the
said last mentioned line main road ; thence to a point on the south side
of said road, where it is jomed by the lots 112 and ^25 of said plan
(Lane s) ; thence southerly, along the cont.nuat.on of tioned line, to a
point formed by its intersection with the easterly continuation of the
cc Henry street on plan B of said parish ; thence westerly, along the
said last mentioned e to : formed by its intersection with the centre
line of Isabella street on said plan B thence southerly, along the last
mentioned line, to a point due east of the point of thence to said point
of commencement.


vision which characterized, now and then, one of those early settlers,
he foresaw some, thing of what really has occurred-the rapid opening up
of the country along the

! river, the utilizing of the admirable water-power, and decided that no
other spot presented such a fan- prospect to himself and posterity. But
whatever were the m ducements, the fact that he came is unquestioned, and
we can judge only from that fact, that he was a man of superior energy,
great endurance and courage, and was skilled in woodcraft. Without these
qualities he never would have come, nor

could he have maintained his family, while surmounting the difficulttes

imily, consisting of his wife, three sons and two daughters, came through
the woods with an Indian sled from St. Andrews, not even a cow path,
at that leading to the place of his future home. No house, not even a
bark shanty was there to receive them, and the first night was passed
beneath the shelter of a few branches of trees hastily gathered. The next
day, with that tact and energy characteristic of a woodsman, Mr. Clark
constructed a hut, or wigwam, which answered the purpose of a domicile,
till opportunity was given to erect a better one. Tradition claims,
as the site of this habitation, a spot near the present Lachute mills.

But who does not envy the lot of this pioneer ? What a chance for
enjoyment On the threshold of summer, when nature has donned her richest
garb, and we are

entranced by the melody of her voices, what seems more akin to paradise
than a home in the boundless forest ? The woods in summer ! What visions
of undisturbed retirement, blissful solitude, do they not suggest?

Hardship and privation are ascribed by general repo t to the lot of a
pioneer.  But what life is there among the laboring class free from those
perplexities and sor rows incident to a life of toil? Though the first
settlers had to work hard, and sometimes, especially in the beginning of
their career, were saddened at the small stock of provisions in the larder
and the condition of their wardrobe, yet, who ever saw a pioneer that
did not look back on his life in the woods as a pleasant one : Who did
not regard with pride every acre of land reclaimed from the forest, and

brought to a slate of cultivation? And how many pleasant memories are
associated vrfth those early struggles? What stories the old man will
tell of the feats of labor in chopping or logging in this spot or that
on his farm. With what pride, too, he will recount the number of bushels
of corn or potatoes he raised on yonder acre

the first crop produced by the virgin soil.

We are not favored with an account of Mr. Clark s experiences while he
lived here, yet we cannot forbear thinking that he had many pleasant
ones, even though there might have been many discouragements. Of one
thing, at least, he had an abundance, and that was fuel. Then, too,
past his door flowed a fine stream, whose waters teemed with fish,
and the forest was alive with a variety of game all of which not only
prevented the possibility of famine, but provided means by which the
taste, even of an epicure, might be gratified. The seed planted in the
new soil grew as if by magic ; and the crops were of a quantity well
calculated to satisfy and glad den the hearts of their possessor.


How different, too, must have been his emotions when, in the morning,
lie stepped forth from his cabin to begin his daily task, from those of
the laborer dwelling in a dilapidated tenement on a narrow street of a
city. No vitiated, smoke-laden air for inhalation here; no sound of cars
or carts rattling over the pavements, but the purest of heaven s air,
exhilarating from its burden of ozone, and fragrant with the odor of many
trees and forest flowers. No discordant sounds, but, instead, the songs of

birds, solos and duetts, and then the whole choral harmony, amusing
and cheering

through all the summer day.

And what relief from care ! No watching for callers at that cabin. No
feverish anxieties with regard to the toilet, or fears that mesdames
will find too much dust collected in the parlor ; on the contrary,
the inmates realize their emancipation from the bonds of fashion. What
liberty ! What comfort ! Perfect abandonment to ease !

The wild animals, though giving no real cause for apprehension, suggested
enough of danger to relieve this life from monotony, and tinge it with
romance. And withal, how much to encourage and spur to renewed exertion
! No surly employer to issue

orders, and growl at the manner and amount of work performed, and then, at
night fall, to dole out with grudging hand the wages of their toil. Free
from restraint, no one but themselves to please, in the most beautiful
locality, labor itself was a recrea tion and pleasure, giving as it did
strength to the muscles, vigor to the whole frame, and, consequently,
buoyancy to the spirits and happiness to the mind. Every day, the
expanding clearing encouraged to another day of labor, and gave promise
of de pasture, the meadow, the flocks and herds, and well filled barns.

But what of the Sabbath? Could there be any moral growth in this isolated
spot, far removed from church and the sound of church-going bell ? Ah
! yes, the Sabbath ! But perhaps they attended church. Seven miles only,
intervened between this and St. Andrews, and women, as well as men,
often performed longer journeys on foot, even though the labors of the
previous week inclined them on the Sabbath to take a needful rest. Who
can doubt that people of moral habits, distant from every scene of
vice and wickedness, in communion with the fairest scenes of nature,
should be led through nature up to nature s God?" Who can doubt if,
in their early years, they had been taught to respect things divine,
that in their present abode, their latitude to the Author and Giver of
their blessings increased, and that they remem-


bered the Sabbath to keep it holy ?

Hezekiah Clark has no descendants in this part of the country, but repoi
that they are an intelligent and reputable class who occupy responsible
positions in

distant places.

According to a brief History of Lachute referred to above, which was
compil by Mr. John Meikle, sen., " Mr. Clark remained the sole inhabitant
of Lachute for two years, when he was joined by six more families from
the same place."  of Lachute, by F. C. Ireland, published in The Watchman
of 3 rd September, 1 8 mentions but one family which came within two
years after the arrival of (

He says : " The next pioneer was also one of the hardy sons of Vermont, wh


came about t\vo years later, or in 1798. His name is familiar to most
of the resi dents of Lachute to-day.

" JOHN S. HUTCHIXS had married Miss Cutter, in their native State,
and migrat ed to Canada, to join hands as neighbors with the Clarks at
Lachute. They endured all the hardships, privations and vicissitudes
incident to such a journey and such a life. They worked hard on a coarse
diet, but the labor brought sweet rest, and the diet gave strength to the
constitution, as they and their children have proved, for where is there
to be found a family with more active frames, better developed muscles,
firmer limbs and stronger minds than the descendants, who still live
and move among us, of these early pioneers. The organ of continuity was
so laigely dev eloped in this family, that they remained on the site of
their early choosing, and brought up sons and daughters, many of whom
became the first men and women of the place, in position as well as in
point of time."

There are none, probably, who will deny, that the above tribute to
the Hutchins

family is well deserved. Two brothers, John S. and Phineas Hutchins,
seem to have settled in Lachute about the same time. The former located
on a lot now owned by David McFarlane ; the latter on one owned by
Mr. McGregor. Both have transmitted to us the reputation of being
energetic, intelligent, Christian men, with a strong desire to encourage
whatever promised to enhance the physical, social and moral progress of
their adopted country.

John S. Hutchins had learned the printer s trade in Boston, and on
first coming

to Canada, he engaged as compositor in the office of The Courant, in
Montreal.  He soon began to write articles for that journal, and for some
time was a regular contri butor to its columns. After coming to Lachute,
he took an interest in religious

woik, and it was through his efforts that the Rev. Mr. Osgoode, mentioned
on an

other page, came here and organized a Sabbath School. He was a member of
the Methodist Church, and his house was always a home for the ministers
who, from time to time, visited the place. For many years, he was Clerk
of the Circuit Court which held its sessions here. In 1801, his wife
died, and it being the first time death had visited the new settlement,
we can well imagine the gloom his advent created.

Mr. Hutchins had one son at this time, whose name was Osman. He married,
and after living some years at Hawkesbury, Ont., moved West. His father
also married again, and by this marriage had three sons and five daughters
: Hawley,

Phineas and Benjamin ; Eliza, Maria, Catherine, Matilda and Mary Ann. Of
the latter, Eliza was married to Milo Lane, Maria to Geo. Glines,
Catherine to Lemuel Gushing, and Mary Ann to Geo. Holland. Matilda,
who never married, died a few years since in Montreal. Mrs. Gushing and
Mrs. Holland, both widows, reside in that city.

Hawley R. Hutchins, the eldest son by the second marriage, married i5th
Octo.  ber, 1835, Harriet, a daughter of Dr. Rice, of St. Andrews. He
engaged in trade

a rt-hile at Lachute, then at Carillon, and finally was in business in
Montreal. He had but one child, which died, and this was followed by the
death of his wife ; he then went to California, and died there i2th June,
1882, at the age of 62.


Phineas R., his brother, married Jessie Walker of Lachute, 4th May,
1838. They had eight children, the most of whom, at the present time,
are said to be in prosperous circumstances in California. Mr. Hutchins
always remained on the homestead and engaged in farming until he moved
with his family to the Golden State, where he died 1 5th January, 1875,
aged 75 years.

Benjamin, the third son of John S. Hutchins, has spent nearly all his life
in busi ness in Montreal, where he is much esteemed. He is at present a
broker in real estate, having an office in the New York Life Insurance
building. He was but 14

years old when he came to Montreal, and he worked for some time without

but he soon made his way upward. He was a Candidate in 1867 for the office
of Representative for Argenteuil County in the Dominion Parliament,
and was defeated only by a small majority. Mr. Hutchins has been twice
married; first, in 1841 or 1842, to Miss Felton, of Sherbrooke ; the
second time, to Miss Sherwood, daughter of Adiel Sherwood, Sheriff of
Brockville, and an U. E.  Loyalist.

John S. Hutchins, the father of the children named above, was born
i5th August,

1776, and died 4th May, 1865. at the age of 88.

Phineas Reed Hutchins, like his brother last named above, took a prominent
part in every important public movement, soon after coming to Lachute. We

hear of him as Captain of a Volunteer Rifle Company, which he organized
during the war of 1812. We next find him assiduously laboring to erect
a church edifice at St.  Andrews, and contributing liberally towards the
cost of its erection.  Evidently, he was a man with the requisite energy
and ability to push to completion whatever work he commenced, one of the
kind who, with better opportunities, broader fields for action, have won
for themselves enduring names. He was thrice married, and had one son
and six daughters. James Reed Hutchins, the son, married Elizabeth Ross

of Montreal; and, for a number of years, was in mercantile business
in that city.  He died 28th June, 1856, leaving one son, Joseph Ross
Hutchins, who is also engaged in trade in Montreal.

" * Among other settlers from the American side was a young man, handsome
and strong, whose services were secured by Mr. Hutchins in clearing away
the forest and in building up a comfortable and prosperous home. This
was GEORGE GLINES, whose

engagement with Mr. Hutchins was severed by an engagement with one
of his most beautiful daughters, and resulted in a long, felicitous
life, and a large and beautiful family, whose record is a credit to
any community. In fact, it would be difficult to find a new settlement
peopled with a better class of residents than first made their homes
along the banks of the North River at Lachute."

In the year 1796, JEDEDIAH LANK, also from Jericho, purchased a
tract of land comprising several thousand acres, on which Lachute is
located. Having a sister at

* From a sketch by F. C. Ireland in The Watchman of ijth September, 1886.


Carillon, the wife of Peter McArthur, he doubtless had been here before,
and selected the tract he desired to buy, as, at the time he made the
purchase, he came on horse back, according to the custom of those days,
with saddle-bags, in which was the gold to pay for the land. All that
we know respecting this pioneer, may be summed up

in the few following facts. He was a prosperous farmer, had a good
education, was tall and prepossessing in appearance, a widower and the
father of seven sons and two daughters ; only two of the sons, however,
settled in this country. He was a college graduate, and for a number
of years after coming here taught school in the school-house occupying
the site of the one near the store recently burnt of his grandson,
P. H. Lane. He also taught in St. Andrews, but how long it is impossible
to say; it is certain that he taught there in the years 1837-38.

Although so brief is his biography, he has an enduring memorial in the
tract of

land which he first bought in Lachute; for " Lane s Purchase" * is
familiar to the citizens of Argenteuil, and will continue 10 be " while
trees grow and water runs."  His fame was also enhanced, no doubt, by
a famous law-suit to which his purchase gave rise. By the terms of the
contract between him and Major Murray, the Seignior, of whom the land
was purchased, this particular tract was to be exempt from the rent
imposed on other lands in the seigniory ; but not so understanding the
agreement, the succeeding Seignior, in 1807, brought suit against the
settlers for the amount of the unpaid rent. The time in which this suit
was dragged through the Courts has a parallel in the case of " Jarndyce
& Jarndyce," described by Dickens in Bleak House.  After seven years
of litigation, it was decided in favor of the Seignior. The settlers,
however, satisfied that their case was one of equity, appealed it to
the higher court, by which, after five years more, the decision of the
lower court was reversed.

Catherine, the eldest daughter of Mr. Lane, was married to John
N. Hutchins : Maria M., the youngest child, married William Gibson,
a contractor ; she is now a widow, and resides in Montreal.

Jedediah, his eldest son, settled in St. Andrews, and died there.

MILO, the second son, born in Jericho, Vt., i8th July, 1800, married
Eliza, the

eldest daughter of John S. Hutchins, in 1825. After living a few years
on a farm, he

- :; Records which we have examined since the above sketch of Mr. Line was
written show that he purchased his tract from Major Murray, seignior, 3rd
December, 1796. The following shows the names of several who purchased,
the quantiiy purchased, and dale of the transaction.

f . Lane sold to ;

Date. Price. Acre;.

P. Me Arthur 6ih Dec., 1797 ^25 500

28th Feb., 1820 Too 1500

Dudley Stone nth Sept., 1799 .. i 4 6a

JSthMar., 1800 -"""


Joel Leonard "

H. Clark i?th Nov., 1800

Roger Lane 7thMir., i8or

Joel Bixby 2ist Apr. "


N - Hillings .............. i8th J

Boldry ............... 2Qt h Feb., 1804

W. Thompson ........... i8th Aug., 1814

5 200

200 600 200 80




opened a grocery and hotel in the west end of the village, and gave
his attention to these until his death, which occurred 6th April,
1857, at the age of 56. He had eight children, but only one son and
three daughters arrived at maturity ; Eliza, the eldest daughter, was
married to Archibald R. Cameron, who owned the " Struan Farm " but he
died four years after marriage, leaving one daughter, Margaret Ellen,
who was married to Thomas Gushing.

Mrs. Cameron, by a second marriage to W. H. Quinn, a surveyor of much
cele brity, had five children two sons and three daughters. Of those
now living, the

eldest daughter married John R. McOuat, a merchant of Lachute j one son
of Mrs.

Cameron is a compositor in Ottawa, and another is in mercantile business
in Buffalo, New York.

Catherine, another daughter of Milo Lane, married John Taylor, a Scotchman
who conducted a store many years at what is now Lachute Mills. He removed
to Montreal, and opened a fur store ; his wife died there about 1887,
an d he afterward went to Ottawa, where he is at present conducting a
Gold Cure establishment with much success.

A third daughter of Mr. Lane married, i8th June, 1867, the Rev. Richard
Robinson, a Methodist clergyman ; she died 3ist August, 1880.

Phineas Hutchins, the youngest son of Milo Lane, and the only one who
sur vived the age of childhood, is a gentleman of ability, and possesses
rare business tact and qualities. In his youthful days he was clerk six
years for Mr. Gushing in Chat ham. In 1857, he opened a store in Lachute
which belonged to his father s estate, but which had been rented for
a long time to John Brunton, and then to his sister.  Mr.  Lane traded
here for twenty-nine years, doing a most successful business, and then,
in 1887, sold the store and stock to Mr. William Banford, and retired
from mercantile life. He has taken an active interest in local affairs,
and held different responsible positions, among which was the presidency
of the Agricultural Society for several terms, but that of Mayor, which
was offered him, he declined. He married Miss Charlotte Owens, a sister
of Senator Owens ; she died i7th March, 1890 ; their chil dren died in
infancy, but they adopted Charlotte Maria, only daughter of" Senator Owens
by his first marriage, her mother having died when she was an infant. She

married Farquhar Stewart McLennan, a prominent and successful barrister
of Montreal.

Mr. F. C. Ireland gives the following sketch :

"Two years after the Hutchins family came, and four years after theClarks
had settled here, another hardy son of Vermont came to join his friends
by the banks of the River du Nord at Lachute. This was WILLIAM POWERS ;
he had married another Miss Cutter, and sister of Mrs. Hutchins. They
started out on their married tour with aspirations as full, and hopes as
bright, as a modern newly married couple could enjoy on a trip to some of
the most fashionable resorts of the present day.  Their journey through
the uncleared woods combined all the novelty and incidents ex perienced
by those who had preceded them along the same rugged pathway. The



reader can fancy the joyous meeting of the two sisters at Lachute. The
incidents of the journey were recounted in detail; numerous enquiries of
the friends in Jericho were made and answered with pleasurable gusto ;
and so the days, weeks and months passed; the two sisters were as happy
as sisters could be. The two men sought out a homestead for the new comer
with as much interest as if it were to belong to both.  Place after place
was minutely examined, resulting in a home for the Powers upon the site
now occupied by Mrs. Paul in Bethany; this was in the year 1800.

" It was spring time, and all nature was beautiful around the wilderness,
or so it seemed to these pioneers, for they were contented. Though a
little late, Powers

commenced vigorously to clear a small garden spot for vegetables, and
succeeded in planting quite sufficient, as they turned out, for the
frugal wants of the small family.  A house also was built as soon as
possible, and became the residence of as happy a couple as ever lived. The
summer and early autumn passed without either doors or windows to their
habitation. This afforded them plenty of light and air, which only seemed
conducive to their health and vigor. As autumn advanced, there had to be

a change, and so Powers started off in search of windows and doors, which
would be necessary to their winter safety and comfort. Mrs. Powers, during
his absence, spent the nights with her sister ; but on the third evening,
as she expected her husband back, she remained alone in the open house,
where their sleeping apartment was in the

loft, which they reached by means of a rudely constructed ladder. On this
occasion, Mrs. Powers waited and watched until long after dark, and had
ascended to the loft pulling up the ladder after her, feeling safe though
very lonely. She had not been long in her seclusion, until she heard the
noise of wolves howling in the distance.  They came nearer and nearer
to the house, howling in their dismal way around the dwelling, until
they actually made bold to enter, and prowled through the lower apart
ment, howling dreadfully with rage at being unable to find their human
victim, which their keen scent told them was so very near. Mrs. Powers,
in breathless fear, covered herself in bed, holding her beating heart
lest it should break, or its sound tell the wolves where she was. Hours
passed in this way, and that long and dreary night seemed to have no
end ; but as the light of morning broke, the wolves disappeared, but
it was late in the day when Powers returned, finding his wife still
in the loft, but happy and joyous to greet his protection, and relate
the experience she had gone through. No wonder she received a gentle
chiding for venturing to stay alone.  Such were some of the ordeals of
pioneer life in Lachute. This account of the wolves in the house was
frequently related by Mrs. Powers to her children and grandchildren,
down to her latest day, and always with a pathos of untiring interest
to both grand mother and children."

About 1801, prices of produce were so low that we cannot doubt the new
settle ment was blessed with food in plenty ; and, doubtless, the chief
discomfort was the trouble experienced in reaching mills and market. The
market report of 1801 is as follows : Pork, $7.00 per c\vt. ; beef,
$4.00 ; butter, 25 cents per pound ; cheese, i2> cents ; corn, 75
cents per bushel ; wheat, $1.00.


Roads, there were none ; the North River afforded communication with St.
Andrews, yet the rapids and other obstructions rendered frequent
portages necessary, so that, conveying grain to mill, and returning
with the products thereof, required, even with the aid of the river,
strong backs and firm muscles.

We have shown what a circuitous route the settlers on the River Rouge
pursued to reach St. Andrews, until a much shorter route was pointed
out to them by the

Seignior. The mistake committed by the inhabitants of Lachute was no less
surpris ing or amusing. To reach St. Eustache, which, besides St. Andrews,
was the only

place where they went to mill or store, they travelled to Grand
Brule (St.  Benoit), thence to Belle Riviere, and from that place to
St. Eustache. Accident revealed a

shorter route.

A man named Uriah McNeal lost his cow. His sympathizing neighbors at once
instituted a search, and after having travelled miles through the woods
on their gen erous errand, they ran across a few cattle grazing. Uncertain
as to their where

abouts, they determined to wait till nightfall, and follow the cattle to
their owners.  Pursuing this plan, they were led to the French settlement
in Cote St. Louis.  On inquiring of the settlers there, if they could
show them the way to the North River, they were kindly led back by an
Indian path, four miles north, to the river.  Descend ing this, they
soon reached home, and ever after used this route instead of the old
and long one via Grand Brule.

In 1803, the settlers had increased in number to thirty families ; and
for several succeeding years the population was increased by the arrival
of Americans.  During the war of 1812 especially, fear of the draft and
consequent military service caused no small influx of settlers from the
New England States ; but as they were generally of a class not likely
to remain long in any place, they soon departed from Lachute.

" At the time of the war of 1812," says Mr. Meikle in his chronicles
of Lachute, " the Militia Roll numbered 150 able-bodied men ; these
were formed into three com panies, two of which were regular militia,
commanded respectively by Captains Bixby and McNeal, the other a Volunteer
Rifle company commanded by Captain

Phineas Hutchins."

As in all the new settlements of this country, the making of potash was
about the only means by which the pioneer could obtain money, and as this
required a great amount of wood, the land was soon denuded of forest,
and, as the timber for potash grew scarce, the inhabitants who relied
on its manufacture for their subsistence

removed to other parts.

In the years 1810 and 1811, a severe famine occurred, and the prices
of provi sions went up to a degree that must have occasioned anxiety in
the heart of many a paterfamilias. Pork at that time was $30 per barrel,
beef $14; providentially, there was a corresponding advance in the price
of potash during the same years,

otherwise the circumstances of the settlers would have been much worse.

About this time also, the land which first had been cleared began to
> u scanty crops, and this impediment to prosperity, united with the
scarcity of



and the period of famine, induced many to emigrate. But their places
were soon filled, as will be seen by the following paragraph, copied
from F. C. Ireland s sketch of Lachute in The Watchman of 24th September,
1886 :

" It was in 1809 that a few Scotch settlers joined the Americans at
Lachute, and they continued coming in for many years, until about 1818, a
lot of Paisley weavers came out, and so the POLLOCKS, MORRISONS, FULTONS,
CHRISTIES, WILSONS and others joined the settlement: These were a hardy,
industrious class of people, who took well to the new country and new
employment, and succeeded in building up comfortable homes along the North
River, reminding them of the little Cart which flowed tli rough their own
Renfrewshire at home ; but the contrast was great Paisley, Glasgow and
Grcenock were not close by; the factories for shawls, thread, gauzes,
velvets, flannels, cottons, with their dye-houses, printing calicoes,
foundries for iron and brass, distilleries, soap works, alum and copperas
works, and timber yards were not here. The pursuits of business were
new ; the country was new ; everything was new. But the stirring life
of Paisley had awakened, as it still awakens, an honorable spirit of
inquiry and a desire for improvement, and these Scotch settlers plodded
on with increasing success as farmers, and soon became masters of the
soil and owners of everything necessary for its cultivation."

About one of the first of the Scotch settlers was THOMAS (afterwards COL.)
BARRON, a title he received from holding the rank of Lieut. -Col. of
Militia.  He came from Morayshire, and lived a while after his arrival
with his uncle James at Hawkes- bury. He came to Lachute in 1809, and by
the possession of those qualities which always bring a man to the front,
in whatever community he may be placed, he was

soon a leading spirit among those with whom he had cast his lot.

He was married to Eliza Hastings, sister of Guy Hastings, who was one
of the prominent citizens of Lachute in early days ; but they had no
children. He seems to have soon become quite prominent in military
affairs, as in 1812, as Adjutant, he took command of two companies of
Militia under Captains Bixby and McNall, and a

Volunteer company under Captain Phineas Hutchins, and marched with them
to Point Claire, where they were given over to the charge of Col. Kell,
who commanded the Division enlisted in Lachute, Chatham. Grenville and
Petite Nation.

About the year 1825, he was appointed Justice of the Peace, which office
he held for many years, discharging ift duties with a faithfulness that
won the esteem of good men, and instilled wholesome fear into the breasts
of evil doers. For many years, also,-he was Crown Land Agent for this
place, Chatham, Gore and Wentworth ; later, also, for Morin and Howard. In
1836 he erected, and chiefly at his own expense, a bridge across the
North River near his own dwelling, which has ever since been known as
" Barren s Bridge." In like manner, he performed many other acts which

contributed either to public or private benefit, and which secured to
him the gratitude of his fellows. He died in January, 1864, lamented by a
large community. John Barron, a brother of Col. Thomas Barron, came from
Morayshire, Scotland, to Lachute in 1832. He lived with his brother,
and found employment in the manage ment of his estate till his death,
which occurred in 1866.


Thomas Barron, jun., and Robert, two of his sons, still live here;
the former being Registrar of the County of Argenteuil, and the latter,
his assistant in the Regis try Office.

THOMAS BARRON. jun., was born in 1832, the year in which his father
arrived in Lachute, and in the house in which he now resides, the
residence of the late Col.  Barron. Like his uncle, he has taken much
interest in all the affairs of his native parish moral, political and
social ; and in the varied positions he has filled, has acquitted himself
to his own honor and to the satisfaction of the public.

In 1858, he was appointed Clerk of the Circuit Court and still holds
the office.  In March of the same year he was appointed Deputy Registrar
of Argenteuil, and in 1866, on the death of Col. D Hertel, the former
Registrar, Mr. Barron succeeded him in office. He has also been Municipal
Councillor and Mayor of the parish many years. On the gth August, 1858,
he was married to Harriet Gushing, eldest daughter of the late Lemuel
Gushing, Esq., of Chatham, by which marriage he had three chil dren one
daughter and two sons.

Thomas J., the elder son, after receiving his degree of B.A. from McGill,
took a course at the Presbyterian College, Montreal, and is now engaged
in the ministry.

Lemuel C., the second son, is in California. Mrs. Barron died in February,
1864, and in August, 1866, Mr. Barron was married to Grace Jane, eldest
daughter of the late Rev. Thomas Henry. Ten children resulted from this
marriage, eight of whom

are now living.

Robert H., the eldest of these a graduate of McGill was the Gold Medallist
at the Law Examination of that Institution in the spring of 1895, and at
his final examin ation at Quebec in September last, before the Board of
Notaries, he stood first in honors. He is now one of the Notarial firm
of Gushing, Dunton & Barron, Montreal

JOHN MEIKLE, another Scotchman, for many years shared with Col. Barron
the enjoyment of social and judicial honors. He was a native of Glasgow,
Scotland, and in 1830, with his wife t and three boys, left that city to
make his home in Lachute.  He purchased a few acres of land of Col. Barron
(at that time Major), on which he erected a building" designed for a
general store. In this he began a business which, faithfully continued,
secured to him a competence for his declining years. In the early part
of his mercantile career he was assisted by his two brothers, Robert
and Thomas, who came to this country with him.

Long after he began trading, there was very little money in the country,
his tran sactions with his customers consisting chiefly of barter, as
he accepted pay from them for his goods in the products of the farm,
but mostly in potash, of which at that time there were large quantities
manufactured. The making of this article afforded him a chance to take up
a little additional business, by which he doubtless increased the number
of his customers, and won their esteem. A large part of his patronage
was from the new settlers in Thomas Gore, North Gore, Wentworth and
the rear of Chatham, who in clearing their land turned all the timber
possible into potash.  To make this, they required leaches, kettles,
coolers, barrels, etc., and Mr.  Meikle pro-


vided these, placing them in suitable locations, and charged the
individuals using them a small fee for each barrel of potash they
made. In this way, though he charged barely sufficient to remunerate
himself for the wear and expense of the materials provided, he put many a
poor fellow in the way of making a little money which he otherwise could
not have made. After the potash was brought to Mr. Meikle, he sent it to
Inspector Stone in Montreal, and, as soon as the quality was ascertained,
he paid the full market price for it in cash.

In 1836, Mr. Meikle was appointed Postmaster, and held this position
for half a

century, and was also Justice of the Peace for many years. He was a
liberal supporter of Henry s Church, of which he was long an Elder,
and felt a deep interest in the College, to both of which in his will
he left a legacy.

He is held in kind remembrance by his old customers and acquaintances
all believing him an honest, upright, Christian man; he died in August,
1877; Mrs.  Meikle in August, 1870. They left five sons John, William,
George, Robert and Thomas, and one daughter, Mrs. J. D. Wells. John and
Robert reside in Merrick- ville, Ont.j William in Manitoba ; George,
Robert and Mrs. Wells in Lachute.

After conducting the business some years, Mr. Meikle, sen., sold out to
his two

sons, George L. and Robert G., and retired from active life. The sons
prosecuted the business in company till 1878, when Robert retired and
entered politics, being that year elected Representative of Argenteuil in
the Provincial Legislature, in the interests of the Joly Government. He
was a candidate for the House of Commons in 1887, but was defeated by
J. C. Wilson.

The business which was established by his father in 1830 is still
conducted by George L. Meikle and his son-in-law, H. M. Gale. G. L. Meikle
was appointed assistant postmaster in 1844; he now has had charge of
the office fifty years.

among the quite early pioneers of Lachute. They came from Vermont, and
located in what is known as the Hill Settlement. Stearns, having a family
of four sons and three daughters, procured five hundred acres of land,
with the design of providing his sons with farms from the homestead. The
realities of pioneer life, however, he found quite different from the
view enjoyed in anticipation, and in about a year after his arrival he had
become so thoroughly disheartened from his hardships and spare diet, that
one day he abruptly started back to Vermont. After a year s absence from
his family, he returned and resumed his labors, but died a few years subse

quently. His children all settled in this section. One of his daughters,
Mary, mar ried Alvah Stephens, and Mrs. Emslie, one of the well-known
citizens of Lachute, is a daughter resulting from this union. We may
remark incidentally, that the mother of Mrs. Emslie was a cousin of
Senator Stearns.

Mrs. Emslie remembers many of the tales of hardship and destitution
related by her mother, and one incident especially, the sale of her
side-saddle, which was a source of much grief to her mother.


In the early part of their residence here, there was a great scarcity of
provisions in the settlement, and a still greater scarcity of money. The
family of Mr.  Stearns were not the only sufferers, and, fortunately for
them, Miss Stearns had a valuable side-saddle, on which she had ridden
all the Jong distance from their former home in Vermont, which could
be exchanged for provisions. The sacrifice was an unpleas ant one;
the saddle had become endeared by many associations, but what woman
would hesitate to part with any inanimate object, in the necessity of
procuring food for her family ? The late Col. Barren wanted the saddle,
and was willing to exchange corn for it, so the bargain was concluded,
and discomfited famine, shame-faced, re tired.

Mrs. Emslie also relates an incident which occurred within her own
recollec tion, that illustrates the manner in which the early settlers
surmounted little dif ficulties that were often occurring. Her father
was obliged, unexpectedly, to go to Montreal, and an examination of
his wardrobe, by his careful helpmate, revealed the fact, that a pair
of drawers was needful to its proper completion, in fact, they were of
the utmost necessity, the journey could not be undertaken without them,

and he must go to-morrow. What could be done? Recollect, kind reader,
that in those days one could not jump into a buggy, ride down to Meikle
s, McOuat s or Eraser s, and buy drawers at socts. a pair. But trust a
thrifty housewife of those days to get out of such a dilemma. Mrs. Stevens
had the cotton warp in the loom, waiting for the woof to be woven
into cloth ; but, unfortunately, the latter part of the web was not at
hand. But Mr. Stephens had that morning killed a lamb ; his active spouse
soon denuded the skin of its fleece, and then made ready her hand-cards
and trusty spinning wheel.

Mrs. Emslie, who, though young, was an adept at spinning, received the
plump rolls as they fell from her mother s cards, and soon transformed
them into the woof desired. It will suffice to say that before the mother
and daughter retired that night, the cloth had been woven, the drawers cut
out and made, and the next morning they were ministering to the physical
comfort of the husband and father, on his way to Montreal. Mrs. Emslie
is the widow of James Emslie, who for 44 years was an earnest, faithful
and successful teacher ; sixteen years of this time he taught in Quebec,
the rest in Lachute. Her mother and two of her sisters were married
to three brothers named Stephens. The two named above, Philander and
Ebenezer, en gaged in the manufacture of brick in the early part of
their pioneer life, and each built a brick house for himself, which is
still standing. Having no mill or any

utensils for grinding, neither horses, they used their oxen as
substitutes, tramping instead of grinding the clay.

Philander Stephens seems to have been well versed in the requirements of
pio neer life, and to have been well fitted for it by nature. He brought
a shoemaker with him from Vermont, who, besides doing the work required
by Mr. Stephens own

family, supplied the wants of neighboring families, and thus brought to
his employer some profit.


Mr. Stephens being skillful in the use of tools, and quite ingenious,
found am ple opportunity to exercise these abilities in his new
home. First, he made a full set of farming tools for himself, then his
wife lamenting the want of a loom he set to work and made one, even
to the shuttle. These utensils would appear crude, no doubt, compared
with the machine-made articles of the present, yet they answered every
requirement, saved the maker many a dollar, and illustrated the adage,
Necessity is the mother of invention."

The following article is contributed at our request :


In the summer of 1817, an emigrant ship sailed from Belfast, Ireland,
and after

lirteen weeks voyage, arrived at Quebec. On board the ship was James
Orr, respectable Scotch-Irish farmer and Methodist local preacher from
Downpatrick his wife Sarah Swail, and their sons, James, Samuel, John,
Edwards and A daughter, Sarah by name, had married Matthew Coulter,
and remained James Orr came to Canada with his family, with the hope of
bettering eir fortunes ; but was not destined to remain long at their
head. The family set- led on a leased farm at Laprairie, where the husband
and father died about iSro, short illness (inflammation of the bowels),
aged about 56. Samuel the *>nd son, being lame on both his feet," was
unfitted for farm work, and became 5 apprentice of a Montreal shoemaker,
named Kiest. Early in the twenties, the widow >ur of her sons removed
to Argenteuil, and settled in Thomas Gore, Samuel emaimng behind in
Montreal. The shop where he acted as salesman, at the cor- 3t. James
Street, is, or was lately, still standing. My father was well cquamted
with old Montreal, and pointed out to me many places of interest as he

He told me that he helped to clear out the second place of Methodist up,
when the workmen were done with it. It stood on St. James street and
known as the Medical Hall." I remember being in it when it wa s still
is a place of *" u: ~ " " ~

H ! o

the pulpit (18,9). So , opular was Mr. Lusher, that though the church

e tIV At largC Pe Ple fth C UM ^ ^ Jn oftentime s listen Igo

About I839 , I saw Mr. Lusher at an evening service in the third

s id i^made h" T^ " T ^^ trembling" paralytic; my father Mm rick at
heart when he saw him, and contrasted what he then was

commenced business for himself at L^hu^ where^e "ntfnueTtt^e


till his death, 2pth March, 1875, when he had nearly completed his
seventy- third year.  Some time after the Orr family came to Canada,
another emigrant ship brought among its passengers the family of William
and Fanny Hicks, of English origin ;

they came from the County Fermanagh, and settled for a while in the East
Settlement, but were attracted by the good reports of lands in Upper
Canada, where they went about 1831. The Hicks family consisted, I think,
of four sons John, George, William and Robert, and three daughters
Francis, Mary and Jane. Samuel Orr and Jane Hicks were married by the
Rev. William Abbott at St. Andrews, 6th August, 1828*

and their wedded life lasted nearly forty-seven years. Their home was
one where

piety and industry ruled the lives of the inmates. They were both members
of the Methodist Church, and were always ready to entertain Methodist
preachers as their guests. I have seen in that home, Carroll, Poole,
Black, Adams, Playter. Arm strong, Musgrove, Taylor, the two Barbers,
Hatman, Shaler, Willoughby, Mclntyre, Constable, Greener, Brownell,
Huntingdon, and the two McDowells, and others whose names do not now
occur to me.

Samuel Orr was for several years superintendent of the Old Union
Sunday School, for many years the only Sunday School at Lachute. The
attendance often amounted to a hundred at nine o clock on Sunday mornings,
gathered from points six miles apart. Presbyterians and Methodists worked
cordially together, they being then the only denominations who had an
organized existence in the place. Samuel Orr was also, for several years,
a Class and Prayer leader. I remember that he used to take dry wood in
a bag before him on his mare s back, to kindle fires with for prayer
meetings. My father was a trusted friend and favorite of the settlers in
the North Gore. I remember that such was the scarcity of money among them,
that they often asked and got the favor of the loan of a few pence to
" release a letter from the Post Office." Their payments were made to
a considerable extent in maple sugar and oatmeal. In the Rebellion, my
father s house was a kind of armoury. Two Volunteer companies, commanded
by Captain Evans and Captain Johnson, used to come to Lachute to drill ;
most of the men left the heavy " Brown Bess " muskets in our garret from
week to week, to save carrying them so great a dis tance. In the fall
of the year, a report was started, without foundation, that a party of
rebels intended to invade Lachute. Guards were sent to the " dugway,"
where the road lies between the hill and the river, to intercept them. My
father, feeling alarmed for the safety of his small family, harnessed
up the mare and cart, and with some bedding and provisions, drove into
the woods on the Hicks farm, where we re mained the greater part of the
night ; but finding that no invasion had taken place, we returned to
the house again. Afterwards, we spent a fortnight at the house of Mr.
William Clark, in Chatham, whose wife was a cousin of my father s. While
we were there, an alarm was raised, which called Mr. Clark and his
hired man whose name> I believe, was Husten away from home. After
they had been away some time, Husten came back for food. A large pan
full of doughnuts was hastily emptied out


for him, in mv presence. I thought the horrors of war were considerably
initi ated by the chance of getting such luxurious fare. When the cruel
war was over we returned home, and on the night of our return we saw
from Carillon the flames c the burning church of St. Eustache. It stood
in ruins for some years, and remember seeing the ruins as I went to
Montreal. Dr. Chenier s death occurred at the battle of St. Eustache,
and I remember a gruesome report, that his body was c open and his
heart laid on the counter of Addison s hotel ; but I think the story
was likely without foundation. In the winter of 1848-49 a sad calamity
happened family. The smallpox was communicated to them by a French family
living c Vide Sacque, from whom they bought some onions, a vegetable
which never after- wards was used in the house. The first three children
had been vaccinated ; onl> one of them was at home, and he escaped a
most convincing proof of the .  of vaccination. All the other children,
six in number, took the disease, and Sar Phebe the pet of the household,
in her fifth year, died. I was then living at St. Andrews.  I came home
to attend the funeral, but did not enter the house. I saw through a I
room window the scarred and bloated face of the little darling.

My father died in his seventy-third year; his funeral service was
conducted by Rev. S. G. Phillips. When I went home to the funeral, I
called on John Meikle, Esq. , who said in all sincerity, that my father
had not left his equal behind him in Lach ute ; this referred of course
to his reputation for honesty, morality and rehgu My mother died in her
sixty-seventh year ; her funeral service was conducted by

Rev. Mr. Robson.

The family consisted of eight sons and two daughters : Elias Samuel,
born in 1829; Wesley Fletcher, born in 1831 ; James Edwards, born in
1833; George Matthew, born in 1835 ; Priscilla Jane, born in 1837 ;
Adam Clarke, born in 1839 > William Edgerton Ryerson, born in 1842 ;
Sarah Phebe, born in 1844; Watson Coke, born in 1846 ; and Marcus Arthur,
born in 1851. I will briefly mention some events in my own life.

My education was limited to the common school ; my first teacher was
Jedediah Lane; another, a Mr. MacPherson ; another, Lachlan Taylor ;
another, John W. H.

Brunton ; another, Adam Walker. I attended also, for a little while,
a French school at St. Andrews, taught by Antoine Moret.

On the 25th day of October, 1839, being the centenary of Methodism,
a prayer meeting was held in the old school-house led by Mr. Taylor ;
he prayed that some who were present might remember the blessings of the
day, fifty years afterwards.  The prayer has been more than answered
in the case of my brother, W. F., and myself, as we have been spared
nearly fifty-six years from that day. In that month of October, 1839,
revival services were held at Lachute, as a result of which, several
young persons joined the Methodist Church. Henry Shaler and William
Willoughby conducted the meetings; they both lived for over half a
century after. Mr. Shaler died at

Kemptville, Ont., less than a year ago, aged over ninety.


There are but few living now who joined the Church at the time I ref<
r to.

Robert Kneeshaw, Esq., of Ingersoli, Ont., my brother and myself were
among them.

Of my old school-fellows, Dr. Christie, G. L. Meikle and Thomas Barron
yet survive.

In the year 1843, mv brother, W. F., and myself assisted in drawing
bricks from the

front of Chatham to St. Andrews, for the Methodist Church ; a church in
which I

afterwards worshipped and preached for thirteen years. On the 8th day
of March,

1847, I entered the service of the late Charles Wales, as clerk in
his store.  In 1854,

I became the junior member of the firm of Charles Wales & Co., which
was dissolved

in April, 1864. On the gih September, 1856, I was married at No. 10
St. Joseph

Street, Montreal, to Miss Jane Colclough White, daughter of Mr. John
D. White.

The issue of that marriage was William Arthur, who died in 1860, aged
2 years and

10 months; James Edward, who also died in childhood ; John Samuel,
who died at

Anamosa, Iowa, in his 2Qth year ; Alfred Elias, now known as
Dr. A. E. Orr. of

Montreal ; and Florence Lilian, teacher and artist. In 1860, I left
St. Andrews for

Sawyerville, P. Q., where I carried on a country trade till 1868. In 1869,
I received

the appointment of County Registrar, which I still hold.

Wesley Fletcher, next in age to me, left home early for St. Laurent,
where he was in the employ of the MacDonalds ; he went to Ontario
many years ago, where he carried on for a while the manufacture of
saleratus. He was engaged in country trade and lumbering at Lynden,
Barrie. and elsewhere. He subsequently went to Alberta; he

now resides in Calgary, of which city he was, and is still, the first
Mayor. He is married, and has two daughters and one son. James Edward
also left home early ; he entered the employment of Chas. D. Proctor
in Montreal, was also in the employ of Finley McMartin at St. Andrews,
and the late Mr. St. Denis at Point Fortune, was also engaged in country
trade in Ontario, at Lynden and elsewhere; he now resides in Calgary,
is married, and has a son and daughter living. G-orge Matthew spent

some time as clerk for Chas. Wales & Co., at St- Andrews, and also in the
store of Thomas Meikle. He removed to Cookshire, P.Q., where he carried
on trade for some time ; he now resides in St. Catharines, Ont. ; he
is married and has two daughters living. Priscilla Jane studied at the
Normal School in Montreal, and taught at Riviere Rouge and in the Lachute
Academy. She did not marry, but spent her time in loving ministrations
to the declining years of our parents, she occupied the old home for some
years, then went to Montreal and to Ontario ; she now resides in Chicago
with Adam C. Orr. Adam Clarke, named after t celebrated commentator,
was noted for his early love of books and pursuit of knowl edge : he
read the New Testament through at a very early age. When very small,
the Rev. James Musgrove called on the family ; the children were asked
their names ; Adam replied, " Dr. Adam Clarke ;" the reply caused the
minister to smile, found discussion arose between Adam and a younger
brother on the origin l and the opposite forces of God and Satan. The
younger boy propounded the qu<

" Why does the Lord not kill the devil? " Adam s reply was :


would have no father." At the age of 18, Adam was a successful teacher at
Hill Head, Lachute. He has lived for many years in Chicago, his portrait
and biographi cal record appear in an American publication, from which
I will make some extracts : " Adam C. Orr is one of the highly esteemed
citizens of Park Ridge. His home is

the centre of sociability, and there men of culture delight to gather and
discuss topics which tend to mental advancement. On the paternal side,
our subject came from the old McLean family of Scotland. At length,
however, the family became divided in the

Scottish feuds, and those who located in the Lowlands took the name of
Ayrs, which was subsequently changed into the present mode of spelling. In
the common school of

his native country, Adam C. Orr acquired a good P^nglish education. In
his father s country store, he received his first lessons in business,
but he left mercantile pursuits to engage in teaching, which profession
he successfully followed for thirteen years in Canada. In 1863, he spent
a term at the Normal School, affiliated to McGill College, Montreal,
and subsequently, while engaged in teaching, read the Art? Curriculum of
that University, and made translations of the Satires of Juvenal and Odes
of Horace into English verse ; the manuscripts of which were destroyed in
the Chicago fire. He was for some time employed as teacher of the French
language and literature in Lachute College, P.Q., and later, as principal
of the Central School, St. Mary s, Ont.  It was in 1870 that he came to
Chicago, where soon after he engaged as superin tendent with the Gillet
Chemical Works. On the ist October, 1876, Mr. Orr was united in marriage
with Miss Cleo Petne. To Mr. and Mrs. Orr was born a son, Samuel Henry,
who died at the age of thirteen years. He was a boy who attracted

almost universal attention because of his perfect physique, fine
intellectual attain ments and gentlemanly bearing. He was a member of a
company of Zouaves, in which he held the highest offices, and was laid to
rest in their uniform. Both Mr.  and Mrs. Orr hold an enviable position
in social circles, where true worth and intellr gence are received as
the passports into good society. They have made their home in Park Ridge
since 1881. Socially, Mr. Orr is connected with the Independent Order
of Odd Fellows and with the Royal Arcanum ; he is also a member of the
Astronomical Society of the Pacific."

William Edgerton Ryerson, thus named after two members of the celebrated
Ryerson family. It is seldom that Sweet Williams blossom in midwinter,
but this one did, as he was born in the month of January. He had the
good fortune to be taught wilting by Mr. Gibson, a teacher of Lachute,
who boarded with the family, and has made Bookkeeping the principal work
of his life. He was in business at Cookshire and at Durham for short
periods ; he now resides at Teeswater, Ont. ; has been twice married,
and has several children.

Watson Coke bears the name of two distinguished Methodists. He went to
Ontario early in life, and is now engaged in fruit farming at Winona. He
sells grapes by the ton, and is successful also with many other fruits.

Francis Arthur, the tenth and last child, was born twenty-one years
after the present writer. He learned photography while quite young,
and has pursued it ever


since. He is at present a resident of Chicago. The family present an
instance of nine out of ten who grew to maturity, and whose members are
at the date of this

writing still unbroken. For the most part, they have had good health,
and all of them moderate prosperity.

For about sixty years, the name of Orr was a familiar one at Lachute,
but they have all left it, except those who are quietly sleeping in the
old cemetery, that is, Samuel Orr, Jane Orr, his wife and " little Sarah."


I was born in 1829, and have recollections of some of the early
inhabitants of the County of Argenteuil who have long since passed away.

ABIATHAR WALDRON was my father s next-door neighbor; he had been a
soldier of the Revolutionary War, I think, on the American side. He
must have been one of the earliest settlers of Lachute. He used to say
that the sun had never found him in bed for fifty years. Mr. Waldron s
wife was a Hatchings, and was said to have been the first white woman at
Lachute. The Waldrons were, like many of the first settlers, Methodists. A
story is recorded by Carroll in his " Past and Present," as follows :
(It must have occurred about 1816.) There is a beautiful tract of land in
the neighbor hood of Lachute, on the North River, which falls into the
Ottawa. This was originally settled by an interesting class of people
from the United States, from among whom a large and prosperous society
was raised up by the labors of a Sa\vyer ?  a Luckey and others. But a
succession of blighting frosts had caused such a faiKire in the crops for
several years, that one family after another had left and sought a home
in a more genial climate, till the society was not only much reduced in
numbers, but very few homes were left to shelter the hapless itinerant
in a place which had always been considered " head-quarters " on the
circuit ; and the occupant of the prin cipal one of the few remaining "
lodging places for wayfaring men," " Father Waldron," as he was called,
had also resolved to leave. The two preachers (Ferguson and Peel) were
spending a night under his hospitable roof, but the intention of their
host to leave communicated to them, had made them sad ; they did their
utmost to persuade him

to stay, setting before him the evil that would result to the cause if
he left, ami the consequent good he would be the means of doing if he
remained. When the hour of

devotion arrived, both the preachers engaged in prayer, one after
the other, and ii: the subject which lay near their hearts ground of
earnest supplication. Fergi: prayed first, and earnestly besought the
Lord to prevent Bro. Waldron from g> .ing away. To each petition,
Peel subjoined the expressive response, " Hedge him up,

Mighty God ! " And when the time came to plead in prayer, he told the
Lord they

could not afford to part with Bro. Waldron besought him to induce him to
s: and to reward him for so doing with an abundant crop. He enumerated
every kind



of produce he could think of by name, and prayed that Bro. Waldron s hay
and potatoes, and wheat and rye, and oats and peas, and barley, etc.,
might be abundant.  Mr. Waidron was induced to stay another year, and by
a very remarkable coincidence with Mr. Peel s request, he had an abundant
crop of everything both in field and garden, excepting onions. When this
fact was mentioned to the preacher, " Oh," said Peel, " I forgot the
ONIONS." To my personal knowledge Mr. Waldron remained many years after
this incident at Lachute, perhaps twenty. His wife above mentioned was a
second wife, and not the mother of Linus, Silas and Abiathar, his sons.
Her first husband s name was Clark. It was said that he took a grist to
the Lachute mills to be ground, and that, while waiting for the grist,
he went to fish for salmon, which were then to be had below the dam,
and was drowned. Mr. and Mrs. Waldron, at a very advanced age, finally
returned to the States, I think, about 1836.

JOHN S. HUTCHINS was a man whose personality made a deep impression on
my mind. He was small of stature, with partially bald head, the remaining
hair on which was bleached by many winters snows ; he was Clerk of Court,
and I suppose

possessed a monopoly of the legal knowledge of the settlement. He used to
come in a camlet cloak from his residence on the north side of the river,
to lead the four o clock prayer-meetings on Sunday afternoon, where I
have often listened to his prayers and exhortations. When I knew him,
he was living with his third wife. He survived till about the middle of
the century now drawing to a close, and has been sleeping surrounded by
his wives in the old burying ground for more than forty years.

The REV. WILLIAM BRUNTON. This hoary, reverend and religious man is no
doubt still remembered by some who knew him when they were children. He
was the Minister of the Secession Congregation in the old stone church. I
was sent to his house on an errand, when I was about six years old. I
remember well his venerable appearance as he stood in the doorway and
handed me a tract entitled, " The Spoiled Child," which made a deep
impression on my mind ; it lies before me as I write.

I have also before me " The Judgment of God a Call to Repentance," a
sermon preached at Lachute, Lower Canada, on Tuesday, the 26th of June,
1832, which day was devoted to the exercise of fasting and prayer in that
settlement, on account of the alarming progress of the cholera morbus in
various parts of the Province, by the Rev. William Brunton, Montreal ;
published by Thomas A.  Starke, 1832. The following prefatory notes are
reproduced from the pamphlet :

"LACHUTE, 2nd July, 1832.

" At a quarterly meeting of the Lachute Temperance Society held here this
day, the Rev. George Poole in the Chair, it was resolved unanimously :
That the Rev.

William Brunton be requested to furnish to a committee of the Society
a copy of his Sermon preached here on the 26th ult., in order that it
may be printed for the benefit of the Society. It is now, accordingly,
published by their authority.

"THOMAS BARTON, Vice- President.  "JEDEDIAH LANE, Secretary."

(Barton is a misprint for Barron.)


" To the Lachute Temperance Society :

" The following Sermon, which was hurriedly prepared for the occasion on
which it was delivered, without any idea whatever of its being printed,
being now published in compliance with their unexpected and unanimous
request, is respectfully inscribed by their obedient servant.


The text of the sermon was Joel, 2d chap., rath and 131)1 verses. An
Appendix gives an address delivered by Mr. Brunton before the Lachute
Temperance Society, 2nd May, 1832. In this it is stated that the
Temperance Society was formed at Boston, Mass., in July, 1826. I quote
a few words to show the gist of the address : ; Your abstaining from
drinking such intoxicating liquids, though ever so moderately, except
ing as a medicine, can do you no harm. Your drinking thus, unless for
a medical

purpose, can do no good to yourself. But your abstaining from them,
and becoming a member of a Temperance Institution, may do much good,
indeed, both to yourself

and to others."

Mr. Brunton preached in the old school-house before the stone church was
built. I may have heard him there, but have no distinct recollection of
it. I am not sure of the date of Mr. Brunton s death, but think it must
have been in the fall of 1837. His library with other effects was sold
at auction. I have some books which formed part of it. One which lies
before me now is a collection of tracts ; on the fly leaf is a neatly
written table of contents, dated 28th August, 1809. It was written, I was
told, with a crow-quill, the kind of pen which he preferred to use. The
funeral was a solemn event. I remember a funeral sermon preached some
time after his decease, by whom I cannot say, and the singing of the
paraphrase which begins, " The hour of my departure is come."

In 1834, came another Scotchman, JOHN HAY, from Inverness-shire. He was
an excellent mechanic, a stone-layer, and a man of intelligence, yet,
like most of the new comers in those times, he was obliged to accept the
wages that were offered, hence he engaged to Colin Robertson for $5.00
per month. His skill, however, and his industry soon attracted notice,
and it was not long before he was made foreman of the work, with a proper
increase of salary. The lot on which he settled and spent his life is now
owned and occupied by his son, John Hay ; he was a Justice of the Peace
many years. Two of his sons, George and William, now live in Ottawa,
the former a retired merchant, the latter an accountant.

John Hay, the son, who has always remained in Lachute, is one of the
prominent citizens of this place, and has always taken an active and
important part in municipal affairs. He has been a School Commissioner
and Municipal Councillor for thirty years, and was Mayor of the parish
until he resigned, declining longer to serve.  1892, he was a candidate
for the Legislative Assembly on the Liberal ticket, but defeated by the
election of the Conservative candidate, W. J. Simpson, of Mr. Hay are
doing a prosperous business in a flour and feed store on M; in this town.


JAMES FISH, Postmaster of Lachute Mills, has been a familiar figure
in Lachutc for half a century, and to-day feels that his life is an
illustration of the vicissitudes of fortune. A sketch in The Watchman,
that delineates him as he appeared in the days of his youth, after having
engaged a while in the grist mill of the Seignior, says :

" His was a hobby to play the clarionet, and, scarcely ever absent
from church,

he led the choir with this musical instrument for about half a century,
and was always in his place, which, to his mind, was as important as
that of the minister." *

To be explicit with regard to dates and events, Mr. Fish came, when at
young boy, with his father, Wm. Fish and family, to Lachute from England
in 1832.  His father, however, soon moved to St. Andrews, where he was
employed in the grist mill as miller for four years. He then went to
Cobourg, Ont., where Mrs. Fish died.

James, in 1838, returned to St. Andrews and engaged to R. King, proprietor
of the grist mill there, for some years. In 1844, he was married to Ellen,
daughter of Thomas Wanless of that village, and, after finding employment
in mills at Hawkes- bury and other places four or five years more, he came
to Lachute, and for three years tended the grist mill for Col. Macdonald,
agent for the Seignior of Argenteuil.  For the nine years following, he
acted as superintendent of all Macdonald s mills grist, saw and woollen
mills. Afterwards he obtained a lease of them for a term of years,
and then bought them, his income having been so carefully husbanded that

he now had quite a snug sum to invest in property. After keeping these
mills in

successful operation some time longer, he rented them to different
parties ; but the carding and fulling mills were soon destroyed by
fire. Mr. Fish rebuilt them, and added another two-story building,
designed for the manufacture of wooden-ware.  Within two years, however,
the latter manufactory was burnt, by which fire he suffered a loss of
$7,000 ; and after this, he sold all the other mills.

In 1877, with that public spirit which has characterized his actions,
he built the bridge, which is known as Fish s Bridge, at his own
expense. Though very indus trious, and much devoted to his business,
he has found time to serve his parish in different positions ; he has
long been Commissioner for the trial of small causes, Councillor both for
the parish and town, Mayor of the latter two years, and post master and
mail contractor since 1880. In 1890-91 his real estate was appraised by
the valuators at $25,525. Misfortune, however, has since deprived him
of this pro pertythe accumulation of a life of industry and economy.

Mrs. Fish died 2nd January, 1891. Their only child, a daughter, was
married to F. C. Ireland. In 1892, i 3 th January, Mr. Fish was again
married, to Miss M.  .  Barley, daughter of John Barley of Lachute.

HENRY HAMMOND, who owns a large farm near the village, on which the
County Agricultural buildings are located, was one of the pioneers of
this County. He was born in the County of Monaghan, Ireland, in 1818. His
father s family came to

* From a sketch by F. C. Ireland.


America in 1831, and settled in the North Settlement ; but after
living with his uncle five years, Henry went with his brother John
to Mille Isles, and took up a lot of wild land. They were the first
settlers in that parish, and their nearest neighbors were three miles
distant. Settlers soon began to come in, however, and after remain ing
there five years, receiving a good offer for their land, in 1841. they
sold it and came to Lachute. Mr. Hammond says, even at that date, the
only buildings there were in what is now the West End of Lachute were
the Seigniorial Mills, a part of what is now the Victoria Hotel, and a
school-house, which answered the two-fold

purpose of an educational institution and a place for holding
religious worship.  Wolves still prowled in the surrounding forests,
and occasionally made an attack on the sheep-fold. Mr. Hammond was a
Volunteer in the Rebellion of 1837, but has since had nothing to do with
either military, public or civic affairs, giving his attention entirely
to his farm, save at times of election, when he has always voted the
Conservative ticket. He has added to his farm from time to time, until
it now comprises a thousand acres. He says that he drew many a load of
grain to the Brewery of Com

missary Forbes, at Carillon, for the purpose of raising money, in the
first years of his residence here.

His brother John, who never married, always lived with him till his death
in 1891, and gave valuable assistance in clearing up the farm. Henry
Hammond was married to Miss Eiiza Bradford, grand-daughter of the
Rev. Richard Bradford, of

Chatham. Their son, Henry R. Hammond, who now has the management of the
estate, after graduating at McGill, studied law, and was admitted to the
Bar ; but then decided to follow the more quiet and healthful vocation
of agriculture.

DAVID RAITT is another who may be styled a pioneer of Lachute. He is
a native of Fifeshire, Scotland, and in his youthful days learned the
tailor s trade.  and afterwards enlisted at Edinburgh, 23rd October,
1 835, at the age of 18, in the R Artillery, in which his services
as tailor were called in requisition. He sailed with his company from
Woolwich for Montreal, and arrived there 2Oth August, 1839. He

then purchased his discharge, which reads as follows :

" Gunner David Raitt of the Royal Artillery has always borne a good
chararte, in the corps, and I believe him to be a sober, honest and
indrstnous young man,

and one whom I conceive in every way to be trustworthy.


Capt. Royal Artillery.

" Discharged in consequence of having paid the sum of 25 under item ia
the Good Conduct Regulations."

Mr. Raitt previous to his discharge had been master tailor in the garrison
at Montreal.

On the 7th January, 1842, he came to Lachute, where he has ever since
resided.  He bought roo acres of land, on which he lived some years,
and then selling it, he



removed to the village, devoting his time chiefly to his trade. On
account of failing health, however, he accepted the office of bailiff
thus obtaining ample exercise in the open air and he has held the position
over forty years. Although 79 years of ace on the loth of October, 1895,
Mr. Raitt is still active and intelligent, and enjoys relating his early
experiences here, and describing the old landmarks and characters

of Lachute.

Mrs. Raitt, also, whose maiden name was Isabella Dixon, and whom he
married before-coming to Canada, is still alive and active. They have
four sons and one

daughter living, two sons and two daughters are deceased.

^ames W., one of their sons, learned the trade of tinsmith, and followed
it till 1890, when he was appointed Secretary of Lachute and Clerk of
the Commissioners Court

offices which he has filled to the general satisfaction of the public. He
is also agent for several Fire, Life and Accident insurance companies,
as well as agricultural implements. He was married 5th October, 1871,
to Janet Isabella Walker.

John Raitt, his brother, is also a tinsmith, plumber and roofer, and
has a shop

here on Main Street, in which he keeps a variety of tinware. He married
Margaret a daughter of Nathaniel Copeland.

ANDREW McCoNNELL whodied in 1893, an J who had then been living a few
years in Lachute, was for several decades a prominent and influential
figure in Argenteuil,

His father, Andrew McConnell, came from Glasgow to Canada, with his
family, of John, Mary, Andrew, William and Agnes, in 1819, and settled
on a farm on the

Lachute Road.

The son, Andrew, was married to Mary Jane Bradford, grand-daughter of
the Rev.

Richard Bradford, sist October, 1851. He settled at Gushing in Chatham,
on the

farm now owned by J. B. Clerihue ; he erected fine buildings, and lived
there till 1887,

when he removed to Lachute. He was a very successful farmer, and was
careful to

educate his children. He filled the office of Justice of the Peace for
many years with

great ability, and when he died he was the oldest Justice of the Peace
in the County.

He was also a Commissioner for the trial of small causes, and was
appointed Cap-

tain of militia during Lord Monk s administration. He died in November,
1893, and

the funeral was one of the largest ever seen in Lachute. He had eight

John Bradford, Gilbert Smith, Richard George, Andrew William, Jessie
Ann, James

Quinton, Jennie and Hugh.

Gilbert, Andrew and James settled, a few years ago, in the North West
first at Qu Appelle; but they are now residing in Vancouver. Andrew
acted as courier for General Middleton during the Riel Rebellion, and
was one of the nine prisoners rescued at the battle of Batoche. Richard
G. is a B.A. of McGill College, and now holds a prominent position in
the Geological Survey of Canada.

John Bradford McConnell, M.D., C.M., was born at Chatham, 28th August,
1851 ; educated at Wanless Academy, at Carillon ; entered on his
medical studies at McGill in 1869, and graduated in 1873. In 1871,
he went through the Military


2I 9

School at Montreal, and the same year was appointed Lieutenant in the
nth of Argenteuil Rangers Subsequently, he was for eight years surgeon n
the I of Wales Rifles. He has taught many years in the Medical Facultyof
Bishop s Colleg -first, as professor o Botany, his collection of plants
being one of the largest in the Dominion ; he has filled several important
positions in the University. Durin, summer of ,886 he made an extensive
European tour, visiting the hospitafs of Dublin, London, Pans and Berlin,
taking a course on Bacteriology" under Prof.  Koch at Pans. He has
contributed frequently to the Montreal Medical Journal, and ht papers
have been read at the Medico-Chirurgical Society. He was married in z8
75 Theodora Lovell, daughter of Robert Miller, publisher and stationer.

< t up,c f Ireland Came lo this co tr y ^ a member

o the Royal Staff Corps. After the canal was completed, he settled in
the noTpar

of Gore, and d.ed there, not many years since, within a few months of IO
o years old Mrs Boyd died a few years later, at the age of 93 . They had
six sons and two daughters ; three of the former and the two latter are
still living. Hugh one of th LTMar d ue!te deSC6ndantS fiTein Winnipeg ;
his son Nathaniel is the present M.  P.

Stewart, the eldest son of the pioneer, married Margaret Hammond, aunt of
Henry Hammond of Lachute ; she died about 1890, at the age of 03. They
firs settled in Gore, but a few years afterward removed to Chatham,
where Mr Boyd had aught TOO acres of wild land. On this land, and at
that time, of course, he had all 16 varied rough experience of pioneer
life ; he earned many dollars in those days drawing wood to Carillon
and selling it for 90 cents per cord. But he survived all thi hardship,
reared his family, cleared two farms, on one of which, known as the
Mile Farm, a fine tract, he lives with his son James. Though 83 years of
age he is 1 very active and ambitious. So great is his desire for work,
that he insists on ung care of the stock, and threshing grain, daily,
with a flail for over a dozen head He was one of the loyal actors in
the Rebellion of 1837 J he is Master of an Orange Lodge, a position he
has held over forty years. His childrenthree sons and two daughters-are
all living. James, the eldest son, resides on the homestead.  U.am S.,
the youngest, is connected with the Customs Department in Montreal Mary,
one of the daughters, is married to John Earl, of Lachute; Sarah, the
other daughter, married to T. B. Johnson, resides in Lennoxville.

John W., third son, at the age of fifteen, was apprenticed to learn
the trade of miller, a trade which sometimes in connection with lumber
business he has fol-

owed to the present. When about 2r , he went to California, and was there
engaged m lumbering five years. After his return, he and his brother
bought the old mills known as the " McKenzie Mills," at St. Canute,
with which they were engaged fifteen

ears, doing an extensive business. They sold out in 1886 for $14,000,
afier which John W. was connected five years with the new lumber firm
of Owens, Lane & Boyd;


he also in 1892, in company with W. J. Simpson, M.P.P., bought the
grist mill and saw mill at Lachute, which, during the past fall, 1895,
they sold to J. C.  Wilson.

Mr. Boyd was married in October, 1892, to a daughter of Dr. Stackhouse of


TAMES HENDERSON, a venerable old gentleman, with kind and pleasant face,
who lives in a neat cottage near McGibbon s mill, has many recollections
of the infant days of Lachute. He came with his father, Peter Henderson,
from Callander, Perth shire Scotland, in 1820 ; his father settled on
a lot in St. Canute in the county of Two Mountains, which is now owned
by Wra. Boa. At that time, Mr. James Hender son says the only buildings
where now the village is located were the grist mill and saw mill and two
or three houses ; one occupied the site of the present residence of Dr
Christie, a man named Proctor lived near the site of the Rev. Mr. Mackie
s residence ; and there was a school-house where G. J. Walker, Esq.,
now lives.  The only road to St Andrews was by way of Beech Ridge.

Mr. Henderson, who is 82 years old, has spent thirty-five years of
his life in Mon treal He gives a graphic description of an election
that occurred in this county some time during the forties. Among other
incidents, he relates that one of the candi dates had a barrel of whiskey
rolled to the place of polling ; the whiskey was served in a wooden pail,
supplied with a tin cup, and then carried around, so that every one so
inclined could drink to his heart s content. The elder Mr. Henderson
died in

1841, and his son was married in 1843 to Elizabeth Vart, of England,
who died in January, 1884 ; they had four sons and three daughters. The
eldest, Peter, and third son, John, are in business in Montreal; the
second son, William, is farming near Montreal, and the youngest, James,
is also farming in Brandon, Man. Mary, the eldest daughter, and Elizabeth,
the youngest, are married, and live in Montreal, and Jean, the second,
lives with her father.

JOHN SCHOLEFIELD, son of the Rev. William Scholefield, a prominent

in England, came to this country when quite young, and labored for many
years as

local preacher. He married Amelia, a daughter of Robert Kneeshaw, an
early settler

at Lachute. They lived a while at St. Andrews, and their son William
was bom

there; after this, they removed to Ontario, where Mr. Scholefield died,
not many

years later.

William Scholefield, the son, some years since, became Bookkeeper for
his cousin, Robert Kneeshaw Summerby, who had erected two lumber mills
and a grist mill at St. Canute. Mr. Summerby was accidentally drowned
in his mill pond 3ist May, 1886; his loss was widely and deeply lamented.

Mrs. Summerby, his widow, and Mr. William Scholefield, were married
i8th August, 1887, and Mr. Scholefield continued the business; but he
died gth January, 1891. Mrs. Scholefield still owns one of the lumber
mills at St. Canute, and ha s two lots and a fine brick residence in
Lachute, where she lives. She has two daughters Minnie Summerby and
Amelia Scholefield. Another daughter by the


first marriage, Ruby Summerby, a bright little girl, nine years old. and
a general favorite, was drowned at Lachute, in the North River, 6th
June, 1895.

Mrs. Scholefieid in devoted to Christian work, and has been President,
Vice- President, and Secretary of the C. E. Society, and is now
Corresponding Secretary.

BENJAMIN BURCH came from Vermont to Lachute with the earliest settlers,
the Lanes, Hutchins, and others, and settled on land now owned by his
grandson, Alfred Burch. The maiden name of his wife, whom he married
in Vermont, was Annie Burch. He took up 3 -o acres of land, which he
afterward divided among three sons, and lived here till his death. He
had five sons and two daughters.

His eldest, N. F. Burch. was killed on the railway at Carillon, roth
November, 1868.

Alvah Burch, one of the three sons mentioned above, married Miss Grout,
of Vaudreuil ; she died leaving two sons, and he then married Margaret
Matthews, by which marriage he had seven children five sons and two
daughters. Soon after his second marriage, he sold his farm to the
Rev. William Henry, and bought a village lot in Lachute, now occupied
by Rodrigue s hotel, and conducted a public house here thirty years. He
was also engaged quite largely in other business had a bakery, grocery,
and dealt extensively in cattle. It is said that, at one time, he was
wealthy, and was always benevolent and kind to the poor.

BENJ. BURCH. an account of whose sad death by drowning is given in the
history of Harrington, was a son of Benjamin Burch, the pioneer. He
married Eliza Clark, and settled on the farm in Upper Lachute now owned
by his son, Alfred A. Burch.

Some years later, he went to Harrington, took up land, and was drowned
there in

1858. He had two sons and three daughters ; one of the former died
in childhood.  One daughter, married, lives in Manitoba, the other two
in Grenville ; one, married to David Ogilvy ; the other is the widow of
the late Richard Hoare.

Alfred A. Burch, the only surviving son, when quite young, went to
the States, and was married 7 th August, 1873, in Slatersville, R.I.,
to Margaret Smiley, of Chatham, Que. In 1883, he moved to Manitoba;
his wife died in 1892, and the following year he returned to Lachute,
and bought the old homestead of about 150 acres, which "had been the
home of his father and grandfather. In 1893, July 4 th. he was married
to.Elizabeth Eraser, youngest daughter of Amaziah Burch.

THOMAS SHEPHERD, who now resides in Lachute, is a son of William Shepherd,
who came from Yorkshire, England, to St. Andrews about 1825, and for a
year wa in the employ, as farmer, of the Rev. Joseph Abbott. About two
years arrival, he was married to Margaret Graham. In 1834, or thereabout,
he bought 13 acres of land in the East Settlement, on which he lived till
his death. Mr.  was one of the loyal actors in the Rebellion of 1837. He
had eight sons and daughters. Thomas, the eldest son. remained on the
homestead, and wa: 8th February, 1864, to Mary Ann Shaw. They have two
sons and


Mr. Shepherd sold the homestead to his eldest son, William, and moved
to Lachute in 1891 The son was married, ist of March, 1892, to Grace

Mr Shepherd has been a very successful farmer, and has . fine property
i Lachute. Before moving here, he was for nine years a member of the
Parish Council.

JAMES CAMPBELL came to Canada in 1823, landing in Quebec city on the
of May he was accompanied by his wife, two sons, the family of one of
the latter,

^ Tttar ried son, SAMUEL CAMPBELL, settled in November of the same
year on xooac es of an uncleared lot in Gore, on the shore of Clear
Lake but before he ame to this section, his wife (Nancy McLean) died in
Lachine. He remained m Go a > ear and a half, then moved to the i xth
Range, Chatham, where he lived four His father, who resided with him,
died during their stay in Chatham, and I Hed to him the tot in Gore,
to which he then returned, and lived there for twenty He then removed to
Papineauville, and afterwards to Grenville, dying m the fatter place at
the age of 91. He was twice married ; by the first marriage he had two
sons and a daughter, and by the last, two sons and four daughters.

JOSEPH the eldest son by the first marriage, was born in Co. Antrim,
4 th Novem

ber z8i<; he, also, has been twice married: the first time, 6th
April, 1841, to Jane McArthur six sons and four daughters were born to
them. Mrs. Campbell died 3th February, 1888; and Mr. Campbell was again
married, i2th July, 1892.  Catherine A. Smith, widow of the late Captain
William Smith. Mr. Campbell now 81 years of age, and can write steadily,
and walk five or six miles a day.  has done much work as a mechanic
during his long life, and still keeps busy, usually in the manufacture
of light articles of furniture, which are executed with neatness and
taste. John Campbell, one of his sons, is proprietor of Dalesville.

PETER CAMPBELL, another son, lived with his father in Chatham till the
age of 17, when he came to Lachute to learn the trade of miller. He
worked five or six years with James Fish ; his employer then leased
the mill to him for five years, and after- wards he bought both grist
mill and saw mill ; in connection with the latter, he also engaged in
the lumber business. He sold the mills, however, at the expiration of
three years, and followed the lumber business till the fall of 1895,
when the Lachute mills having been purchased by J. C. Wilson, this
gentleman engaged Mr. Campfc to resume his former vocation of miller,
in which position he is now employed.  H was married i 3 th September,
1876, to Catherine Matilda Palliser ; she died 4 th Feh ruary, 1892 ;
he has been a member of the Town Council three years.

JAMES WALKER from Ayrshire, Scotland, came to Lachute in 1832; he was
a miller, and was first employed a year in the St. Andrews mill, and
then a year in t mill at Lachute. After this, he purchased of Johnson,
a son-in-law of Benj.  Burch, the farm of 170 acres, which is now owned
by his son, G. J. Walker. A portion of Mr. Johnson s present dwelling
was erected by Johnson.


Soon after settling here, Mr. Walker met with a serious accident. Patrick
Quinn or, as he was usually called, Paddy Quinn a noted character in
Lachute in those days, with devoted loyalty, determined to celebrate the
birthday of his sov ereign. Securing an old cannon, he charged it so
heavily with slugs and a variety of missiles, that it burst, injuring
Mr. Walker so badly, that one of his legs had to be amputated. He
spent his remaining days here, clearing up his farm, and was for many
years Clerk of the Commissioner s Court; he died 26th April, 1868: Mrs.
Walker died 3rd November, 1876. They had six children four sons and two
daugh ters ; of these, Gavin J. is the only one now living. The eldest,
a daughter, born in Scotland, died soon after their arrival in Canada ;
the second, a son, died at the age of 18. T\vo daughters, Jessie and
Eliza, who married, res pectively. G. L.  Meikle and Thomas Patton,
are now deceased.

GAVIN WALKER has always remained on the homestead, and has been closely
connected with all the affairs of the Town and County. The following is
a list of the positions he still holds and those he has filled :

Secretary County Council, appointed March, 1868 ; Secretary Parish
St. Jerusa lem, appointed 1879 ; Secretary School Board, appointed 1867 ;
Secretary Agricultural Society, appointed 1869 ; Clerk of Commissioners
Court, appointed 1868. He was also Secretary of the town of Lachute for
a year after it was formed, and took an active part in its formation ;
he then resigned in favor of W. J. Simpson, the present M.P.P. He was
Official Assignee for a number of years, is also a Justice of the

Peace, and has been Curator for several estates, and is agent for
different Life and Fire Insurance companies. The duties of these
different offices Mr. Walker has dis charged efficiently, and to public
satisfaction. He is a supporter of the Presbyterian Church, and for
some years has been an Elder. He was married, 29th October, 1873,
to Janet McOuat ; she died 251)1 January, 1890, leaving two sons and
three daughters.

Mr. Walker s commodious residence, beneath stately trees, with its view of
interval meadows across the road in front, is peculiarly attractive, and
suggestiv.  the comforts and pleasures of an old-time, model homestead.

In 1827, two brothers, JAMES and JOHN CALDEP, weavers, from Paisley,
Scotland, settled in Lachute, on the bank of the North River, on land
now owned

and occupied by the family of the late James Pollock. Finding that
they could im prove their circumstances, they soon removed to Chatham,
in the vicinity of Dales- ville, where, in the history of Mr. Maple,
will be found a sketch of one of ti brothers, John Calder.

James Calder, whose wife was a Miss Macfarlane of Paisley, had three
sons.- John, Robert and James, and two daughters, Margaret and Kh/aheth.

John, one of these sons, at an early age, manifested a desire to preach
the Gospel, and had decided to enter the ministiy ; but, owing to the
circumstances of the family, and their hardships in the new country due,
in some measure, to their utter ignorance of pioneer life he was compelled
to relinquish his cherished de-



As he was the eldest son, his services were sorely needed at home, hence
he re mained. But this did not prevent his preaching the Gospel; and
from that time till his death in 1876 he never neglected an opportunity
to make known the glad

tidings of salvation. In those days, churches were few ; and in log
school- houses, on winter nights, after the day s work was over, and in
neighbors houses, on Sunday, he continued to hold meetings and expound
the Scriptures. He had a natural talent for preaching and singing the
latter gift contributing much toward awakening and sustaining interest
in the meetings.

He married Sarah Kerr, daughter of an old Irish pensioner who had
passed his days in the army fighting the battles of his country. The
old veteran often

boasted of his campaign in Egypt, under Abercrombie against Napoleon. He
lived until he was 97 years cfage, and died at the home of his
daughter. John Calder prospered, and became one of the leading farmers
in his settlement. For several

years before his death, he was a colporteur for the Montreal Auxiliary
Bible Society, travelling over a large section of this province,
especially in the Eastern Townships, preaching Christ and distributing
His word. It was on a trip of this kind that he contracted the cold
which resulted in his death. The sudden death of his eldest

son. James, and the failing health of his wife induced him to sell his
property and move to Lachute in ! May, 1875. In the following winter,
while on a trip to Har

rington, he fell ill, and returning home, was seized with an attack
of inflammation of the bowels, which, at the end of a week, proved
fatal. His wife, who had been an invalid for over a year previous,
survived him only a few months. Of him there was much good and t little
ill that could be said. A kind-hearted, generous disposi tion, a sterling
Christian _character, no more fitting epitaph could be written than "
he was a good man."

The family consisted of four sons and three daughters. The eldest son,
James, dropped dead (2nd Sept., 1875) from heart disease, at the residence
of the late John Douglas, Front of Chatham, while waiting for the train
which was to take him on a visit to his brother John, then in Tiverton,
Ont. The latter married Elizabeth,

second daughter of the late Finlay McGibbon of Dalesville, and now
resides in Montreal, where he is City Inspector of the Fire Underwriters
Association.  George F. and Charles, the other two sons, are the editors
and proprietors of the Lachute Watc/rma?i. Of the sisters, Mary, the
eldest, married Archibald Murdoch of Dalesville, and died in June,
1895, leaving a large family. Elizabeth married Mr.  Wm. Heatlie of
Stonefield,[and Susan married Mr. W. J. Thompson, of Lake View; P.Q.,
all of whom are yet alive.

G. F. CALDER, B.A., was born 22nd December, 1862, on the eighth
concession of Chatham. In his early years he attended school in the
old log school-house known as Warwick School," being situated near
the residence of the late David Warwick, but now commonly called Mount
Maple. When the family left to reside in Lachute,

he commenced to attend Lachute Academy, then under the principalship of
Mr. A- Monroe. It is needless to say, the lad was far behind those with
whom he now had


to study, for it must be remembered that our elementary schools in those
days were not what they now are. He then learned the printer s trade
in the Watchman office, which at that time was under the management of
D. Kerr, and in 1880 returned to

the Academy, of which C. S. Holiday, B.A., was then Principal. To this
gentleman, Mr. Calder feels himself deeply indebted for his earnest and
painstaking efforts in preparing him for college. He entered McGill in
1881, matriculating in Arts, received his degree of B. A. in 1885. and the
same year obtained a first-class Academy diploma from the McGill Normal
School. He then accepted the principalship of the Academy at Aylmer,
Que. v and after teaching there successfully two years, entered into
partnership with W. J. Simpson (now M.P.P.), in the publication of tlie
Watch man, and removed to Lachute, where he has since resided. In 1892,
he was married to Miss J. C. Roger, one of the staff of teachers in the
Girls High School, Montreal; and daughter of Mr. Jos. Roger, then of
Wickham, but now of Lachute. In 1891, he was appointed a Commissioner
of the Superior Court for taking affadavits, and in 1892 was admitted
to the Bar for the study of Law.

In politics- Mr. Calder has always been an active Conservative, and is
able to express himself on the platform in clear and forcible language. He
is a member of a Christian church, and an earnest advocate of temperance
and every moral reform.  As a writer, he has a clear and vigorous style,
and when he sets out to answer an oppo nent, he does it with an array
of facts and force of logic that are not easily overcome.

Charles Calder, a younger brother of G. F., and assistant-editor of the
Watch man, was born 131!! May, 1865. After attending school in Chatham
and Lachute, he spent four years in the Baptist College at Woodsiock,
Ont., from which place he entered the Watchman office in 1891. He was
married yth June, 1893, to Margaret,^ daughter of Archibald Graham, Cote
du Midi, St. Andrews. In the publication of the Watchman, his labors are
confined chiefly to the mechanical work ; he is also agent for several
Fire and Life Insurance Companies.

The following obituary is taken from The Watchman of 291)1 April, 1870.
Simpson was the father of the present member of Argenteuil, in the
Local House.


" Death has been very busy in and around Lachute for the last few months,
t many of the old and prominent residenters. The last to fall under his
stroke is t gallant officer whose name heads this article.

" Col. Simpson was born at Auchenterran, parish of Keith, Banffshire,
Scot on 9 th February, 181 r, and died at Lachute on 2 9 th April,
1890. He joined the!  Artillery in June, 1836, and on the breaking out
of the Rebellion in Canada from Woolwich for this country, on the 7 th
April, 1838, and arrived in Montr the 1 5 th of June. Afier the close
of the Rebellion, in which he took an act he received his discharge,
and came and located in Lachute. Here he formed of Cavalry, which was
reckoned the best disciplined in the Province, and at


its disbandment, the troop presented him with a sword, belt and sword
knot, in ac knowledgment of his worth, and the esteem in which he was held
by the individual members of the Troop. Subsequently, he was urgently
solicited to take command of the 4th Company of Argenteuil Rangers,
which Company he has been the Captain of

for eighteen years, during which time he has on every occasion of the
calling out of the Regiment accompanied it on active service.

"Colonel Simpson was a gentleman held in great esteem in this community,
and in his official capacity as a magistrate his judgments were always
respected ; his object being to examine carefully into all cases brought
before him before deciding upon them. We speak open to the corrective
when we say that Col. Simpson was the oldest magistrate in the County,
or it may be in the district of Terrebonne. One fact we do know, that in
the early days of this County s history no man occupied a more prominent
position in the administration of local justice, when that administra tion
was more in the hands of the magistrates than at present. The Colonel
was always a warm and enthusiastic supporter of the Hon. Mr. Abbott and
the Conser vative party.


" Lt.-Col. Gushing, Commandant of the nth Battalion, and all the Officers
and men in the immediate proximity of Lachute, together with the Band
of the Regiment, attended the funeral. Lt.-Col. Simpson s horse, with
his boots fastened in front of the saddle, was led by one of the men
belonging to the deceased s Company. The pro cession was the largest ever
witnessed in Lachute, an evidence of the esteem in which the deceased
was held in this community. The pall-bearers were the Officers of the
nth Battalion, and on the coffin were three beautiful wreaths of lilies
and myrtle.  The corpse was taken to the First Presbyterian Church,
of which the deceased was a member, the Rev. John Mackie, pastor of
the church, officiating. As the funeral cor tege entered the church,
the organist began playing the dead march in Saul.  After the people had
all got seated, Mr. Mackie gave out the 2761!! hymn, a very appropriate
one, at the clo^e of which the pastor offered up a most feeling and
impressive prayer.  Then followed an appropriate address, the preacher
s text being taken from 3Qth

Psalm and i$th Corinthians, at the close of which the 23rd Paraphrase
was sung, the Rev. Mr. Higgins closing with prayer, a veiy solemn and
impressive one.

" The officers present were Lt.-Col. Gushing, Major Lamb, Captains
Weightman, Walker, Adj. Martin, Lieuts. Pollock, McPhail, McCallum and
McMartin, Sergt.  Major Earle, and Capt. Wanless of St. Andrews Cavalry."

WILLIAM JOHN SIMPSON, M.P.P. for Argenteuil, has always taken an active
in terest in the affairs of the County, and has been a staunch and
influential supporter of the Conservative party ; he was for several years
Secretary of the Conservative Association, and three years Secretary of
the Lachute Municipal Council. He joined the Rangers when quite young,
as bugler during the Fenian Raids, and subsequently was Lieutenant of
the same Company for twelve years.



In 1 88 1, he formed a partnership with Dawson Kerr, for the publication
of The

Watchman^ which continued till ist January, 1892, when they sold to
Messrs.  Calder.

He was married April 22nd, 1874, to Miss Mary Fitzgerald.

Mr. Simpson s first experience of political life was when he was
Secretary- Treas urer of the Liberal Conservative Association, during
which time there were many

exciting political contests in the County. When Mr. Owens resigned his
seat in the Legislature, the Convention called to select a candidate
were unanimous in their choice of Mr. Simpson. He won the victory after
an exciting conflict, in which the united forces of the Liberal party
were arrayed against him. The issue seemed for a time uncertain, as his
opponents had selected a most popular candidate Mr. John

Hay, a man of well-known integrity, and a prosperous farmer the latter
fact enhan cing his chances of success, as two-thirds of the constituency
are farmers.  Moreover, the Liberals were fresh from a cheering victory,
in which they had elected Dr.  Christie to the Dominion Parliament by
a large majority. These considerations apparently affected Mr. Simpson
s chances seriously, but his popularity over- balanced every adverse
influence, and he was returned.

In the Legislature, he has been one of the most useful members in the
Private Bills Committee, and has received, on several occasions, the
grateful thanks of the Good Government Association of Montreal for the
aid given them in obtaining proper amendments to their Charter. He has
always supported the legislation popular with the temperance people,
notably the " Tobacco Bill," the license amendments, etc.  Among the
measures he has introduced, are amendments to the Municipal Code, an act
to abolish lotteries, an act to open the meetings of School Commissioners
to the public, and the extension of the franchise to spinsters and widows.

The following notice, which was taken from the Montreal Witness,
was written by a Trooper of St. Joseph dti Lac. It should have been
inserted on a former page, in connection with the St. Andrew s Troop,
but was overlooked :-

" Having observed, in a January number of the Montreal Daily Witnas,
the death of Mr. John Oswald, a native of Stirlingshire, Scotland, aged
86 years and 6 months, at St. Augustin on the i6th hist, and having
served as a trooper under his command, I feel it my duty to narrate,
through your valuable paper, the following, from official documents
-.The deceased, John Oswald, when in Scotland, was a trooper in the
Stirling Yeoman Cavalry, and in 1830 came to Canada and joined the
Argenteuil Troop of Cavalry. On ist December, 1837,116 was commissioned
Lieutenant b John Colborne, and was in active service during 1837-38. In
1848 he was promoted to a Captaincy by the Earl of Elgin. In November,
1856, lie was appointed by Lord Monck, Lieut-Col, of the Militia, until
declining years caused him to retire, veiy much esteemed and respected
by all his troopers."


Mr. John Meikle, sen., says :" About this time (1831) also, the first -
arrived in the settlement Dr. McDowell, who, however, did not remain long.


previous to his coming the settlers had enjoyed the services
of a Mr. Ellis, who, though not an M.D., had much skill in
medicine." Mr. Robertson succeeded him, but soon removed to St. Andrews.

THOMAS CHRISTIE, M.D., and the present member for Argenteuilinthe
Dominion Parliament, is doubtless the oldest medical practitioner in the
County. He is the son of the late John Christie and his wife Elizabeth
Nichol, both of Stirlingshire, and was born in Glasgow, Scotland, in
1824. He came to Canada with his parents in 1827, was educated at McGill
University, and obtained his degree in 1848. He was married in October,
1849, to Catherine, daughter of the late Peter McMartin, of St.  Andrews,
Que. During the terrible ship fever in 1847-48, the Doctor was assistant
surgeon at Point St. Charles, and the experience amid such constant
scenes of misery and death must have been severe for one so young, and
in the outset ot his pro fessional career. Six thousand immigrants, it is
claimed, are buried there, who died from that dreadful scourge during the
years 1847 and 1848. Besides his professional duties, and those devolving
upon him as a member of Parliament, he has taken a deep interest in
local affairs, and been called upon to fill responsible local positions.
He has been Chairman of the Board of School Commissioners of the parish,
Secre tary of Lachute Academy, Warden of the County, etc. An account of
his different

elections to Parliament will be found in a list of the representatives
of the County on preceding pages.

The following sketch of the Doctor, found in F. C. Ireland s " Sketches of
Lachute," published in The Watchman, in 1886, will doubtless be endorsed
by all

who know him :

"Dr. Thomas Christie commenced his professional career in Lachute under
discouraging circumstances, owing to the sparseness of the population
and the bad roads, extending to the far away settlements of the north and
west. But from con stant attention to duty and very moderate charges, he
soon entered upon a successful career which has continued to the present
day. No physician can be held in higher esteem for faithfulness in the
discharge of his professional duties than Dr.  Christie; while, as a
public citizen, his life and influence have shown an untarnished record
on the side of morality, temperance and religion. He has reared sons and

daughters to occupy responsible positions in society, several of the
former following the profession of their father, with success shining
brightly before them, while they all seem to partake of the same sterling
principles of character.

" The first really creditable-looking dwelling in Lachute was that erected
by Dr.  Christie, and it still stands a most comfortable residence
suitable for anyone in this last quarter of the ipth century. It is
shoded by stately trees, while the grounds contain beds of flowers of
brilliant hues, and graveled walks ; and it needs only a fountain ot
sparkling water to complete a most beautiful picture."

Dr. Christie has had eleven children seven sons and four daughters ; one
of each sex died in infancy, and the others arrived at maturity. Four of
the sons John, Edmund, George H. and William graduated from the Medical
department of McGill;


22 9

John and William also graduated in Arts. The former, who was a clever
physician, and had secured a large and successful practice in Chicago,
died in that city in 1884.  His two brothers, Edmund and William, are
practising in Chicago, and G. H. has succeeded to his father s practice
in Lachute. Thomas, the third son, has a fine drug store here, and James
P., the fourth, is in business in San Francisco.

Of the daughters, the eldest remains with her parents ; the second is
married to Mr. Crawford Ross, merchant in Ottawa ; and the youngest is
married to Dr.  A.  D. Stewart, of Richmond, Que.

The following obituary of DR. WILLIAM SMITH, who died at Lachute, 4th
Sep tember, 1895, is copied from The Watchman (Lachute) :

"Dr. Smith was born in the parish of St. Jerusalem on 4th April, 1851. He
attended school for several years in Brownsburg, being with his aunt, Mrs.
Stalker.  Afterwards, he prepared for McGill at Lachute College. During
his course at McGill, he was characterized by his honest and careful
preparation of his work.  After graduating in 1876, he commenced the
practice of his profession here, which he con tinued up to the time of
his death. On 5th September, 1883, he was married to Mary Jane Hammond,
daughter of Henry Hammond of Lachute, by whom he had two children. In
February, 1891, the Doctor sustained a grievous loss by the death of
his wife. His only regret at going was to leave his two little girls
without mother or father. Early in his career, he became connected with
the nth Battalion Argenteuil Rangers, and, finally, became their medical
officer. He always took great interest in militaiy affairs, and was
no mean shot with the rifle. His real entry into public life, however,
was in the year 1889, when he first became Mayor of the town. At that
time municipal waters were exceedingly troubled ; the Doctor sought
to calm them, and his efforts were successful; for, while he never
would swerve from a principle to please a friend, he did his duty in
such a firm and kindly spirit, that he soon won the confidence of the
public. It was recognized, that here was a man who had the cour age of
his convictions, and would do what he felt to be right, regardless of the
con sequences to himself. Such a man is a rarity ; and he was continued
in office five successive years. During these years, he was appointed
a Justice of the Peace and a Commissioner of the Commissioners Court,
in both of which offices he proved him self a painstaking and careful
official. Only last July, when a vacancy occurred on the School Board,
the public again turned to him, and he was elected School Com


" As a physician, he was frequently called upon by the poor of this town
and County, and he never refused to give his attendance through fear
of not receiving his fee. Born among Liberals, for years he followed
that party ; but there came a time when his convictions compelled him to
sever his connections therewith, because felt that the course then being
pursued by the leaders of that party was not right his allegiance was to
principles first, and party afterwards. He became the Conservative parly,
and was looked upon as one of its coming leaders, year, he was elected
President of the Argenteuil Liberal-Conservative Associ


but it must not be supposed that Dr. Smith was wedded to the Conservative

any more than he had been to the Liberals. He freely criticized the
actions of the Government, and was ready again to sacrifice his party
ties in order to maintain his convictions of what was right. Nevertheless,
the party felt that they would never need to look outside for a candidate
while Dr. Smith remained with them.

" Resolutions were adopted by the Town Council of Lachute, expressing
their pro

found respect for the deceased, and sorrow for his death, and all attended
his funeral."  A sketch of the family of Dr. Smith is given elsewhere in
these pages.  DR. BENJAMIN S. STACKHOUSE, son of the late John Stackhouse,
a well-known citizen of St. Andrews, has for many years been one of
the leading, and, in fact, the only Dentist of Lachute. He has a fine
residence and office on Main street. Of his three brothers, Dr. Charles
Stackhouse, who also adopted Dentistry as a profession, has his office
on Sparks street, Ottawa, and a beautiful residence on O Connor street,
in the same city ; John Stackhouse, the eldest, who succeeded his father
in the chair, making business in St. Andrews ; and Gilbert, the youngest,
who was a photographer in the same village, are both deceased.

DR. L. P. ALEXANDER RODRIGUE, third son of Pierre Rodrigue, was born
1 7th December, 1869, in St. Scholastique, Que. He attended school in
Lachute, and in 1883 entered the College in St. Therese. After passing
his examination before the Quebec Medical Board in May, 1891, in Montreal,
he entered Laval Uni

versity of that city, and graduated -in 1895, taking his degree of M.D. ;
and also obtaining his license to practise medicine and surgery at the
same time. He then came to Lachute, where he has many influential friends,
and has opened an office in " Rodrigue s Block," on Railway Avenue.

J. B. MENZIES, M.D., one of the medical practitioners of Lachute, has
quietly and modestly won the esteem of the people of this section, and
built up a good practice. He is a son of J. B. Menzies, Registrar of the
County of Lanark, Ont., from which place he came to Lachute in 1887 ;
he is a graduate of McGill, and received his degree in 1879.

W. W. ALEXANDER, M.D., now occupies the office of the lamented Dr. Smith.
Dr. Alexander was born in Prince Edward Island, and received his education
at the Prince of Wales College, Charlottetown. In 1887, he entered the
Medical Depart ment of McGill University, and received his degree of M.D.,
C.M., therefrom in April, 1891. After some months of post-graduate work
in Boston and New York hospitals,

he returned to Canada, and began practice in Hemmingford, Huntington
County, Que., where he remained till recently, when he came to
Lachute. The recommend ations he has received, and the interest he takes
in religious work, give promise of a useful and successful career.

JOSEPH PALLISER, barrister, is a native of Lachute ; his grandfather,
Robert Palliser, came from Yorkshire, England, to Lachine, in 1832,
with three sons and two daughters ; he was killed at that place during
an election riot in March, 1841.



Thomas, his eldest son, was married in Lachine, in 1838, to Margaret
Baird - he was a member of the Lachine Troop of Cavalry during the
Papineau Rebellion.  In 1844, he settled in Lachute, and lived here till
l893> when he visited his son fhomas in Morns, Man., and died there,
the i 7 th December of the same year had two sons and three daughters,
who arrived at maturity. Joseph the second son attended Military School
in Montreal, and received his certificate in IsGo The year following,
while holding the rank of Sergeant-Major in the nth Battalio,- he joined
the expeditionary force to the Red River. After his return, he studied
Law with the late Hon. J. J. C. Abbott, being admitted to study in 1876,
taking his degree from McGill m 1878, and was called to the Bar in
1879. He was married in 1879 to Lillian Margaret McGibbon. Mr. Palliser
takes an active interest in all local affairs ; he drew the Charter when
the Town of Lachute was incorporated in ,88;

and has been Chairman of the School Board several years. He was the
first to introduce the electric light into Lachute, and has always been
desirous of promoting public improvements; he has charge of the telegraph
office here.

G. F, BAMPTON, Q.C, for several years has been one of the prominent
members the Bar in this County. He was born in Plymouth, Eng., and is
a son of the late

Augustus Bampton, Civil Engineer, M.T.C.E., Chief Surveyor of the
Corporations of the towns of Plymouth and Davenport, England.

G. E. Bampton was educated at Christ s Hospital, London, and afterward
served five years on the Pacific, and at other stations, as an officer in
the Royal Navy He took a Law course at McGill, graduating with first-class
honors, and was called to the Bar in 1879 ; he studied with D. Macmaster,
Q.C., Bernard Devlin, and others.  He began practice in Lachute in 1879,
and was married i 3 th August, 1884, to Ann Louise Pollock, third daughter
of the late Thomas Pollock, Postmaster at Hill Head.  Mrs.  Bampton died
2 9 th November, 1891, at the age of 27, leaving three children.

Mr. Bampton was appointed Revising Officer for the County in 1885, by
the Dominion Government, and Provincial Revenue Attorney, by the Quebec
Govern ment, in 1892. He has always taken a prominent part in politics,
being one of the effective advocates during election campaigns of the
interests of the Conservative party, and has been retained in most of
the law cases in the county which were of public interest.

JOSEPH EVARISTEVALOIS was born in Vaudreuil, Que. He spent three years
in the College of L Assomption of that place, then went to the College
of Montreal, and passed his examination for the Notarial Profession in
1878. He was admitted as a Notary in May, 1882, and began practice in
St. Scholastique the same year. He

remained in that village until March, 1890, when he came to Lachute. While
in St.  Scholastique, he was married in September, 1885, to Corinne,
daughter of Joseph

Langlois, of that place. Mr. Valois organized a Band in May, 1895;
il is composed of sixteen members, and he is instructor.


A. BERTHELOT is also a Notary who has practised his profession many
years in Lachute.

The following history and statistics of schools in this section, during
the first decade of this century, was recently found among the old
papers of J. S.  Hutchins by his daughter, Mrs. Gushing, of Montreal,
through whose courtesy they are now pub lished :


In 1798, this Parish contained but five families, numbering about thirty
souls in 1800, fifteen families, numbering about seventy-five souls. In
this year, one school was put in operation, and taught by a female in
a private house near the Chute Mills numbering about fifteen scholars
for the term of six months. In 1801, a log school-house was built, half
a mile above the Chute Mills, and taught by a young man six months,
thirty scholars attending daily. In 1802, the settlement increased
to more than thirty families, and several small schools were started,
located from two to three miles from each other, and generally taught
by females. This mode of education was continued up to the year 1810,
when, at the request of the inhabitants, a school was established by
order of the Governor General, under the Royal Insti tution, a mile
and a half above the Chute Mills a good, substantial, school building
having been previously erected. John D. Ely was duly commissioned by
the Governor General to teach in the same, with a salary of sixty pounds
per annum. Mr. Ely,

being a first-rate elementary teacher, soon raised his school to a
respectable standing > and the average number of scholars in daily
attendance amounted to sixty. Mr.  Ely taught this school for four
years very successfully, many children being sent to his school from the
neighboring parishes to receive instruction in the higher branches of
education. The inhabitants made his salary nearly equal to one hundred
pounds per annum; but, unfortunately for him and the parishioners,
too, he was obliged to relinquish his trust, and Mr. Aaron Wood was
subsequently commissioned to teach

the school. The latter continued it for two years, and then resigned his
position, in consequence of the Board s reducing their teachers salaries
to twenty pounds per annum. They, likewise, multiplied their schools ; and
another was established, abou four miles distant, under the name of the
Upper Lachute School. Shortly after this change by the Board of the Royal
Institution, the Government bounty was distributed to all the schools in
the Province ; and its allowance was equal to that of the schools under
the Royal Institution. Mr. Carpenter succeeded Mr. Wood as teacher, and
taught for three years successfully. I would here note that, after the
salaries of the teachers were cut down to twenty pounds, the trustees
were obliged to raise the fee of tuition from is. 3d. to 33. gd. per
scholar, each month, in order to provide competent eachers. The school
of which I have been particularly speaking has been continued



up to the present day by various teachers, generally competent ; but it
cannot be said that it is in as flourishing a condition as when itwas
under the Royal Institution, neither is it so numerously attended.

The children under the age of fourteen and over seven, belonging to this
district number sixty-one, but they do not all attend school. There are,
at the present time, eight school districts in this parish, numbering
altogether about three hundred and fifty children. In the year 1810,
the number of children over four and under twenty one was two hundred
and eleven, male and female.

The following is a list of the inhabitants, and the number of children
between the ages of 4 and 21, in Lachute, in iSto, copied from a document
found among the papers ofj. S. Hutchins:

Number of children, 211.

John Kelly, Abiathar Waldron, Francis Bureau, Silas Boldry, Samuel Orton,
Joel Bixby, Osias Hosilton, Benj. Burch, Benj. I. Burch, Asa Kimball, Wm.
Powers, Wm. Evans, Jonathan Burch, Jonathan Hart. Isaac Thompson, John
Dunlap, Wm.

Powers, jun., Ward Stone, Augustus Stone, Benj. Cutter, David Hubbard,

Sampson, Amaziah Church, Knot, John S. Hutchins, Nathaniel Davis, Phineas

Hutchins, Samuel Sanders, Jonathan Burch, jun., Hezekiah Clark,
Wm. Perkins, John Sparrow, D. Hitchcock, James Draper, Richard Dilly,
Daniel Pool, Timothy Pool, John Blanchard, Philander Stephens, Ebenezer
Stephens, Cyrus Calkins, James Thompson, Wm. Thompson, Abiram Boldry,
John Jacobs, Nathan Jacobs, Alex.  Reed, Wm. McNall, Samuel Thompson,
Curtis Stone, E. Blackman, Osias Black- man, Charles Ellis, David Bell,
James Hubbard, Aaron Stone, Aaron Hamblin, Uriah McNall, Elijah Woodworth,
Joseph Herrimon, Rufus Herrimon, Benj. Allen. Wm.  McGloughlin, David
Taslin, Timothy Richardson, Moses Snider, John Snider, Samuel Blackman,
Isaiah P. Barber, Robert Partlow, Isaiah Hyatt, B. Cramton, Asa Sanders,
Israel Brooks, Charles Perkins, Asa Starnes, Gideon Blackman, David
Brooks, Jonathan Brooks, Daniel Starnes, Nathan Brooks.



Lachute Academy had its origin in the free classes conducted in his
own house, by the late Rev. Thomas Henry, who felt the necessity of
providing higher education for the young people of the community. These
classes were popular, and the attend ance increased, so that it was soon
necessary to remove the school to the basement of the Presbyterian Church,
of which the Rev. Mr. Henry was pastor. At a public

meeting, 23rd February, 1855, the people manifested their appreciation
of such instruction, by establishing a superior school governed by five
directors.  These directors organized a school, outlined a course of
study, and appointed a staff of teachers, and thus the pastor s piivate
classes became the well-known public institu tion, " Lachute Academy."




The Academy classes were continued in the basement of the church until
proper buildings could be erected. Rev. Mr. Henry was appointed first

of the Academy, with the following assistants: Dr. Thomas Christie and
Mr. John

M. Gibson. John Meikle, Esq., was President of the Board of Directors,
and Mr.  John M. Gibson was Secretary.

After a year and a half of faithful work, the Rev. Mr. Henry, John
Meikle, Esq., and Dr. Thomas Christie were successful in obtaining
from government, through the kind services and loyal support of Sydney
Bellingham, then member of Parliament for the County of Argenteuil,
an Act of incorporation and a government

grant of ^75.

This Act of incorporation was obtained on the first day of July, 1856,
when the

following gentlemen were incorporated a "body politic and corporate in
deed and

in name," to be known as " Lachute College," viz. : " John Meikle, Thomas
Christie, Rev. Thomas Henry, Rev. Walter Scott, Rev. James Bishop,
Thomas Lockie, Thomas Pollock, John McAllister and Thomas Morrison,
all of the village

of Lachute, County of Argenteuil." Thus was Lachute Academy established,
on 23rd February, 1855, and incorporated by Act of Parliament, passed at
Toronto, ist July, 1856, during the second session of the fifth Parliament
of Canada, and assented to by Sir Edmund Walker Head, Governor General.

The Academy was established in the municipality of St. Jerusalem,
which con tained, in 1856, 471 heads of families and 740 children from
5 to 16 years of age.  The attendance at the Academy in 1855-6 was 210,
of which number 94 pupils were

under 16 years, and 116 pupils were over 16 years of age. These figures
prove clearly the need of a superior school, and the wisdom of those
who labored so earn estly for its establishment.

The course of study outlined by the directors comprised Latin, Greek,
Natu ral History, Chemistry, Natural Philosophy, Mathematics, English
Grammar and Composition, Geography, Elementary Astronomy, Drawing, Design
and French. In 1856, the directors purchased a fine set of chemical
apparatus valued at 40, and later, in 1859, they added a complete set
of maps and an orrery to their appliances for teaching geography. The
public library of the " Mechanics Institute" afforded the students
many opportunities of reading, and served as an excellent reference
library. In the long period of partial leisure from autumn to spring, how
pleasant and profitable it must have been for the young people to attend
such classes, and receive instruction from such disinterested and loyal
teachers, most of whom were men of zeal for the cause of education, and
labored free of charge to the institution ; the total cost of teaching,
in 1856, being only 120. Rev. Mr. Henry continued to be connected with
the Academy, for several years after its establishment, as teacher
and adviser, while Dr. Christie labored faithfully and gratuitously,
for many years, as demonstrator in chemistry, and the late John Meikle,
Esq., continued President of the Board of Directors, and befriended the
school in various ways.

On 2oth April, 1858, the directors resolved to erect an academy
building in


central place, and selected the site on which the old academy now stands,
in the east ward of Lachute town, midway between two of the parish
schools, Nos. I and VIII

These two elementary schools were united by the school commissioners,
who built

the lower storey of the new building, while the directors built the
upper part, thus bringing the pupils of the two elementary schools,
and the classes of the Academy, into the same building.

The new buildings were occupied in 1859, and the Rev. John Mackie was
placed in charge at a salary of $350 (to be paid in silver at par) and
all the fees arising from his classes. The staff of teachers in 1858-9,
which was the first year in the new building, was Rev. John Mackie,
principal; Dr. Christie, lecturer ; Mr.  James Emslie and Mr. Adam Orr,
teachers. After two years Rev. Mr. Mackie resigned and

became pastor of the First Presbyterian Church. He was succeeded in 1860
by Mr. John Reade, who held the position for three years until 1863. In
1862 the Government grant was reduced by one-half, and a still further
reduction left the institution in debt, and unable to continue its
educational work. Under these circum stances, the directors concluded
to amalgamate the academy classes with the public schools and make over
the Government grant, now ^44, to the school commissioners, on condition
that they should engage a head master who was competent to teach the
classics. This arrangement was made in 1864, and has continued to the
present time. Mr. Alex. Stewart was principal after Mr. Reade from 1863-4,
when he was succeeded by Mr. George Thomson of Queen s College, Kingston,
in 1864. Mr.  Thomson held the position until February, 1867, when he
was appointed School Inspector, and Mr. G. H. Drewe became principal
until February, 1868, when Mr.  Alex. Stewart was again engaged as
principal until 1870. In 1870 Mr. C.S.  Holiday succeeded Mr. Stewart,
and remained principal until 1874, when he resigned and was followed by
Mr. Murdock Munroe for one year, 1874-5. Mr. Holiday returned in 1875, and
held the position for nine years, until 1884, in which year he accepted
the position of principal in Huntingdon Academy, and Mr. H. M. Cockfield
became principal of Lachute Academy, which position he filled until 1886,
when he resigned to accept service under the Montreal School Board,
and was succeeded by Mr. J.  W.  McOuat, until 1892. In 1892 Mr. McOuat
was appointed School Inspector, and Mr.  X. T. Truell, who now (1895)
holds the position, was made Principal. Amongst the numerous assistant
teachers are Mr. James Emslie and Mr. Thomas Haney, two of the oldest
and best known teachers of the County.

In 1875 a proposal was made by the directors to the school commissioners,
to erect a "wing " to the east side of the original building. This
suggestion, however, was only carried into effect in 1879, when the
increased attendance in the elementary departments made an enlargement
necessary. At the same time an elementary school was established in
the " West End " of the village, thus restoring the former school,
No. VIII. The upper portion of the "wing" was used for various purposes

until a much later date, 1888, when it also became a classroom of the

This relationship existed between the two boards (the College Directors
and the



Parish Commissioners) until the incorporation of Lachute Town in 1885,
when the

parish board withdrew, and re-established their former school, No. i,
now called East End School." The directors, however, established the
same relationship with the school board of the Town, and the whole
institution became one school and adopted the course of study for
academies. In 1891-2 the school commissioners unanimously determined
to build a new school building worthy of the large attend ance, which
was rendering the old buildings far too small. This school board was
composed of the following gentlemen : Joseph Palliser, chairman ; Hugh
Eraser, jun., Thomas McOuat, Peter Cruise and Rev. Wm. Sanders, while
William Henry was secretary-treasurer, and J. W. McOuat was principal
of the school. Four acres of land were purchased for a playground, and
one of the finest school buildings in the province was eiected thereon,
at a cost of $12,000. In this new building, situated in the centre of
the town, large numbers of students continue to attend from all parts
of the county and surrounding districts.

Amongst the benefactors of the school are Sidney Bellinghara, the late
John Meikle, and, in recent years, J. C . Wilson, Esq., not to mention the
numerous friends and students who have contributed to the library, nor
the zealous principals who devoted many extra hours to prepare students
to enter courses of study not in line with the Academy work. As a result
of the Academy s influence, men are to be found in every profession
who must attribute their start in life and much of their later success
to the instruction which they received in its classes, while the whole
county must confess that the school has been a public benefactor and a
blessing to the community in which it stands.

NEWTON T. TRUELL, the subject of this sketch, is the youngest son of
Valorous Truell, Esq., a prosperous farmer in the Eastern Townships. He
was born at Ways

Mills, Stanstead County, May 8th, 1866, and received his preliminary
education at Stanstead Wesleyan College. At the age of fifteen he
went to the College de Sf Hyadnthe to complete a course in French,
after which he pursued a classical course in St. Francis College,
graduating from that institution at the age of nineteen, and obtaining,
the same year, an Academy diploma for both English and French schools.
Mr. Truell has since devoted himself to the profession of teaching, and
has attained a high position among the educators of the Province. He was
for several years Prin cipal of the St. John s High School, but resigned
that position in 1892, to accept the Principalship of Lachute Academy,
which position he now holds. He is President of the Argenteuil Teachers
Association, Vice President of the Provincial Teachers Association, and
a member of the Protestant Committee of the Council of Public Instruction.

Mr. Truell is a strong believer in the theory, that the physical nature
and the

mental nature of the child should be developed simultaneously, and he was
ihe first head master to introduce an organized system of Calisthenic
exercises into any of the academies of our Province. On 2yth Dec.,
1892, he was married to Miss Julia Maude Futvoye of St. Johns, Que.,
second daughter of Mr. I. B. Futvoye, Super intendent of the Central
Vermont Railway.



A sketch found amo >g the papers of the late J. S. ffutc iins.

In the year 1799, when there were but few families in the place, Dudley
Stone, an official member from the Congregational Society, invited the
people to attend divine service on the Sabbath. The service consisted of
singing, prayers, and reading a sermon, and he was generally assisted by
others ; the place of worship was in a log barn, directly opposite the
present meeting chapel, on the north side of the river.  These services
were regularly observed for about one year, when an itinerant Metho
dist preacher, by the name of Picket, from the Troy Conference, N.Y.,
found bis way through the woods to the settlement, and commenced to
preach the Gospel to the people, forming a circuit emb-acing L Orignal,
E. and W. Hawkesbury, Chatham and Argenteuil. As there were no roads at
this time for riding on horseback, nor boats for crossing horses over
the rivers, he walked from place to place, carrying his portmanteau on
his shoulders. He preached alternately every fortnight at Lachute and L
Orignal, and through the week at the other places above named, as these
were but thinly inhabited. Thus he continued his labor for six or seven
months, when

the Rev. Elder Jewel came to look after him and his flock, which amounted
to a considerable number, there being no other minister to dispense the
Bread of Life.  Those who had previously tasted that Bread were not so
particular as to whom they received it from, as are many at the present
day. Elder Jewel was the first who

administered the sacrament of the Lord s Supper in this place, in
October, 1801.

Mr. Picket was succeeded by the Rev. Mr. Sawyer, who traveled the Circuit
for two years when he was succeeded by the Rev. Mr. Madden, and other
ministers from the same Conference up to the year 1812, when the war
between England and the United States broke out, and the ministers,
being American subjects, were all obhj to leave the Province, leaving
the sheep without a shepherd, to do as best the;

A Sunday School was founded in this district, in the year 1818, by
Thaddeus Osgood, missionary from the Congregational Missionary Society,
of It numbered about thirty scholars, and was superintended and taught
by the wn for seven years, subsequently by others ; and it has been
continued through mer months up to the present time.

From the time of the first preaching of the Gospel here, up to 1812,
the Metho dists had control in religious matters in the above mentioned
places, there other denomination. During the war, which lasted
more than two yea service was kept up by a worthy local preacher,
Mr. Kellog, assisted by the members of the Methodist Society, and the
Rev. Mr. Bradford, Church of minister, who was situated in the front
of Chatham. He visited this place on seve occasions, to administer the
sacrament to the people. Though the place was in a barn, the reverend
gentleman, after the close of one of the services, de to be one of the
happiest seasons of his life. After the close of the war, the P rc


returned to their several circuits to look after their flocks ; and now
commenced great difficulty and damage to the cause of Christianity;
however, we are now writ ing for the benefit of generations yet
unborn. These difficulties need not be detailed.  Suffice it to say,
that they have all been overcome, and that the cause of religion is
slowly advancing."




A few families came out from the west of Scotland about the year 1819. One
young man from Stirlingshire, John McOuat, gave an impetus to the cause of
Christ l n this neighborhood. On arriving at Montreal, he remained some
time working about the city, but his ambition was to have land, as he
had been brought up a farmer, and desiring to follow that occupation,
he went to St. Eustache, and worked there for a short time with a
farmer. Hearing that a Presbyterian minister preached in St. Andrews,
he came to Lachute, and bought a farm on the banks of the North

river, and sent home to Scotland for his friends. Many of them came out
to this

country, and settled in and around Lachute ; but a great want was felt, as
the Sabbath came round. They had no church, and their desire for religious
instruction was so great, that many of them went down to St. Andrews a
distance of six miles on the Sabbath to hear Mr. Archibald Henderson,
who was the only Presbyterian minister at that time in the county. So
many of the people waited on his ministry, that he was induced to come
up to Lachute, once a month, and preach in the school- house, as there
was no other place of meeting.

The people of the neighborhood were drawn together to hear the Gospel
preached by Mr. Henderson, and as the congregation increased, they
experienced a desire to have a minister settled over them; but that was
not easily accomplished at that time. In the year 1831, they invited
the Rev. William Brunton of St.  Therese to become their minister;
and promised him an annual stipend of $264. He accepted the call, and
became their pastor. The people rallied around him in great numbers,
so that they were encouraged to build a church, and a subscription paper
was circu lated among them.

I here was very little money in circulation among the farmers, and the
people, generally, were very poor, many of them having left the Old
Country with little

means. In Scotland, there was great depression among the farmers, after
the battle of Waterloo ; they were not able to pay the high rents the
landed proprietors were accustomed to receive during the Peninsular war,
and many of them were forced to leave their farms and seek homes in
Canada. They had their trials in this new land ;


but by perseverance and industry they overcame them. They reared their
homes, cleared and cultivated their fields, and were soon in comparative
comfort.  There was one great want they had no church nor minister,
while at home they had churches

and godly ministers, who labored faithfully among them. They aimed to have
the same advantages here, but there were many difficulties in the way ;
they had little money ; some gave work, and a few gave money, one or two
subscribing very liberally. Mr. John McOuat headed the subscription list
with a hundred dollars a great sum in those days. They were encouraged
to proceed in erecting the church, and it was commenced without a plan,
in the year 1833; it was built by William and Andrew McOuat. After
the walls were up, they had great difficulty in getting the sashes for
the windows made and glazed. Mr. McOuat came to the rescue. He bought
the glass and putty, and kept the joiner till he finished the windows
and put them in ; then the church was fit to meet in. Great was the joy
when the songs of praise to God were heard within its walls and the glad
tidings of salvation were proclaimed. The building was a striking copy
of an original Secession Church.  It lays no claim to artistic beauty,
yet it is a substantial structure, characteristic of the men who built
it and of the times in which it was built.

For a number of years the congregation prospered. Mr. Brunton labored
faithfully and successfully among the people, but in a few years the
Lord took him up to the higher sanctuary. He died in the year 1839. The
tombstone erected to his memory by his congregation bears the following
inscription, written by Dr.  William Taylor, of Montreal :

" Sacred to the memory of the Rev. William Brunton, Minister of the United
Associate Congregation of Lachute, who departed this life i2th August,
1839, in the 73rd year of his age and the 451)1 of his ministry.

" As a minister it was his chief desire to be found faithful, and so to
preach the Gospel to save both himself and those that heard him.

"As a Christian, he exemplified, in his daily conduct, the virtues
which he taught in public, being distinguished for the humility of his
disposition and the patience which he displayed in many trials.

He being dead, yet speaketh,

" The Congregation of Lachute have erected this stone in testimony of
their veneration for his memory, was born in the parish of Newbattle,
County of Edinburgh, Scotland, 4th May, 1767. He was ordained to the
office of the Ministry in 1795. He arrived in this country in 1820,
and, after preaching the Gospel in various other places, undertook the
pastoral care of this Congregation in 1831, where he spent the last
seven years of his valuable life."


After Mr. Brunlon s death, a dark cloud settled upon the congregation ;
most of

the people belonged originally to the Church of Scotland, and they wanted
a minister of that communion. The few Seceders were strong for remaining
in connection with the Secession or United Associate Synod.

An inducement was held out by the Presbytery of Montreal, in connection
with the Church of Scotland, that, if they would join the latler, they
(the Presbytery) would give fifty pounds a year towards the minister
s salary. A meeting of the people was called to decide the matter ;
the Church of Scotland party, being in the majority, thought that they
should retain the building, and wished the question to be decided by
vote. Mr. McOuat, before putting the question to the meeting, re minded
them that there was an arrearage of salary, which must be paid before
deciding the matter. Though the church was crowded before the motion
was made, before the vote was taken there were very few remaining,
principally Seceders, and it was decided that they should have the
church. The party wishing to join the Church of Scotland thought it was
very hard to lose the church they had helped to build.  In a most generous
manner, John and James McOuat gave the Old Kirk party a vote, promising
to pay them the sum of forty pounds the amount they contributed towards
building the church to be given when they built one in connection with
the Church of Scotland. When they commenced to build the Free Church,
they applied for the

forty pounds, Mr. McOuat said : " Na, na ; I promised to give it, when
you built a church in connection with the Scottish Church." Thus they
forfeited not only the forty pounds from the Seceders, but also the fifty
pounds promised by the Presbytery of Montreal.  These things caused hard
feelings between the two parties.

The congregation of the First Church was for some time without a
minister ; there was no Presbytery in the Lower Province, hence they
were without a preacher.  Dr. Taylor, of Montreal, the only minister in
connection with the United Secession Church of Scotland at this time,
was about to pay a visit to the Old Country.  They requested him to
present their case to the Synod at home ; but he was not suc cessful
in securing a minister. After waiting for some time, two were sent out
: Mr.  Louden, who was settled at New Glasgow ; and Mr. Andrew Kennedy,
who was placed at Lachute. At this time the congregation was very small,
and could not give him a salary sufficient to keep him and his family,
so the church at home gave con siderable help, which enabled him to remain
som? time with them ; but at length he resigned his charge. Thus, again,
they were without a settled minister, though oc casionally one was sent
to them. At length they gave a call to the Rev. Walter Scott to become
their pastor, which he accepted. He remained a few years, and resigned
his charge. This was very much against the prosperity of the congregation
; a few families left the church, as they thought they would never get
another minister. The small remnant was very much discouraged, but still
were sturdy Seceders. True to their principles, they stuck firm and fast
together, and could not be bribed to leave their denomination. By this
time, a few ministers had come out to Canada ; a Pres bytery was formed,
and preachers were sent to the vacancies. After hearing a few,


they gave a call to Mr. John Mackie, a licentiate of the United
Presbyterian Church of Scotland. He came to Lachute in the month of
November, 1858, and preached to them that winter. When navigation opened,
the Presbytery of Montreal com prising three ministers came to Lachute on
the 1 8th day of May. They met in the Church, after hearing Mr. Mackie
s trials for ordination, with which they were highly pleased. The call
that was presented to him was signed by fifteen members and twenty-five
adherents. The stipend promised by the congregation was forty pounds
$160. The Presbytery hesitated to place Mr. Mackie on so small a salary.

He would take nothing from the missionary fund, so he commenced
his ministry with little pecuniary recompense., and a very small
congregation. The people were kind to him, and he labored among his
little flock with some degree of success, preach ing every Sabbath
morning in the church at Lachute, and in the afternoon, altern ately
at the East Settlement a distance of six miles and at Brownsburg a
distance of five miles. By faithful preaching, and steady perseverance
in visiting the families, his flock increased from twenty-five members
lo two hundred and ten, and the salary of $160 rose to $750. Thus, the
material success was considerable. The regular attendance of the people,
and their marked attention to the instructions given, showed that they
appreciated the ministrations of their pastor. In this short and imperfect
sketch, reference has been made chiefly to the material" progress of the
congregation. But who can estimate the spiritual results, or the value and
import ance to the people, of the faithful preaching of the Gospel, and
witnessing for Christ for over sixty years, by the servants of the Lord?

The REV. JOHN MACKIE, pastor of the First Presbyterian Church at Lachute,
was born in Hamilton, Scotland, in 1822, educated at Glasgow University,
and received his theological training in the United Presbyterian Hall,
Edinburgh. He was licensed to preach the Gospel by the Presbytery of
Hamilton in 1854; a few years sub sequently he came to Canada, and was
ordained at Lachute in 1859. In 1864, he was married to Agnes, daughter
of the late Capt. Robert Dunlop, of Greenock, Scot land, who is a faithful
helpmeet and a lady highly esteemed in the community.  Mr.  Mackie, during
his long pastorate, has become much endeared to the people of Lachute ;
he is a good reasoner, and this advantage is enhanced by his pleasing

delivery from the pulpit. He is a typical Scotchman, and, while possessing
a fund of humor, he is quick to feel for the afflicted, and is always
a welcome and sympathetic visitor at the bedside of the sick. Mr. and
Mrs. Mackie have had nine children three sons and six daughters the
eldest daughter died in infancy; the third son, in 1888. The eldest son,
John McOuat Mackie, is manager of the Gould Manufacturing

Company, Boston, Mass.; the second son, Robert, is an engineer in New
Jet- The second daughter, Mary, was married in 1887 to William Scott,
Lsq., of the Mackay Milling Co., Ottawa The four youngest daughters are
still pursuing their




The beginning of this church has already been given in the preceding
sketch of Mr. Mackie, and we have no data from which to compile an
elaborate history.

The Rev. Thomas Henry was inducted in 1843, an d continued to minister
to the spiritual wants of his people till the year 1862, when he was
succeeded by the Rev.  John Eadie, who was pastor for seven years. After
his removal to another field of labor, the Rev. William Furlong was called
to the pastorate, and labored for nearly twenty years. He resigned in the
year 1892, and was succeeded by the present pastor, REV. N. WADDELT., B.D.

Mr. Waddell, whose ability and geniality have rendered him popular with
his parishioners, was born in the township of Osgoode, Carleton County,
Ontario, in 1857, and educated at the Ottawa Collegiate Institute,
McGill University, and the Presby terian College, Montreal, graduating
in 1887. He was ordained by the Presbytery

of Montreal, 23rd May, 1887, and inducted to the charge of Russeltown
and Covey

Hill, Que. After a pastorate of nearly six years, he was transferred to
Lachute, and inducted to his present charge, Qth February, 1893. He was
married to Miss Mary Jane Frasej: of Morewood, Ont., in 1885.

The REV. THOMAS HENRY descended from the Kenmore Gordons of Lochinvar,
was born in the parish of Anwoth, Scotland, in 1798, and was educated at
the Edin burgh University ; he was married t2th August, 1840, to Helen
Dawson of Alloa r

Clackmannanshire, Scotland. He taught in the family of Hannay, of Rusco,
in the

Parish of Anwoth, and was tutor for several years in the family of John
Stein, Esq., of Kilbage, Clackmannanshire, one of his pupils being James
Duff, nephew of Mr.

Stein and son of the Hon. Sir Alexander Duff, G.C.H., Colonel of the
3yth Regiment of Foot. The same James Duff was the father of the present
Duke of Fife, son- in-law of the Prince of Wales. In 1840, the Colonial
Committee of the Church of Scotland sent Mr. Henry to Montreal, where he
resided for a few months in charge of a city mission, when he was called
to the Church of Scotland congregation at Lachute.  At the Disruption
in 1844, ne severed his connection with that Church, casting in his lot
with the Free Church. His congregation, with the exception of one or two
families, went with him, and, later, every one of these families joined
the Free Church.  Henry s Church was then formed as the Free Church, of
which Mr. Henry was pastor for twenty-four years. He always took a deep
interest in education, and was the first Principal of Lachute Academy,
commencing that institution in his own study, the room at present
occupied by his son, William Henry, as an office. It was sabsequently
removed to the basement of Henry s Church, until suitable buildings were
erected for it. Mr. Henry died in Lachute, 151)1 July, 1868; Mrs. Henry,
also, died in Lachute, i8th June, 1884. They had six children : Robert
Hugh died in infancy; Grace Jane married 1 homas Barron, Registrar, of
Lachute ; Thomas Hugh died 1889; Helen, a teacher, died 1887 ; William,
Secretary-Treasurer of La- chute School Commissioners ; Katherine Stein,
teacher, of Lachute.


~ ~T^>


A brief sketch of the Mission of Lichute, in the County of Argenteuil,
may not prove uninteresting to many of our readers. The town itself
is beautifully situated, lying in a valley of the Laurentian Hills,
forty-five miles distant from Montreal, and seventy-six from Ottawa,
via the Canadian Pacific Railroad. The population is esti mated to be
about 1,700. The first church services were held about the year 1815
by a travelling missionary, who occasionally officiated in a barn or
school- house, as opportunity presented itself. In the year 1868,
the Rev. Mr. Codd was appointed a missionary, with headquarters at
Lachute, and a number of townships, among others that of Arundel,
then in the initial stage of its settlement, tinder his charge. Let
us bear in mind this fact, that ihis mission is still in its infancy,
so to speak, as com.  pared with many other parishes in the Diocese of
Montreal. Real church life only began here, we may say, in the year 1878,
when the Rev. H.J. Evans was appointed the first regularly constituted
Incumbent of the Mission. Regular services were held by him at Lachute,
Lake Louisa, New Ireland, Glen of Harrington, Arunc el, Rock- away and
Ponsonby. He was a man who was highly esteemed and loved by all classes
of people . To his untiring zeal and energy, Lach ute may well feel
proud and happy in possessing such a nice, neat, comfortable church in
which to worship " the Lord our Maker." Deep regret was felt at Mr. Evans
departure from this Mission.

His successor was the Rev. R. W. Brown, M.A., who held the parish for a
short period, viz., January, 1884, to April, 1885. On the twenty-third day
of August of the same year, the Rev. W. Sanders, B.A. (at the present
time, Rural Dean), was ap pointed by the Lord Bishop of Montreal,
Incumbent. Rev. W. Sanders worked hard and zealously for the cause of
his Master here, and largely through his efforts and generous assistance
can Lachute offer to-day a very comfortable home to its

clergyman. During his tenure of office, i.e., in the year 1886, a wise
arrangement was effected to wit the formation of Arundel and parts
adjacent into a separate

mission, the Rev. W. Harris being made the first Incumbent thereof. This
made the work somewhat lighter, though arduous enough, and permitted
Mr. Sanders to concentrate his efforts more upon his work at Lachute,
Lake Louisa and Edinr, these forming, at that date, the paiish of
Lachute. Owing to poor health the Incumbent felt obliged to place
his resignation in the Bishop s hand?, in order to obtain the rest
which was needful. This was in the spring of 1892. At the same time,
the Rev. Alex. Boyd Given (the present Incumbent) was appointed to
succeed him.  The church work goes on slowly, but steadily, we believe,
in the name of Him who hath said, "My word shall not return unto Me void,
but shall accomplish that which I please." Lachute itself is not a Church
of England town, it is essentially Presbyterian settlement. The church
is not strong it is to be feared, for some t;iiK at least, we shall
have to depend much upon outside help for assistance to maintain her
ministrations. Would that it were otherwise, indeed. Two services are held



regularly every Sunday, with an average attendance of 44. An occasional
week- day service is also held. Our people do well, on the whole, to
maintain the church,

taking into consideration their numbers and their own property. By the
bye, the

church, which was always considered to be a "Union Church" at Edina,
was burnt down in the year 1890, and so the services were consequently
discontinued there.  Lake Louisa, in the township of Wentworth, 12^
miles distant from Lachule, is the only really out-mission station
belonging to Lachute. Here, service is held every Sunday afternoon at
3 p.m. We are glad indeed to have a church there of our own.  Largely,
owing to the many kind friends in Montreal and elsewhere, this has become
an accomplished fact built and paid for at a cost of $r.ooo. Apiece of
land has also been procured as "God s Acre," wherein the dead may rest
until the resur rection morn, when the trumpet of God shall sound "
Aiise ye dead and come to Judgment." Many things are still needed for
this mission such as a " church bell," font," surplices, etc. We have,
indeed, great cause to be thankful for the past.  . Many have helped us
most willingly and cheerfully, and for this " we do, indeed, thank God
for the past, and we do, indeed, take courage for the future."


Copied from Church records.

LACHUTE, 8th June, iS86.

For over a year, the Board of the Convention East have been anxious to
have a -Baptist Church organized in the thriving town of Lachute. At
the earnest request of the Board, Rev. J. Higgins consented to spend
two weeks here, in gathering the few Baptists together, and preparing
the way for the student who has been appointed to labor here during
vacation. Pastor Higgins came here about the ist of May, and was nearly
a month in the field. The Lord was with him, and gave him an open
door." Special services were held in Olivet Hall, twenty-two sermons
were preached, prayer meetings were held from house to house, and the
congregation increased from 50 to 100, as the few Baptists were quickened
and refreshed by the Holy Spirit. Five believers applied for baptism, and
were baptised by Pastor Higgins in the North River, on the last Sabbath of
May. Several persons are enquiring and searching the Scriptures to find
their path of duty. Bro. Alex.  Dewar has now entered upon his labors,
and may the Lord bless him abundantly.


LACHUTE, June 4, 1886.

At a special meeting held in ths home of Bro. D. McPhail, for the purpose
of taking into consideration the advisability of uniting ourselves in
a regular Baptist Church, it was agreed by the brethren present to hold
Recognition services in Olivet Hall, on Tuesday, 8th June.



The following persons responded to the call to a Recognition
meeting -.Dales ville Church, Pastor J. King, Deacon P. McArthur and
Bro. John Campbell Osnabruck, Rev. J. Higgins ; First Church, Montreal,
Rev. ur. Welton, Deacon Kennedy; Brethren J. S. Buchan and D. K. McLarin
; Olivet Church, Montreal, Pastor A. G. Upham, Deacon D. Bentley,
W. D. Stroud, W. D. Larmonth.  new church was represented in the Council
by Brethren D. McPhail, P. Cruise arn

Alex. McGibbon, also the student, Bro. Alex. Dewar. On motion,
Rev. A. G. ] was appointed Moderator, and D. Bentley, Clerk. Prayer was
offered by Higgins. The twenty-three persons present adopted the New
Hampshire articles, a

a statement of their faith and practice, believing that to be in harmony
wit teaching of God s Word. There are in all twenty-eight baptised
believers who have united in forming this Church. The request to Council
is here given, as follows : We, the undersigned, having been led by
God s spirit to receive the Lord Jes Christ as our personal Saviour,
and having been buried with him in baptism on pr fession of faith,
hereby present ourselves before God, and one another, desiring organized
and recognized as a regular Baptist Church, and we do hereby adopt, as
statement of our faith and practice, the summary of Scriptural doctrine,
I Hampshire Confession.

D. McPhail, Alex. McGibbon, P. Cruise, Mrs. T. Jackson, Miss Marj
McGibbon, Mr?. P. Cruise, Mr. and Mrs. Wm. Buchan, Miss M. Cruise,
Mr Barker, Miss K. McGibbon, Mrs. Jas. McGibbon, Miss E, Campbell
Mr. B. S. Stackhouse. Miss L. Slackhouse, Mr. A. McArthur, Mrs. Peter

Miss S. McGibbon, Miss E. McGibbon, Miss Maria McGibbon, Mrs. A. .
R. Dunne and John Cruise.

After hearing this request and the statement of the doctrine by the
people, 1 was moved by Dr. Welton, and seconded by Pastor King, that
the Council glad recognize the body of believers who have presented
themselves to-day bef< Council, as a regular Baptist Church. This
was carried unanimously.  committee-Pastors King and Higgins, and Deacon
Berkley-were reqiu make arrangements for public Recognition services in
the evening, a Rev. J. King addressed the Church members on their new
responsibility and to each other The Moderator, Pastor Upham, gave the
right hand of t owship Bro. Dewar (student) in the name of the new Chuich,
welcoming the Lachute into the body of Baptist Churches of Canada. After
prayer the Council

During the winter of 1887, a gracious work was accomplished from spe
vices held by the Pastor, and John Currie, Evangelist, of Montreal.
persons professed conversion. The present membership is 51

Mr. Higgins remained as Pastor of this Church till the fall of 1895,
commanc the respect g o f the people by his able exposition of the
Scripture and h.s consistent Christian life, and winning their affections
by his kindly, genial ma

The late Rev Mr Kins, of Dalesville, in his reminiscences, says :


Hiiae In his early years by the death of to .parents he

waf left a helpless orphan, but the Lord, true to His promises, raised
up for hn friends. He lived in Chatham with Andrew Duncan and childless
\frer he had been some time with Duncan, he came to J-

nd ^oved WmseS a bright and diligent pupil. People felt interested
predicted that, if spared, he would make his mark m the world.



y this school that he became impressed with divine things, and, along
with others, was baptised and added to the Church. He had a strong
desire to do good and preach the Gospel yet doubt of his own ability
and his want of means to obtain an education were obstacles in the way;
but these difficulties were overcome, when he decided to give himself
to the Lord s work God provided him means and raised up

friends where he did not expect them. After attending school some time
at Lachute, he went to Woodstock, where he studied the usual time under
Dr. Fife, with honor to the doctor and credit to himself. During the
vacation at Woodstock, he went to preach at Cote St. George, where there
is a small church, and his preaching was

blessed to the conversion of souls. After completing his studies at
Woodstock, he accepted a call from the church at Petite Nation. Between
that place and North Nation Mills, his labors have been greatly blessed
of God. He has since removed to

Thurso." ....

\ good many years have passed since Mr. King wrote the above sketch
of Mr.  Higgins, during which the latter has labored in different places,
with credit to himself and the good of others. He married a daughter of
Mr. McGregor, of Dalesville, who has been a worthy partner in his toils
a woman esteemed for her kindness, bene volence and earnest Christian

When Mr. Higgins resigned his pastorate at Lachute, a call was given
to Rev.  1. R. Cresswelf, B.A., who had just completed his university
course in Toronto, and was then in Montreal. Mr. Creswell was born in
Derbyshire, England. He took a Theological couise at Nottingham Baptist
College, completing which, in the spring of 1890, he came at once to
Canada, and entered McMaster University, Toronto, from

which he graduated in ) 890. During the time that he remained a student
of the Uni versity, he preached one summer in Clarence and Rockland,
the next summer in St.  Catharines, Ont., and also the following summer,
after graduating, in Montreal.

He then visited England, and on his return accepted, November, 1894, the
pastorate at Lachute, and was ordained the same month. He was married,
3rd July, 1895, to

Miss M. M. Hovvell, of Montreal. Mr. Cresswell is highly popular in
the community; his sermons are clear and logical, diction good, and his
delivery fluent and effective.

A very neat and comfortable Baptist Church building was completed on_Main
street in 1887. It is brick, and possesses all the improvements and
conveniences found in our most modern city churches.


Notwithstanding considerable effort to obtain data with regard to the
above organization, we have gathered but the few following facts.

Jt will be seen bv what has already been stated by Mr. J. S. Hutchins,
that the

Methodists were the first Christian laborers in this field ; a long
blank in their his tory follows, and it was not till 1852 that they
erected a church edifice. As the body was neither large nor wealthy,
it is not surprising that in building it, they should have contracted
quite a large debt ; but all contributed, as far as they were able,
toward defraying the expense none, probably, more generously than the
late Thos.  Jackson.  This church building was erected so far from what
now constitutes the main part of the village, that another was erected in
a more central and convenient location, in 1882. This is the fine brick
church on Main street which this denomination still occupies. The old
church was destroyed by fire with the store of P. H. Lane, Esq., near
which it stood, in September, 1894. A substantial and commodious parsonage

lias also been erected contiguous to the new church.


2 47

As stated in the history of St. Andrews, Lachute became the head of the
Circuit in 1865. The following are the names of the first few ministers
who came after the change was made, with a table which shows the state
of the Church at that period.



o s c

u v -5.=

u ^ Kfa

~ E = "*

- .


.1 "rt C

*s a

S 3


3 *S O "

c [t.






1 865

Wm. Shaw. B.A

22O "^ l^

- J

Grenville united with it.





Joseph Kilgour, Wm. S. McCullough, B.A

2 Jd. ^^6

r | -



Joseph Kilgour * t . .

2CO 460

7 T -


*J /


North Gore set off. f Grenville again set off.

The ministers who have had charge of this Circuit during the last few
years are

the Rev. John Walton, John Armstrong, J. V. McDowell, B.A., VV. Craig
and the present pastor, Rev. Mr. Clipsharn.

It should be stated that the late Thomas Jackson, besides contributing
liberally towards the erection of the new church, also gave the ground
for its site. He was one of the early settlers of Lachute, was highly
esteemed, and died in the spring of 1895. at an advanced age. He left
one son and four daughters; the former, whose

name also is Thomas Jackson, is one of the prosperous and respected
farmers of Lachute. _ Mr. F. C. Ireland, in his "Sketches of Lachute,"
gives the following ad ditional history of Methodism in this section of
the country, which we regard as well worth preserving :

"In 1810, the Rev. Thomas Madden was appointed to the Ottawa Circuit
of the United States. This Circuit embraced all the territory between
Montreal and

Kingston. Mr. Madden had just married a daughter of David Breckenridge,
Esq., of Brockviile, a man of considerable standing in the community,
and his daughter had been brought up tenderly, and was accustomed to all
the comforts and many of the refinements of good society. Mr. Madden took
his bride with him on the rounds of the Ottawa Circuit one appointment of
which was in the East Settlement near Lachute. A few Methodists who had
come from the American side lived here, and among them was a Mr. Hyalt,
whose rudely constructed barn was the first chapel in which the settlers
from many miles around assembled to hear the Gospel preached.  In the
loft of Mr. Hyatt s new log-house, the minister and his wife found a
comfort able lodging place for the night. The Hyatts were an intelligent
and interesting couple, and their house was the home of the itinerates
for many years, and was en joyed and looked forward to with pleasing
anticipations when traveling for miles, through the uncleared country,
over the roughly constructed roads and bridge!  rivers, from Bytown
to Montreal."

Mr. Ireland also records another incident: "The Rev. Mr. Luckey, who
had closed his labors for the year, by preaching his last sermon to the
people of the East Settlement in Mr. Hyatt s barn, left the next day, to
attend the Conference in New York. In crossing the Ottawa river at Point
Fortune, his horse got into the water, and was nearly drowned. Mr. Luckey
also narrowly escaped, but was lucky enough to get safe on the other
side. Being fatigued, he went to a French house, to seek


rest and something to eat. His appearance was not very clerical just at
that time.  His beard had grown out considerably since his last shave,
some weeks previously, and when he asked for something to eat, the
simple-minded Lut kind French people mistook his meaning, and brought
him a razor, and it was some time before he could get them to understand
that he was hungry. Rev. Mr. Hibbard was another of the itinerates who
followed. On one occasion, while attempting to preach at Hyatt s

barn, and the people had just settled down to hear a good sermon, as they
had been accustomed to. poor Hibbard suddenly became embarrassed, and "
broke down/ as many a clever young man has done in his first efforts at
public speaking. Mr.  Hyatt, being a local preacher, took up the text,
and held forth to the great delight of all present, some of whom had
traveled many miles to attend the service."

The Methodists have always had a flourishing Sunday School. Olivet
Hall, built by Mr. James Fish, was used for some time by this School,
but finding it too small for their accommodation, in 1877, Mr. Fish
enlarged it by an addition at the end, 24 feet square.

REV. WILLIAM WARNE CLARK, D.D., is a member of an Argenteuil family.
He is a son of Orange Clark and Ann Warner, his wife, and was born i6th
March, 1838. He entered the Methodist ministry when 18, was ordained by
Dr. Stenson at

Kingston, in 1860, went to the United States in 1870, and joined the New
York East Conference, of which he is still a member. Dr. Clark received
his honorary degree from the Wesleyan University, Bloomington, 111.,
in 1880. He is a member of the

Committee of the Brooklyn Methodist Hospital, and pastor of Brooklyn
Sixth Avenue Church. His sermons are illustrated by large paintings,
and among the titles are such as these : "The House that Rum built,"
" Mr. Tongue of Tattle Town."*


The first regular Roman Catholic services in Lachute were held by the Rev.
Calixte Ouimet, cure of St. Andrews, who also erected a church building
and pres bytery. This church was destroyed by fire in 1876, shortly after
its erection.  The present church was immediately erected, though it has
since been enlarged ; it is brick, 80 feet in length, 35 feet in width,
with seats for 400 people.

Rev. Arthur Derome succeeded Mr. Ouimet at Lachute, and was the first
resi dent clergyman ; he remained here fifteen years, extended the church
twenty feet in length, and added the sacristy. He removed to Montreal, and
was succeeded by the Rev. Anthime Carriere, on the ist of January, 1894.

The Rev. Mr. Carriere, who still remains incumbent, was born at
St. Benoit, educated at the Seminaiy of St. Therese, and ordained in
August, 1878. Previous

to coming to Lachute, he was engaged as assistant in different churches,
being thus employed ten years in Montreal. He has recently made extensive
repairs on the interior and exterior of the fine brick presbytery at
Lachute. His congregation is a large one the communicants numbering 700.


The W. C. T. U. of Lachute was organized by Mrs. Youmans in January, 1883,
with Mrs. W. A. Leggo as president ; Mrs. H. Fraser, jun., secretary;
and the late Mrs. H. M. Gall, treasurer. It was, with the other unions,
formed into a Provin

cial Union in September of the same year, 1883. The present officers
are: Mrs.  Mackie, President ; Mrs. A. J. Simpson, secretary ; and
Mrs. Barley, treasurer.

* Contributed by E. S. Orr.



In October, 1895, Lachute entertained the Provincial Union.

The Young People s Society of Christian Endeavor, a Union one, was organ
ized in 1889 ; MALCOLM MCCALLUM was the first president of the Local
Union, and

James Armstrong, of the Lachute Road, is the present president. The
first president of the County Union was John Loynachan.

A short time after the organization of the Y. P. S. C. E., the Methodist

formed an Epworth League, which, after about a year, fell through; but,
in 1894, was re-organized, and is still carried on.

In 1893, a junior Y. P. S. C. E. was formed in connection with Henry
s Church.

The original Christian Endeavor Society has never lapsed, but continues
to hold

meetings each Monday evening in Raitt s Hall.

A Mechanics Institute was formed in Lachute, ist of March, 1855, tn
-e trustees

being Dr. Thomas Christie, John Meikle, and Samuel Hills , John Meikle
was the first president. It began with a membership of 21, and the
amount subscribed was ,30 IDS. It soon received quite an addition from
the District Library Association which united with it. From a Report to
the Provincial Secretary, 5th January, 1856, we learn that the Institute
had 140 members, and possessed a library of 1,000 vols., valued at ^200,
and that the total revenue was ^160 155.

For a time the records were kept regularly, which shows that the interest
in the Institute was alive; but later, the blanks that occur grow longer,
until it is evident that the organization existed only in name. An
effort on the part of a few individuals has been made at different
times to resuscitate it, and recently, some interest has once more been
awakened. The present officers are ; Dr. Christie, M.P., president ;
Thomas Barron, vice-president and C. D. Dyke, secretary. During the
height of its popular ity, it possessed a library of 1,700 volumes ;
many of these have been lost, but the library is still in existence,
and contains very many valuable books.

Lachute has always possessed quite a goodly number of people devoted
to tem perance. We have no data to show when the first movement in
this direction began, but it is well known that it was long before the
organization of the Sons of Temper ance in 1852.

The erection of Victoria Hall by this Society shows that it must have been
a large and flourishing organization, but, as in ail other places, it had
its day of progress and popularity, and then its period of decline. The
Good Templars and other tem

perance societies have since followed, and been attended with more
or less success.  But the good work of temperance still goes on, not
alone by the influence of organ izations, pledged only to abstain from
the use of spirituous liquors, but by those like the W. C. T. U. and
Christian Endeavor Societies, which, hand in hand with the Church of
Christ, lead the erring one to the light which reveals his weakness,
and shows to him a habitation whose foundation is rock.

For many years Lachute has not wanted for music to cheer her citizens on
gala days. A Band was formed by the Sons of Temperance, about the year
1855, since which a similar organization has usually been in existence
here, though sometimes holding to life with a precarious tenure.

There are now two Bands one composed of English-speaking members, the
other of French ; the latter was but recently organized.

A Masonic Lodge was opened here in September, 1880, called " Argenteuil
Lodge." William Hay was the first Master; W.J.Simpson, M.P.P., filled
this office three years, and Harry Slater is the present Master.



One has but to gain a view of the West End, or Lachute Mills, as the post
office is named, to comprehend the fact, that Lachute is a manufacturing
town of no little importance. Its water power is unsurpassed; up and
down the river on either side are mills and factories, the din of whose
machinery, combined with the roar of the falls, is an index of the many
industries by which hundreds of families are main tained.

By whatever road one enters the west part of the town, the first object
that meets his eye will be the tall chimney and massive stone buildings
the paper mills of J. C. Wilson. They rise conspicuously a grand witness,
not only to the possi

bilities within reach of a young man s industry and energy, but to the
progress of Canadian manufacturers.


The first view of Mr. Wilson will assure the most casual observer that
he pos sesses more than ordinary ability ; his clear penetrating eye,
and quick, dignified movements, at once declare him a business man,
and one whose executive ability gives him the right to command. He
rather enjoys relating the story of his early struggles, and is pleased
to remember that, through the blessing of God, his own foresight and
industry have brought him to his present state of financial indepen
dence. He was born in 1841, near Reshaikin, in the County of Antrim,
Ireland, and soon afterward his family came to Montreal, where his father
obtained a position as pattern maker in St. Mary s Foundry.

The taste of the younger Wilson inclining to n.echanics, he was
apprenticed, at

the age of twelve, to learn the trade of machinist. A severe accident,
however, pre vented his completing the full term of apprenticeship,
and then, through the kindness of friends, he became a pupil for a year
and a half in the McGill Normal School. Soon after this, the family in
which he then made his home moved to Beauharnois, Que.

On arriving there, not wishing to depend on his friends for his
maintenance, he

at once found employment at painting in a furniture manufactory.

One evening, soon afterward, when he had finished his work for the
day, two gentlemen called to see him. Having heard, they said, that
he possessed a diploma from the Normal School in Montreal, and having
also heard of his industrious and steady habits, they had come to engage
him to teach the village school, the former teacher having left. Though
reluctant, on account of his youth and inexperience

in teaching, to accept the position, after some deliberation, he closed
with their offer of twenty dollars per month, for one month, on trial. To
one knowing him, it is nor surprising that he was highly popular with
his pupils, and that he remained in the school for three years .

One of his greatest anxieties during the first winter was to save money
enough to discharge certain debts he had contracted for clothing before
leaving Montreal.

With his wages and several dollars earned by his mechanical skill during
his even ings, he had enough left, after paying his board, to meet these
accounts, and, as soon as his school closed, he visited the Metropolis
and paid them.

Never," said Mr. Wilson, "have I felt prouder or more happy than I did
when fulfilled this promise, and my mind was relieved of these debts."

The reflection, that the profession of teaching gave little scope for
the exercise of his ambition, now induced him to abandon it, and going
to Belleville, Ont., he obtain ed a position in a book store. He remained
there some time, gaining that experience

.1. ( . WILSON.


and knowledge of the business which equipped him for better positions. He
was next employed in a large publishing and newspaper house in Toronto,
and from this in 1863, he went to New York. His pecuniary capital at
that time consisted of just thirty-four dollars a larger sum than that
of many other young men who have land ed strangers in the great city,
yet not a sum encouraging to one, with neither friends nor employment.

By chance, he fell in with another young Canadian of good parentage,
but with out money, who for some time had been in vain seeking a
position. They roomed in the same hotel, and spent several days between
sight-seeing and looking for employment.

At last, one morning Mr. Wilson received an offer of four dollars per
week to work in a subordinate position in a warehouse; but resolving
that he would not accept this paltry sum until all hopes had failed of
doing better, he arranged with the manager to keep the place open for
him for a week. Fortunately, the next morning, as he started out in quest
cf work, he noticed the sign of T. W. Strong, publisher, and he at once
entered and enquired for the proprietor. He was shown into his office,
when he made known the object of his visit.

" You have seen the advertisement, I suppose, that I put into The
Herald yes terday for an assistant," said Mr. Strong, who, according to
Mr. Wilson s opinion, combined the qualities of sternness and dignity. "
No," was the reply, " I came here on observing your sign." " Well,"
he said, " 1 have advertised fora young man, and if you will come
in again this afternoon, I will tell you whether I want you or not."
"Very encouraging," thought the young applicant, and, pursuant to the
request, he was at the office that afternoon. The proprietor had just
received a large number of letters which he had began to peruse. After
reading two or three, he addressed his visitor with :

" What wages do you expect, sir ? "

" Twelve dollars a week," was the reply.

" Here, look over some of these," said Mr. Strong, handing him some
letters.  With many misgivings, perceiving that they were applications for
the position he was seeking, Mr. Wilson took the letters and read. The
first one did not allay his anxiety, as the wri:er offered to work for
six dollars per week ; still, his crude style and bad spelling might
counterbalance the effect produced by his moderate demand of salary. The
next letter was more assuring, as the writer wanted twenty-five dollars
per week. After reading two or three more, with the same alternation
of hopes and fears, he relumed the bundle to Mr. Strong, who had been
carefully observing him, and, no doubt, forming an estimate of his
capability. "So you want twelve dollars ? " he queried, as he took
the letters.

" 1 trust I can make myself of that value to you," was the modest reply.

" Well, you see what offers are made in these letters, but I can afford
to give you ten dollars per week." Though highly elated with the offer,
he did not t it

till after a few minutes delay. On expressing his willingness to begin
work at that salary, his employer said :

"Well, now, this is Friday; you will want a day to look about the city ;
.sup pose you come next Monday ? "

" Very well," said Mr. Wilson, " I will do so; " he then departed much
hap: than when he entered.

His friend who had accompanied him was outside, anxious to hear hU rq
and was scarcely less pleased at the result than Wilson himself. He now
decided to accept the position first offered to Wilson, which commanded
the salary of four

dollars per week. Not long after Mr. Wilson entered the service <>!



keeper of the establishment was taken sick, and Strong insisted that
Wilson should

nanaee the books till the bookkeeper recovered. To his surprise, m going
over the

Doks he discovered the startling fact, that one account contained an
error of several

housand dollars in favor of Strong. The fact was reported to his employer,
but he

was so reluctant to believe it, he asked Wilson to go over the account
again very

carefully Though perfectly satisfied that his figures were correct,
he did as requested,

and with the same result as before. Still doubtful, the proprietor now
called in the

aid of an expert accountant, and his labors fully confirmed the truth
of Wilson s

statement and Mr. Strong had the satisfaction of knowing that he was
richer by

several thousand dollars than he had supposed. He now insisted that
Mr. Wilson,

^^ith a proper increase of salary, should take sole charge of his books,
and he shortly

after kit for a visit to Europe. Not long after his departure, a fire
broke out in Bar-

mim s Museum, destroying a building on Fulton street and another on
Ann street,

both belonging to Mr. Strong.

With the energy and promptness peculiar to him, Mr. Wilson at once
set about rebuilding, and, before his employer returned, he had the
new buildings, with many improvements, nearly completed. " During
the remaining years he was with Strong, he had entire charge of his
establishment, enjoying his esteem and confidence, as well as that of
the other employees. But he married, duiing his slay here, Miss Jeanie
Kilgour, of the town of Beauharnois. Canada ; and Mrs. Wilson having a
strong love for the home of her youth, and being desirous to exchange
New York for Montreal, her husband decided to return to the latter city
a step which he was the more fully inclined to take by the solicitations
of friends.

On his return, he entered the employment of Angus, Logan & Co., wholesale
stationers and paper manufacturers, as bookkeeper. Three and a half
years sub sequently, a desire to enlarge his sphere of action led him
to begin business on his own account, and with the assistance of his
employers he began to make paper bags the first ever made in Canada
by machinery. The business proved a success, so that Mr. Wilson soon
repaid his old employers for their assistance, and became one of their
largest customers. His business, begun on a modest scale and sure basis,
at first required only two flats of a building, but, in process of time,
a whole block of stores, with six flats each, was secured. In 1880,
his business demanded that he should make his own paper. He purchased
the water power at Lachute, and erected

the mills whose history is given below.

Mr. Wilson has not selfishly confined his time and talents to his own
personal business ; but, whenever they have been called into requisition
by the public for a salutary purpose, they have never been withheld. The
people of the County of Argenteuil, in consideration of his ability,
elected him to represent their interests in the Dominion Parliament. In
this new position, fortune, which thus far had been

so prodigal of her gifts, did not desert him, and his reputation as a
good reasoner, debater and politician largely increased. He contributed
much toward the reorgan ization of the " Fish and Game Protection Club
of the Province of Quebec," and for two years was its president. For
the same length of time, also, he was president of the Irish Protestant
Benevolent Society, and has been an alderman of Montreal, and chairman
of many important civic committees. He is also a Life-Governor of the
General Hospital, the Protestant Insane Asylum, the Montreal Dispensary,
and the Maternity Hospital. He has taken an interest in the educational
institutions of

Montreal, and was for some time a member of the Board of Protestant School
Com missioners. Religious and benevolent institutions have profited by
his generous


He has always manifested a fondness for tools, a taste enhanced, no
doubt, by



r o








much mechanical taste, he dislikes * s

appearance of having been done in haste, or with indifference to method

The following story, which he sometimes enjoys tellin- JH us tra pecuhanty
of wanting his work well done is knoin to bSemSSS^

On a certain occasion he had at his mills, in Lachute, one of his favorite


plumb he thought to have a laugh at Mr. Wilson s expense

M, r ^ s ^ inrr Sas sa o

arm^a square over the other, a plumb-bob in one hand, and hammer and
nails in the

^"^ y U g ,?K g t0 d hh a11 theSG t0 ls R^hard? " asked Mr. Wilson.
Repair the wash-basin, sir," replied Richard

Nonsense, you want nothing but the hammer and a few nails " Indeed,
sir I know when you want a job done, vou want it level and square and
plumb, and, by golly, we past use these tools on every job - Mr. Wilson
saw and appreciated Richard s humor

Mr Wilson is an ardent disciple of Isaac Walton, ond annually seeks the
seclu- sion of shady river banks and mountain streams and lakes with rod
and line ; but ed hv "rh" S Trf y PP ? Sed l the ; vant0a destruction
of the finny tribe, is witness-

Socie y tv of ! P V PUt ^ hi w a !, d * mg t0 rganize the Fish ^d Game
Protection society ot the Province of Quebec. "


He has five children living-three sons and two daughters. The sons are
all connected with him in business.

h > h f u ChargC f the P U P mills at St " Jerome, and also

after the manufacturing and the factory, Montreal.

, .

To2 Wa !; d the f C nd S0n occu P ies the position of assistant cashier
in the iiead Ornce, Montreal.

.Edwin H. is at the paper mills, Lachute, learning the art of
paper-making, with the intention of having charge of the mills at some
future date

His daughters are Ethel F. and Annie L. ; the three boys being the eldest,
and the two girls the youngest of the family living.


The illustrations represent "Lachute Paper Mills" as they now are,
in 1896 erected at a cost of over $300,000.

As stated in the sketch of Mr. Wilson s life, he was seized with the
idea in .  that, to place his business in a front position in the trade,
it would be necessan Him to own his own paper mills, and he made several
visits to different parts of the )untry near Montreal, where water-powers
exist, knowing that a -ood water-power

and proper facilities for getting the raw material into the mill, and
the product on: it, were the first and most essential points to consider.

*For the last paragraph, as well as for some others in the nl^vv sketch
of Mr.  Wilson, uv mdebted to " Borthwick s Gazetteer of Montreal."


The Townships were visited, and the country east and west of Montreal,
but none of them seemed to suit.

As the Quebec, Montreal, Ottawa & Occidental Rai way had just been
completed from Montreal to Ottawa, and parties in the parish were
desirous of establishing manufacturing industries there, Mr. Wilson was
led to Lachute. After surveying the water-powers, he decided that if a
purchase could be made on reasonable terms, he would locate his paper
mills here. He did not come to this conclusion until he had found that
there was ample water-power for a mill such as he intended at that time
to build. Lachute was then a village of about 650 inhabitants, and the
site on which the paper mill stands to-day was a forest of pines, oaks
and maples.  After considerable bantering between the owners of the land,
they agreed with Mr.  Wilson in the matter of terms. He then made plans
for his first mill, and appeared before the Mayor and Council of the
Parish of St. Jerusalem d Argenteuil, Tnomas Barron, Esq., being the
Mayor. At a meeting convened in the old Court House, where the Council
sat, Mr. Wilson exhibited his plans, and petitioned the Parish for exemp
tion from taxation for twenty years, providing he built the mills as he
designed. The Council, with very little delay, complied with his request,
and, certainly, they have no reason to regret their action of the fall
of 1879.

In June, 1880, the first mill of the four, which the block of buildings
now repre sents, was started. It was a great task to undertake
excavations, flumes, wheel-pits, quarrying stone, and getting the
siding in ; but the mill i. e., the building was com pleted some time
in November. The machinery was placed in it during the Fall of

1880 and the Winter of 1881, and the first paper run on the machine (which
was a double cylinder machine, made by Rice, Barton & Fales, of Worcester,
Mass., after Mr. Wilson s special plans), on or about ist April, 1881.

During the years 1881 and 18.^2, Mr. Wilson had great difficulty in
procuring a

proper foreman for the mill; he was intent on manufacturing a class of
manilla papers such as were manufactured in the United States. Not until
the winter of 1883 di 1 he solve the problem, why he did not succeed in
making the class of paper he wished, and not till he had obtained the
second expert from the States. It may be a secret in the trade, still it
is none the worse for being told, and may help some other paper maker
placed in the same position that Mr. Wilson was. The kind of lime for
boiling the jute stock was the secret of the trouble and the secret of
the success. Lime from Montreal, from Hull, and from Lachute was tried,
but it did not prove satisfactory. Not until Mr. Wilson ordered his first
carload of lime from Dudswell (away beyond Sherbrooke), and boiled his
first boiler of stock with it, did he succeed, and then the mystery was
unravelled. The component parts of the lime are a very important matter
to consider in boiling jute or manilla stock.

The Lachute paper mill took a first rank in the Canadian market
for manilla papers from that time forth, and has maintained it ever
since. Not only did he manu facture manilla paper, in rolls, for his
paper-bag machines in Montreal, but also made sheet or ream paper for his
growing trade with the grocers and general dealers all over the country.

In 1885, the business had grown so much, that it was necessary to
build another

mill, or add another paper machine, with all its attendant machinery. That

was commenced in May, 1885, an< ^ was completed in the fall of
that year.

The first paper made on the new machine (which was a Harper Fourdrinier)
was made on the yth January, 1886, and after that had been running two
or three

years, Mr. Wilson saw that it would be necessary, in the very near future,
to add still another mill, and of much larger dimensions. The stone was
thereon the ground waiting to be quarried. The cut stone, of course,
for trimmings for windows and


corners lime stone is from Montreal. So, in 1891, Mr. Wilson commenced
the largest addition, and the completion of the block of buildings,
as represented in the photograph picture of these mills. Tail-races were
cirried out in 1891. Tn 1892, still further work was accomplished, and the
lower flats of the addition were com pleted. 1111893, the whole mill was
finished, and in 1894, 2ist May, paper was run over the new machine. This
new machine, a straight Fourdrinier, one of the largest in the country,
specially adapted for fast running, Mr. Wilson prizes very much.

The business now has grown so much, that he contemplates, in the very
near future, placing the fourth machine in the mill ; the building is
already there (that is, the room for it), and all that will be required
will be to place the machine and the pulp engines ; the water-wheels
and wheel-pits are all complete and ready.

The Lachute Paper Mills now have a daily output of about 15 tons, and
when the amount reaches 20 tons, Mr. Wilson s idea of a perfect mill
will be accomplished.

Not without proper storage could such a mill be carried on, consequently,

have been built, on the line of the siding which comes from the main
line of the Canadian Pacific Railway, five large storehouses and a
stone warehouse for storing the finished paper. There is also a siding
running down in front of the mill, so that raw material may be placed
in tHe mill, or in the storehouses, by just handing the stock out of
the cars, or the finished product from the s tone warehouses or mill
into them. The facilities for loading and unloading, and for shipping,
could not be excelled in any mill in the country.

When doubling the mill, in 1885, Mr. Wilson conceived the idea, that he
was going to draw heavily upon the water-power, and as his business up
to that time

was a very exact one, and he could not afford to shut down for any
length of time, he placed a large steam engine of 250 horse power, with
boilers to supply steam for the same, and this he has found to be a
very wise precaution, for in dry summers (such as the summer of 1895),
the steam-engine had to be drawn upon to supply the power, or, rather,
to help the power, and so the business g~>es on without interruption.

About three years ago, he conceived the idea of placing not only the
paper bag machines that were in Montreal, but a set of the most improved,
to manufacture the celebrated self-opening square bag, in the building
which he had erected for the purpose, that is, for the paper bag factory,
at one end of the mill. In this paper bag factory there are fifteen paper
bag m chines, and three flour sack tubing machines, as well as cutters,
etc. The paper is brought in from the mill in rolls, and the paper bag
machines take these continuous rolls and turn out bags, some of the ma
chines at the rate of 100,000 per day, others at the rate of 70,000,
60,000, 50,000, and 40.000. There is a capacity in his paper bag factory
of about three quarters million bags per day, and it is now turning out
an average ot about 350,000 bags da While all this increase was going on
in the way of buildings, of course, the number of hands also increased,
and to-day there are employed in this manufactory about no people.

The town of Lachute has grown since -1880 from 650 people to a

Mr. Wilson has his private residence on the height of land behind th
beautiful high knoll, and from his verandah a beautiful view can be had
of tains and of the town generally. Here he enjoys, with his family, :
months every summer.

Vraone the efficient and reliable employes of Mr. Wilson -and he wil
retain any other kind are his Bookkeeper, Harry Slater, and the !
his paper mill and bag factory, Robert Daw.

MR. SLATER was born in London, Eng., and came to Canada in 1890.
first employed by the Moffatt Blacking Company, Montreal, as Book


eighteen months afterwards, he engaged to Mr. Wilson, with whom he has
since re

mained. He was married 2nd Feb., 1880, to Sarah Mary Wenborn, Upper Hollo-
way, London. Mr. Slater is a great reader, is familiar with the English
authors, and withal, an active Mason; he is the present Master of the
Argenteuil Lodge.

ROBERT DAW was born in Bradninch, Devonshire, England, and at the age
of eleven commenced work in his native place, for Mr. Wm. Drew, in
Kentham Mills.  In 1878, he came to America as Superintendent for the
Hon. Geo. West, also a native of Bradninch, who had worked himself up
from a machine tender till he became proprietor of several large paper
mills ; he is now one of the most extensive bag manufacturers in this
country. Mr. Daw came to Canada in 1893, as the Super

intendent of Mr. Wilson. He is a devoted member of the Baptist Church,
and is Superintendent of the Sabbath School connected with that church,
whose pupils number sixty; he was married in 1880, to Elizabeth Crowley,
of Milton, Northamp

tonshire, England.

As one passes up Main street, more quiet scenes prevail, yet here on
the left is one of the oldest manufactories of the place one which,
for many years, has annually supplied vehicles of almost every kind to
the citizens" of the county the carriage shop of A. Mitchell & Sons.

MR. ARCHIBALD MITCHELL, the senior partner of the firm, was born in
Belgium, whither his family removed from Scotland. His grandfather
was Rev. Hugh Mitchell, of Glasgow, a graduate of the University of
that city, in which institution he received the medal for elocution,
and afterwards was professor of elocution. He also pub

lished several books and translated others. Mr. Mitchell still has
copies of books written by his grandfather, the title of one of which
reads as follows : " Scotticisms, vulgar Anglicisms and grammatical
Improprieties corrected."

" Hugh Mitchell, A.M., Master of the English and French Academies,

His wife s.maiden name was Emily Nesbitt, and her brother was a surgeon
in the British Navy. After the death- of Surgeon Nesbitt, his widow
married Nelson, the hero of Trafalgar. This lady was also a relative of
the Hamilton Brothers of Hawks- bury, Ont.

The Rev. Hugh Mitchell removed to Belgium, and was there, when the battle
of Waterloo was fought. One of his sons was engaged in that conflict,
by which he lost an eye. The father taught elocution there some time
receiving a guinea for each

lesson his pupils coming from France, Germany, England, etc. He had
three sons and one daughter ; the latter was married to Robert Cochran,
of whom a sketch is given in the history of St. Philippe.

Two of the sons, Archibald and Benedict, each erected a factory in Belgium
for the manufacture of cloths ; they failed in the enterprise, and then
came to Canada, the father of the subject of our sketch arriving in
1848. He settled first at Hill Head, then at Beech Ridge, at which place
both he and his wife died. They had four sons and five daughters. Francis,
the third son, still lives at Beech Ridge.

Archibald, the youngest son, who was eighteen when he came to Canada,
worked on the farm at Hill Head for a time, but farmers assuring him that
he would accom plish little there, on account of the sterile nature of
the farm, he turned his attention to the manufacture of machinery, for
which he had peculiar aptitude, and he soon made fifteen fanning mills
for neighboring farmers. He then learned the carriage- maker s trade
at Lachute with the Duddridge Brothers, for whom he worked till 1856,
when he entered into partnership with them, the firm becoming Duddridge



Mitchell. This continued till 1888, when the co-partnership was
dissolved by the death of Mr. Duddridge. Mr. Mitchell was in business
alone till 1892, when he took his second son, John, into partnership,
and as another of his sons now works here, the firm is styled Mitchell
& Sons. Mr. Mitchell married Grace, a daughter of Mr!  Dewar, of
Dalesville. His third son, William Mitchell, who graduated at McGill in
1894, is now an M.D., of Mansonville, P.Q.

Mitchell & Sons have a good-sized factory here, employ several hands,
and make all kinds of carriages and sleighs of the latest style, and
their work has won a wide reputation for neatness and durability.

Another manufactory, adjacent to the above, on Main street, is that of
JOHN- HOPE, baker and confectioner ; he is also proprietor of a Spool,
Shuttle and Bobbin Factory at the West End.

Mr. Hope was born in Edinburgh, his father being an officer in the
Scotch Fusilier Guards. He came to Canada in 1870, and after remaining
in Montreal seven years, he came to Lachute, arriving on St. Patrick s
Day, 1877. He at once opened a bakery, and as the railway was then in
process of construction, and business active, he was very successful
in his venture, and his business has been a progressive one to the
present. He supplies a large portion of the village with bread, and much
of the surrounding country. In 1889, he bought the Factory referred to
above, and has since enlarged and improved it, so, that he is prepared
to fill orders for shuttles bobbins, spools, button moulds, brush backs
and everything required for cotton and woollen mills.

He was fortunate in securing the service of trustworthy and efficient
assistants in these mills, who have long and faithfully served him ; these
are E. G.  Spaulding, manager, \\ ho has recently gone to the States ;
F. E. Carter, Bookkeeper, and S. Duff.  Engineer; the ingenuity and skill
of the latter in repairing machinery and inventing tools for special
purposes rendering him a handy man of inestimable value to an em ployer.

Mr. Hope is a man of great enterprise and energy, one who is determined
to push

to successful issue whatever he undertakes ; a typical Scotchman,
generous, public- spirited, and much attached to the games and sports of
his native land. He erected a fine curling rink on his premises in the
fall of 1893, which is a source of great attraction during the winter
evenings the Curling Club now formed, of which Mr,

Hope is president, being a large one. He was Captain of the Team of
Argenteuil Boys, in the fall of 1894, in their Tug-of-War contest at
Montreal with the Boys of Glengarry.* ^He is a prominent Mason, and has
been President of the Argenteuil Lodge three terms. He has been a member
of the Municipal Council six years, and

is a Deacon of Henry s Presbyterian Church. He was married i5th September.
1871, to JaneEnnis, daughter of James Ennis, of Tienland, Morayshire,

Since the above was written, a copy of the Canadian Journal of Fabrics
has come to hand, from which we take the following paragraphs :

" The machine shop is a perfect one. The Factory gives employment to
a large number of hands, and the output is steadily increasing month
by month. The woods which are made use of are beech, bircli (yellow and
white), maple, ironwood, poplar, white ash, apple, persimmon and dogwood ;
the two last named having to be sor.  for in North Carolina. In addition
to the wood obtained from outside markets, be-

* Names of those comprising the Argenteuil Team which was victorious :
Robt.  Silverson. .  Boa, Omer I aquette. David Black, Eugene Theiien,
Edouard The lien, Wm. John M<>re, Hiram Niell, Duncan McOuat,
Edward Berniquier, Capt. Charles Gardner, Samuel Clifford, John I David
Lindley, Wm.John Rodgers.


tvveen 400 and 500 cords are annually purchased in the vicinity, and are
brought in in the shape of logs and cord wood, being cut up into stock
as required. Before

being used, it undergoes a thorough process of curing in the steam drying
rooms, which are most effective and convenient.

Among the special products of this establisment, we would call attention
to the

shuttles, this being the only factory in the Dominion where these are
made. Pre

viously, the mills had to look across the border for their supplies of
these needful articles; but finding that the Lachute works are quite
able to compete successfully with the Americans, both as to quality
and price, the mills are finding it to their advantage to patronize the
home manufactory."

HAMELIN AND AYERS is a name familiar in every household, not only in
Argen- teuil, but in the County of Prescott their woolen mills being
one of the most important manufactories in this section.

THOMAS HENRY AYERS is a son of the late Thomas Ayers, who, in 1858,
came with his family from Cornwall, England, to Columbus, Ontario,
and was employed there, in the Empire Woolen Mills, till his death in
1891. Thomas, the son, served his apprenticeship in the same mills, then
worked in different places till 1868, when he entered into partnership,
in Perth, with Mr. Felix Hamelin. They first conducted a carding mill at
Perth. In 1870, they hired the McGill Woolen Mills in Hawks- bury, Ont.,
for eight years. In 1876, they purchased of different parties in Lachute
about twenty acres of land and water power for their present mills. At
that time there was no road to the site of their present buildings nothing
but a thick growth of forest all along the river side, where now there
is a village, fine dwellings, gardens and cultivated fields. In 1878,
they constructed the dam and roads, and erec ed a dwelling; and the
following year built the mill, and put it in operation in 1880.

Mr. Ayers was married to Olive Paquette, a niece of Mr. Hamelin, in
August, 1871. He has had four sons, three of whom are living John Thomas,
William Henry and Ernest Francis L. AH are active, intelligent young men,
and take lively interest in the business.

MR. FELIX HAMELIN was born in St. Hennas. When he was very young, his
father moved to the Seigniory of Longueuil, Ont., where he resided on a
farm t April, 1865, when he died at the age of 98. Felix, the eldest son,
was early engagec in the woolen manufacturing business, and spent some
years in mercantile pursuits.  When in the County of Prescott, he took
considerable interest in public affairs, and his influence was often
courted during election campaigns. He recently spent year in England in
connection with his business. That both he and Mr. Ayers are

remarkably intelligent and shrewd business men, is obvious, from the
manner i which they have enlarged their business and increased their
capital. When they formed a co partnership in Perth, twenty-five years
ago, each partner invested h entire capital $200. Since that period,
they have made no division, their earnings having been devoted either
to the enlargement of the business, or invested in re; estate. Their
property now including real estate in different localities is appraise
at $125,000, which is unencumbered. They have in their principal mill
two re cards for farmers work, four sets of manufacturing cards, one
thousand spindl eighteen looms, and all other machinery necessary for
finishing and dyeing cl< They manufacture a fine class of tweeds,
flannels, blankets, paper and pulp man

facturers felts, and lubricating and printers felts. When the mill is
run to its tu capacity, it will manufacture 600 pounds of wool in ten
hours. The goods of this ft are sold throughout the Dominion, from
Nova S:otia to British Columbia, also hive a mill for the purpose of
manufacturing pulp from spruce and other hgh


woods. They employ from forty-five to fifty hands, half of whom are
married men

with families. The pay roll amounts to about $r,ooo monthly. They lease
water power to other manufacturers, and still have as good water-power
not utilized as there is in the county.

On the opposite side of the river from the mills of Hamelin and Ayers
is a Rope

Factory, which was built in 1882 by the late Robert Bannerman,
of Montreal.  After being in operation a few years, it was leased for
twenty-one years to the Consumers Cordage Company, by whom it was closed,
and it now stands idle.

The iron foundry, of McOuAT & McRAE has gained celebrity in the entire
County of Argenteuil. Thomas McOuat is the youngest son of Andrew
McOuat, mentioned on another page. He was rmrried i6th June, 1875,
to Annie Higginson Fraser, of Ottawa. John McRae was born in Ottawa,
learned the moulder s trade, and has followed it the greater part of his
life. He was married in the spring of 1864 to Margaret McLean Johnson,
of Scotland. She died the i2th November, 187 4, and he was next married
in June, 1876, to Elizabeth Scott.

The following history and description of their business is copied from The
Watchman s report of the County Fair held at Lachute in October, 1894. It
should be stated, however, that since the publication of that report,
this firm has doubled the size of their machine and pattern shops :

" The exhibit of Messr?. McOuat & McRae was a most creditable one,
and surprised many of our people, who really were not aware to what
extent this firm s business has spread and developed, since it was
first organized in 1879.  Messrs.  Thomas McOuat and John McRae came
from Ottawa, in that year, to Lachute. Both had been for years employed
in the Victoria Foundry, Ottawa, Mr. McOuat as fore

man pattern maker and machinist, and Mr. McRae as foreman moulder. They
brought with them not only their experience, but resolved to retain
the name Vic toria ; so the Victoria Foundry, Lachute, was launched
forth. It was born in a building 28x45, on Foundry street, on the site
of the present furniture factory. This enclosed the whole foundry and
machine shop, and was only one storey high. The motive power was neither
electricity, then unknown as a motive power, nor \vas it steam, but
one of the old-fashioned sweep horse-powers. It was soon evident that
they had supplied a want in coming to Lachute, and business became so
brisk that, before a year had expired, the horse power was cast aside,
and a boiler and engine installed.

"Starting out with the intention of keeping pace with the times and
abreast with the demands of their patrons, the firm has never hesitated
to invest their earnings in the business and extend their works ; so
when an opportunity occurred, they seized it, and two years later found
them building a new and larger foundry on its present site, and they
commenced to run by water power. " Success attended this new enter prise,
and a new era dawned. As the town grew, and more machinery became instal
ed, the machinery department developed quickly, and the foundry had to
be again and again extended. New machines were obtained, large planers
and lathes and drills, until now there is here, in Lachute, one of the
best equipped jobbing shops in the country. Starting in a building 28
x 45, one storey and a horse sweep, they now occupy a large, two-storey
building of two wings, one extending towards the river 84 feet, besides
outbuildings 105 feet in length, and a power house with fire engine. Few
people have any idea of the quantity of machinery in the paper

mill, and will be surpri ed to learn that McOuat & McRae have supplied
forty tons of new work therefor. Besides this, they have done the work for
a large number of outside mills. They are now specially well adapted for
all kinds of castings.  They have also gone somewhat into school desks,
and during the past year have supplied


seats for nine schools. Their specialty, however, is machinery and machine
sup plies, a very important thing for the people of this locality, as
it is the only place between here and Montreal where such can be procured.

" In thus giving the history of one of our industries here, we desire
to show pur readers that, notwithstanding the croakings of those who are
constantly protesting that the country is going to the dogs, we have here
in our midst positive proof that Lachute has made good progress as far
as her manufacturing interests are concerned, and in the case of this
particular firm, it has not done so at the expense of any other class
of the community, but by energy, hard work and faith in our country."

Traveling along the Lachute Road, about a mile west of the village of
Lachute, one reaches a branch road, which leads, as the sign announces,
to Earle s Mills.  Following this road for the distance of half a mile,
the traveler comes to the North River, near which, in a deep gully,
stand the grist and saw mills of Earle Brothers- John, Edward and Harland.

The grist mill was built about 1836 by Geo. Hoyle, who had been agent
for the Seignior, and had erected mills for him at St. Andrews and
Lachute. Through some disagreement with the Seignior, however, Hoyle
decided to put up a mill on his own account, and accordingly built one
on this site, which is just outside the Seigniory, in Chatham. After
running the mill some years he sold it to John Earle, uncle of the
present proprietors, and it was afterwards conducted for 25 years
by James Earle, their father. This was one of the mills to which the
settlers brought grists on their backs ; the manufacture of oatmeal was
one of its principal features.

JAMES EARLE came from Yorkshire, England, and first settled in the County
of Two Mountains. He was living near St. Eustache at the time of the
Rebellion, and decided to remain when the other settlers were leaving;
but the place soon became too hot for him, and he also was obliged to
make his escape. After hiding a day in the woods, he started on his
journey at night-fall, and finally readied Lachute in safety ; here,
in a short time, joining Capt. Quinn s Company of Volunteers, afterwards
came to the mills, and died here in May, 1886, leaving his wife, who sti!
survives him. Of their five sons, Charles died in Nevada, and James,
already men tioned, lives in Bethany ; John, one of the proprietors
of the mills, was married in 1871 to Mary, daughter of Stewart Boyd,
of Chatham. Mr. Earle is Captain of Co. No. 8 Argenteuil Rangers, and
has been a member of the Battalion since 1862 ; he has been Municipal
Councillor of Chatham for six years. Edward, married to Mary, daughter
of William Boyd, Montreal, resides at the mills, and Harland, un

married, lives here also ; the daughter, Evelyn E., is married to John A.
Patterson, of Calgary, N. VV. Territory.

In 1885 the dam was washed away, and in 1886 they built their present one.

The lumber business is one of the important industries of the place,
connected with which is the steam mill of P. & A. McGiBBON, sons of
the late Finley Mc- Gibbon, noticed in the history of Dalesville. These
two enterprising young men engaged in the lumber business here in 1881,
having obtained a lease of a mill for five years. Ambitious, however, to
do a larger business, and in a mill of their own, they purchased a mill
site, and built their present steam mill in 1889. They have a planing
mill also, and prepare a large quantity of lumber for finishing. The
number of logs sawn annually by this mill is about 20,000 three-fourths
of which belong to the firm, the remainder to customers. Last year,
they shipped 100 car loads of lumber. The energy displayed by this firm,
and their honorable way of transacting business, has secured the esteem
and good will of the community.

A blacksmith is a necessity in every community, and when he combines
skill his trade with good judgment and respectability, he acquires no
little popularity in t place. Such an one is ALEXANDER RIDDLE.


His father, William Riddle, was born in Scotland, but he removed to
Ireland, and several years afterwards in 1849 came to Canada, and settled
in Mille Isle,

on a farm of 100 acres, which is now owned by his son Robert. He was
married twice before coming to Canada, and by the first marriage he
had six sons and one daughter ; and by the second, two sons and two
daughters. Alexander, the youngest of all, began learning the blacksmith
trade, at the age of sixteen. After serving his apprenticeship, he spent
six years in the States, then returned to Lachute, bought a house and
lot, and has ever since followed his trade with success, and has been
a member of the Town Council for two years. He was married 6th June,
1877, to Margaret Carpenter.

SIMON McKiMME, who has an undertaker s establishment here, came from
Morayshire, Scotland, with his father, John McKimme, in 1851. The father
settled not far from the present Lachute Mills, and one of his sons,
Joseph McKimme, now lives on the fine old homestead. Mr. McKimnie died
nth October, 1882 ; he had five sons and six daughters. Simon, the fourth
son, followed the carpenter s trade till five or six years since, when he
engaged in his present occupation of undertaker. He keeps a hearse and a
full supply of everything connected with his business. The author of the
saying, " Solemn as an undertaker," could never have seen Mr. McKimme,
for his humor is pleasant, and his greeting a smile. He was married
22iid August, 1859, to Janet Pollock.

ANDREW Joss, from Aberdeenshire, Scotland, was one whose history is
identified with the early history of Lachute. He came here with his wife
and three sons Wiliiam, James and George. He was employed in the grist
mill a few years, and he then bought a farm in the vicinity of Brownsburg,
on which he lived till his death.

George, the youngest son, learned the cooper s trade, and after following
it several years, he also opened a brewery in Lachute, which occupied the
site of the present store of the Giles brothers. He married Mary Jane,
a daughter of Patrick Rice ; they had four sons and two daughters.

Mr. Joss died i7th July, 1865. Three of his sons now live in Lachute ;
another one, James, resides in Nebraska. Duncan, the eldest of the sons,
was married 24th August, 1875, to Mary E. Hutchins. He is a carpenter by
trade, and is now in company with his brother George, the firm being known
as " Joss Brothers, Contrac tors and Builders." They have a shop here, and
supply all kinds of lumber for building and house finishing, and they have
erected many of the dwellings in this section.  They also build bridges
the Westover bridge, constructed in 1884, and the Barren bridge in 1892,
are monuments of their handicraft. George Joss was married, 2ist April,
1886, to Elizabeth Stalker. Daniel Joss, the youngest of the brothers,
is a painter by trade, and the fact that he has been in the employ of
the firm now known as Mitchell & Sons, for 28 years, is evidence of
his faithfulness and efficiency. He has been a member of the Municipal
Council of Lachute, and was married i3th June. 1888, to Carrie Hutchins.

E. H. McCov is proprietor of the Marble and Granite business in Lachute,
which is well known. His grandfather, John McCoy, came from Ireland to
Hin- chinbrooke, Huntingdon County, about 1820, and conducted a store
there till his

death in 1852. He had five sons and two daughters that grew up. Matthew
S., his

second son, continued the mercantile business in the same store, located
on the Pro vince Line, till 1872, when he removed to Huntingdon village,
and was engaged dur ing the rest of his life as Auctioneer and Agent for
the Law firm of McCormick & Major ; lie died in 1893. He was married about
1849 to Harriet Howard ; they had three sons and two daughters. Edmund
H., the youngest son, went to Califor-


nia in 1876, and was engaged in gold mining ten years. He then returned,
came to Lachute, and entered into partnership in the marble and granite
business with George L. Moir. Mr. Moir died in 1891, and Mr. McCoy has
since conducted the business.

Some idea of its extent may be inferred from the fact, that within nine
years the value of the woik he has done in St. Andrews cemetery alone is
$22,000. Mr.  McCoy was married in 1886 to Mary, daughter of the late
John Arnott, of Lakefield ; he represents the East Ward of Lachute in
the Municipal Council.

Besides the manufactories above noticed, O. B. LAFLEUR has quite a large
Furniture Factory on Foundry street.

DAVID CHRISTIE is one of the citizens of Lachute whose faithful industry
has supplied him with enough of this world s goods, and whose integrity
has secured him esteem. His father, David Christie, came from Ireland,
and settled on a farm in the north part of Gore, about 1830; he there
married Mary Good, also from Ireland.  He was one of the militia who
served in the Rebellion of 1837. He had ten children- five of each
sex. David, the fourth son, began at the age of 14 to learn the shoe
maker s trade, and has followed it successfully to the present. He was
married 28th September, 1866, to Margaret J. Johnson, daughter of the
late C apt. Johnson of

Lakefield ; they have had three children : the eldest, a girl, died when
three years old ; Gilbert D., the elder son, is a clerk in Victoria,
B.C. ; Wm. H. is clerk in Lachute for J. R. McOuat.


For the history of the newspaper enterprise we are again indebted to
the pen of

Mr. Ireland.

He says that a citizen of Argenteuil, living in Montreal, sent a man here
from that city, with the sum of $50, and letters of introduction to the
principal citizens, which resulted in sufficient money being raised to
start what was called fat Argenteuil, Advertiser.

" The understanding between our Montreal resident and the Advertiser
man was, that the paper should be non-political and purely independent,
and run on these

principles, so as to be a means of good to the greatest number.

" The establishment of this paper caused a pleasant furore of excitement
in the

county. It was the first newspaper started on the north side of the
Ottawa River, between Montreal and Ottawa, and was designed to advocate
the interests of the Ottawa Valley, and be a welcome visitor, once a week,
to every home in this and the adjoining counties.

" It was in June, 1872, that the first issue of the Argenteuil Advertiser

But, according to the further account of Mr. Ireland, the editor of
the Adver tiser, after a time, abandoned his non-political attitude and
became a most active champion of the Liberal party. In consequence of
this, The Watchman and Ottawa Valley Advocate was established in 1877,
with Dawson Kerr as editor and proprietor.

W. J. Simpson (the present M.P.I- .) was for some time connected with this
paper, and, in 1892, it passed into the hands of the Calder Brothers,
by whom it is still published. As is well known, it was started under
the auspices of the Con

servative party, of whose principles it has ever been a devoted and
able advocate.

In 1887, or thereabout, another paper, called The Independent, was
started in Lachute. Several copies which are before us show that it was
a vivacious little

sheet, but decidedly bellicose in character. Its publication was not
long continued, and the Watchman has remained the only newspaper in the
county until recently.


In 1895. the proprietor of The News (St. Johns, Que.) began to issue
the Lachute News a sheet which devotes considerable space to the affairs
of Argenteuil.  The publication of another paper, called the Argenteuil
News, has just been com

menced in l.achute, but we have not as yet had the pleasure of seeing it.


There appears no record of how local affairs were administered in Lachute
; but

in 1825, the North River was spanned by the first bridge, and this was
away to the east where White s bridge now stands. This was a great boon
to the Scotch settlers, many of whom had located on the north side of the
river, and also to the Irish settlers, who had located in the Gore. This
most necessary improvement was not accom plished without opposition
and difficulty from persons interested in other parts of the river,
but had not enterprise enough to begin their work. In ten years lime
another bridge was built, which was known as Power s bridge. This name
was taken from the fact that Orlando Powers, whose birth was referred
to in an early sketch, lived on the north bank of the river directly
facing the bridge. The building of this bridge was amid opposition and
difficulty also. In 1840, a Mr, Hoyle, an eccentric but

very enterprising Englishman, built a bridge at the mills, on the site
where Fish s bridge now stands. For twenty-five years there was not a
single bridge across the river, while, fifteen years later, thiee bridges
were built, each one being opposed, and a strong and, in some cases,
bitter rivalry existing between interested parties." *

For several years, Lachute has had good railway accommodations ;
there are now four passenger trains each way daily, three of which stop
nere regularly, the other only occasionally, and there are two regular
freight train?.

Phileas Monette, the first station agent appointed here, still holds
the position.

The railway first took shape under the name of the Quebec, Montreal,
Ottawa & Occidental Railway. It was graded as far as Lachute, and
the stone abutments for the bridges here were constructed in 1873 and
1874. After that, work was sus pended for some time, but. in the fall
of 1876 the rails were hi j as far as Lachute.

The Q. M. O. & O. Railway being unable to complete the road, the Quebec
Government became the owners, and the contract for construction as far
as Hull was given to Duncan Macdonald, who ran the trains to Lachute
for a number of years.

A dispute arose between the Government and Macdonald, and the Joly govern
ment seized the road and placed all the stations in charge of the Militia,
who were called out. The Government then sold the road to the C. P. R.

The County granted no bonus, but the Parish of St. Jerusalem d Argenteuil,
which then included the town of Lachute, voted to the Q. M. O. &:
O. Company a bonus of $25,000. This was as an inducement to have the
road come by Lachute instead of through St. Andrews. This bonus never
was paid The ground for objecting to payment was, that the Company had
failed to carry out their obligations in constructing the road, that the
bonus was not promised to the Government, and inasmuch as public money
was being used for its construction, part of which was

the contributions of this Parish, it would n;>t be fair to ask them
to pay this bonus.

Through the influence of the late Sir John Abbott, legislation was passed
at Ottawa exempting the parish from payment.


Like most other country towns and villages at the present day, Lachute has
its quota of merchants, too many, is the general impression of strangers
visit ng th*e

* From Ireland s sketches.


place ; yet, the fact that they are all accorded sufficient patronage to
encourage their continuance in the business, is conclusive evidence of
the large amount of trade carried on here. It is much less, however, than
it was a few years ago.  Previous to the construction of a new railway in
1894, the farmers of Harrington, Arundel, and other parts in the rear of
the County, all came to Lachute to trade ; but when the new railway was
completed as far as St. Jovite a place in Ottawa County, contiguous to
Arundel several stores were erected there, affording the farmers of the
localities referred to a much more convenient market than Lachute ; the
dis tance to the latter place being more than twice that to St. Jovite.

The first store in Lachute," says Mr. Meikle in his history, "was opened
by Mr. Robertson in 1813."

The following paragraph is from a sketch of Mr. Ireland, published in
1886 :

" For many years the centre of trade was at St. Andrews. The people from
all parts of the country went there to do their trading. The principal
store at Lachute was, as we have already seen, what the people familiarly
called Meikle s, until

Mr. P. Lane started at the old stand, where he still resides ; but long
since retired on a competency from many years of incessant attention
as a country merchant.  Shortly after Mr. Lane s store was opened, his
brother-in-law, Mr. John Taylor, a clever and energetic young Scotchman,
began a store in the west end, near the mill, and did a large business. Up
to this period, the citizens seemed contented to trudge on in the old
way of doing business by buying goods on credit, and selling on credit,
at very high prices, and allowing accounts to remain for one, two, or more
years by adding interest, and so, when Mr. Taylor commenced on the cash or
ready pay system, and gave goods at a moderate profit, there was quite a
revolution among the country people in favor of Mr. Taylor s store, which
became the centre of attraction, and was talked of all over the country."

The stores are chiefly on Main street, and some of them are attractive
in appear ance and contain large stocks.

That of Mr. Meikle, which has already been noticed, is the oldest one
in the place, and occupies a commanding position, and doubtless holds
as large a stock and receives as much patronage, as any in Lachute.

Not far from this is the imposing brick store of J. R. McOuAT.

Mr. McOuat, in 1875, entered into partnership in the mercantile line with
Hugh Fraser, jun., which partnership was continued till 188 = , when he
purchased the interest of Mr. Fraser, and in 1885 erected his present
store. This structure has an attractive front of plate glass, the first
in the place which presented this luxurious embellishment. Mr. McOuat
is one of the influential men of Lachute, and is a mem ber of the School
Board and Municipal Council.

A well stocked and neatly kept store is that of HUGH FRASER, JUN. This
gentle man was born in Montreal and came to Lachute when a child. In
his youthful days, he was clerk for G. & R. Meikle five years, then
spent three years in Morrisburg, Ont.  and after his return to this
place was in partnership with J. R. McOuat six years.  In 1 88 1, he
opened his present store, in which he has since been engaged. He has an
influence in all local and municipal affairs, and has served as School
Commis sioner and Town Councillor six years.

McFAUL BROS. James C. and John M. Their great-grandfather, Archibald
McFaul, came from County Antrim, Ireland, and settled on the farm now
occupied by his grand-daughter, Mrs. Hugh Morrow. He lived here many
years, and died at the home of his son William, in Wallace, Ont.; he
had four sons and three daugh

ters. Archibald, the eldest son, married Mary, daughter of James
Carpenter, and



lived on a farm in Chatham till his death, which occurred i2th February,
1887.  He had six sons and four daughters, who grew up. James, the eldest,
father of the subjects of our present sketch, married Janet McPhail
about 1868, and settled on a farm of one hundred acres at Brownsburg,
and has since bought three hundred acres adjoin ing. He had five sons
and five daughters.

James C. left the farm in September, 1891, and entered into partnership
in Lachute, with Robert Banford in the latter s store, remaining here
till September, 1893.  He then bought out Banford, and took as partner
his brother, John M.; they are still here in John street, doing a good
business in general merchandise, dry goods, groceries, boots, shoes,
etc. John M. was married to Annie Stuart, 25th September, 1894.

ROBERT KETTYLE, SEN., a soldier who fought at Waterloo under Wellington,
and received his discharge soon after, having seen 21 years service,
was born in the north of Ireland. He come to Canada about 1830, and,
receiving a location ticket.  took up a lot in Weniworth, but finding
that this was poor land, he then bought a farm in the north part of Gore,
Lakefield. He lived in this place a few years, and then moved into the
Seigniory where he died. He had one son and two daughters ;

Robert, the son, was a young man when his father came to this country. He
joined the Cavalry in Montreal, also married in that city, and had three
sons and three daughters. He finally settled in Lachute near Hill Head,
where he died about 1885. Robert, his son, followed farming till 1885,
when he opened a grocery in Lachute, which he still conducts. He has
been married twice, the last time in 1887 to Harriet A. Knox.

A. J. PERIARD was born at St. Benoit. He learned the tailor s trade,
and spent ten years in Montreal and Ottawa; he came to Lachute in 1880,
and opened a mer chant tailor s establishment, which he has ever since
conducted. He was married

June 22nd, 1880, to Miss Brown, daughter of James Brown, contractor,
of Montreal.  Mr. Periard was reared a Roman Catholic, but was converted
to Protestantism about twenty years ago, since which he has been actively
engaged in Christian w.>rk. He has preached, and still preaches,
in different parts of the County on the Sabbath. He also did much in
the way of Christian labor in Sunday Schools and like gatherings while
in Montreal.

WILLIAM BANFORD is a courteous and public-spirited merchant on Main
street; he is the eldest son of William Banford, of whom a sketch is
o-ivcn in the history of L Orignal. He was born in 1851, and began his
mercantile life as clerk for D. J. Jamieson, of Vankleek Hill, with
whom he remained two vears He then came to Lachute, and was clerk for
James Fish & Co. two years, after which he remained four years as clerk
in the employ of P. H. Lane, Esq. About 1880 he purchased the store of
Mr. Lane. This was burnt in the fall of 1894 and he then

removed to his present store. Mr. Banford was married in 1879 to Eliza
Eraser Bethany.

X. McGiLLis & SON, from Lancaster, Ont., have a hardware store on Main
Norman McGillis, who came with his family from Scotland, was one of the
early settlers of Lancaster. He had five sons and five daughters. Neil
McGillis his second sen, has been engaged many years in mercantile
business in Lancaster anc

tor some years has been one of the Board of Aldermen of that place. In
the fall of 1894 he purchased the store and stock of A. J. Eraser in
Lachute, which is now in charge of Mr. McGillis son ; they keep a full
line of hardware, tinware paints oils, etc.

ROBERT CRESWELL has a fine brick block on Main street, in which he has
a flour



and feed store. His father, Wm. Creswell, came from Donegal, Ireland,
with his family to Lachute in 1852, being 13 weeks in crossing the
Atlantic an unusual time at that late date. He settled on a farm of
100 acres in the Seigniory, and afterward, bought a lot in Lachute and
erected a house on it, but never resided here ; he died

about 1864.

1 he following obituary is copied from an Illinois paper, published
m March,

"Mrs. Sarah Creswell died here at 2.30 last Saturday morning after a
few days illness. She was bcrn in Ireland in 1816, and came to Canada
in 1852, where Mr.

Creswell died about 1864. She moved to Illinois with her children in 1872,
and lived at Randolph ; eighteen years ago she moved to Hey worth. She
is the mother of eleven children, of whom nine are living, viz., William
and John in Montana;

James at Paxton ; Robert in Canada; Mrs. Matthew Smith at Lytleville ;
Mrs. J.  M.  Minton at Downs ; Mrs. Isabella Happins in Ohio ; and Maggie
and Jennie at home.  Mrs. Creswell belonged to the Episcopal Church."

Robert, the second son, was married ist November, 1866, tD Eliza
Miller. He followed harness-making ten years, and was also engaged
in farming till 1875, when he engaged in his present business. He has
another block near the one in which he trades.

JOHN STEWART is proprietor of one of the meat markets with which Lachute
is well provided. His father, Donald Stewart, came from Stirlingshire,
near Glasgow, to Lachute in 1^32. He was in the employ of James Walker
about a year, then went to Ontario, where he was employed as miller
for several years. He returned to Lachute, and married Janet Mclntyre,
whose family came from the same place in Scotland and at the same time,
that Mr. Stewat t did. After his marriage, he settled on the farm now
owned and occupied by Edmund Smith, and lived on it till his death

in 1872. He left five sons and one daughter. John, the eldest, married,
in April, 1877. Margaret Barren, and engaged in farming till 1887, when
he bought a good house in this village, built a commodious brick shop,
and has since been engaged in his present business.

DAVID WILSON is proprietor of a meat market at the west end of Fish s
bridge.  He came from Yorkshire, England, in 1872. He was married 131)1
April, 1881, to Agnes McFarlane, from Paisley, Scotland, and settled in
Lachute in 1888. He was

employed three years in the market of Patenaude & MacArthur, and then,
in the winter of 1891, opened a market himself.

Besides the establishments above mentioned there are several others,
the stores

of D. KERR, BOA, etc.

JOSEPH AUGUSTUS BEDARD, one of the Municipal Councillors, has an
attractive boot and shoe store on Main street, where he also sells a
variety of musical instru ments.

G. ROBY, merchant tailor, who came here in 1893, during the past summer
(1895), erected one of the finest looking buildings in the place, on
Main street. An other attractive place on the same street is the store
of T. JOUSSE, jeweller.

A very fine building also is the hardware store of C. CHARLEBOIS, near the

R. R. Station.


Lachute has four hotels, and though the number seems large for the place,
they are all commodious, respectable looking buildings, and apparently


JAMES CURRIE is proprietor of the Victoria Hotel, the only one at
Lachute Mills, and the oldest one in the town a portion of the building
being one in which Milo Lane conducted an hotel when Lachute was in her
infancy. It has a large share of the patronage of the travelling public,
owing both to the correctness of its appoint ments and the popularity
and extensive acquaintance of its proprietor, who has had an experience
of fifteen years in his present hotel.

Mr. Currie s grandfather on the maternal side, John Williamson, was a
soldier under Wellington, fought at Waterloo, and v. as in several other
engagements.  After serving twenty-one years he obtained his discharge,
came to Canada, settled in Gore, and served in the Rebellion of j
837-38. Mr. Currie s father, Charles Currie, came from Castle Blarney,
County of Monaghan, Ireland, in the spring of 1831. He first found
employment on the " Feeder " at Carillon, on which his brother Isaiah,
who had pre viously come to this country, had a contract. In the fall of
1832, he took up a lot in the second range of Gore, on which he lived
twelve years. In 1837, ne was married to Elizabeth Williamson. He sold
out in 1844, and bought a farm in Wentworth, on which helivedtill his
death in 1879. He had three sonsand two daughters. James,

the eldest, at the age of 17 went to the States, where he spent twenty
years.  Return ing, he purchased a farm on Beech Ridge, and engaged
in farming, meanwhile serving three years in the St. Andrews Parish
Council. In 1880, he sold his farm and engaged in his present business
in Lachute. He was married in January, 1860, to

Catherine, daughter of Valentine Swail, of Wentworth. They have one son,
Valentine, married, and living in British Columbia, and three (laughters.

An imposing building is the " Argenteuil House," towards the upper end
of Main street, of which PIERRE RODRIGUE, the present Mayor of Lachute,
is proprietor.  The house is brick, 70 x 40 feet in size, three stories
besides the basement, with a two-storey extension, 60 x 25 feet in size,
flat roof, and encircled by three galleries.  It has three parlors, two
sitting rooms, thirty-five bed rooms, a large office, and dining room
with seating capacity for too guests. The grounds and stables connected
therewith are equally spacious.

Mr. Rodrigue was born in St. Scholastique, and his early days were spent
on his

father s farm. He took a classical course at the school of Rev. Father
Bonin, after which he taught five years in the same school and two years
in the public school.  He was married lyth October, 1853, to Margaret,
daughter of the late Alexandre Fortier, and spent the following eleven
years on his father s farm. After devoting a few years to mercantile life
and hotel keeping, he sold out in 187 1 and bought the " Bee Hive" the
hotel of Alvah Burch in Lachute. This was burnt 7th January, 1892, and,
the same year, Mr. Rodrigue built his present hotel. He has been very
success ful financially since coming here, his real estate, within and
outside of the Corporation, being valued at $25,000. He has been in the
Council five or six years, and in 1894 was elected Mayor, and has been
Chairman of the Roman Catholic School Board since it was established in
1875, and is a trustee of the Roman Catholic Church. He has three sons
and one daughter, two of the former, E. D., married to Mary Poitras,
and L. P. Rodrigue, being employed in the hotel. Alexandre is an M. D.

The daughter of Mr. Rodrigue is married to Charles Charlebois, proprietor
of the Lachute Foundry.

There are two other hotels near the railroad station, of one of which
ALFRED LAFLEUR is proprietor. This building also is of brick, three
stories, 60 x 40 feet in size. Commodious stables are attached, in which
Mr. Lafleur has a good number of horses. He is a native of Ste. Adele,
County of Terrebonne, where he was engaged in hotel keeping and lumber
business. He spent ten years in connec tion with the lumber traffic in
California and the Western States three years in


Marquette, Michigan, where he and his father erected several houses. He
came to

Lachute in 1878 and built his present hotel, which he has ever since

The other hotel near the R. R. station, and also on Foundry street,
is that of MOISE PAQUETTE. Mr. I aquette was born in St. Scholastique,
lived on the homestead farm till 1878, when he came with his father to
Lachute, built his present hotel, and moved into it in 1879. His father,
Moise Paquette, died i4th December, 1891, at

the age of 68. Like the oilier public houses of Lachute, this is of a good
size and appearance, and has ample yard and stables attached. H. Paquette,
a brother of the hotel proprietor, has a barber shop in the establishment.

About two miles above the Lachute Post Office, toward Hill Head, in a
good farming section, is a settlement where, in former years, there was
a thriving business conducted, of which the tannery of SAMUEL HILLS was
the nucleus.

Mr. Hills was from New Hampshire, and after living two years
at St. Andrews, he came, about 1830, to Lachute. He was a man
of much enterprise, and his descendants are people of spirit and
intelligence. Soon after his arrival, he erected a tannery, with which
he did an active business, besides conducting a farm, till his death. The
business thus started grew in importance, until " Hills Tannery," by

which name the locality was soon designated, became quite a noted place.
Leather of different kinds was manufactured here, and shoemakers, harness
makers, and other men were employed, till it was said the Hills would
have a village of their own.

The founder of this business had four sons Frederick, Samuel Scott,
William Matthews, and Reuben Watson. The latter died at the age of 14, and
Frederick, the eldest died at Hancock, N.H. Samuel S. and William, each
of whom had a good farm belonging to the homestead, continued together
the management of the tannery.  Samuel married Elizabeth Hastings, and
Wi.liam mariied her sister, Frances J.  Hastings, who died loth August,
1891. William was also, for a time, conducting quite a business at Portage
du Fort ; but he relinquished it and confined himself to that at Lachule
; he is now connected with an extensive lumber firm in Montreal, though
he still has a residence in Lachute.

Samuel S. Hills always lived in Lachute, and died here i6th April, 1878;
he had

three sons and two daughters that grew up.

Frederick W., the eldest, lives in the dwelling occupied by his
grandfather ; he married Miss E. A. Grant, and has two daughters. Watson
S. resides at Brainard,

Minn. ; Julia is deceased ; and Mary P., married to Albert I Green,
resides in Minne apolis, Minn. George H. was married i8th June, 1879,
to Jessie Muir; they have three children. He engaged in farming on the
homestead till August, 1882, when the farm was sold. After following
agricultural life till 1888, he bought the brick house and lot where
he now lives, and, in 1892, opened a store. His dwelling and store are
those elected and occupied by Samuel Orr, noticed on a former page.

SAMUEL EDMUND SMITH, one of the enterprising and leading farmers of
Lachute, resides in this locality. William Smith, his great-grandtather,
came from Yorkshire, England, and was the first settler at what is now
Dunany, in Wentworth. He received a grant of Lot i, Range i, for marking
out a road by blazed trees from Sir John s Lake to Clear Lake. He had
two sons and three daughters that grew up.

Samuel, the eldest, married Margaret McDonald, of Gore, about 1828;
settled near the homestead, and lived there till his death. He was the
first Postmaster at Dunany, the post office being established there in
1853; was Mayor of Wentworth

and Major of Militia ; he was a loyal actor in the events of 1837, an( *
was at Grande Brule with the Volunteers. He died nth June, 1893, aged 96,
and so remarkably healthy had he been, that he never employed a physician
till his last illness, widow is still living ; they had twelve children,
six of each sex, that arrived at matur-


ity. James, their eldest son, was married in April, 1858, to Mary Jane
McLean, of Lachute, and settled in Gore, adjacent to Dunany. Sixteen years
"later, he bought 210 acres in Lachute, to which he removed in 1874; this
is the farm now owned and occupied by his son, Samuel E. Smith. He was a
School Commissioner for some time and took much interest in the military
affairs of the County ; he joined the Rangers at their organization as
Lieutenant, and was promoted to the rank of Major. He died 24th January,
1887, and was buried with military honors. He had two sons and four
daughters that grew up.

Samuel E., the only son now living, was married 3oth April, 1890, to
Janet Pattison, of Lachute. He has always remained on the homestead a fine
farm which he has improved so that it sustains a large stock. Mr. Smith
is ist Lieutenant in Company No. 2 of the Rangers.

JOHN MCGREGOR came from Dumbartonshire, Scotland, to Lachute, with his
family, about 1826, and bought 100 acres of land, which is now owned and
occupied by Robert Beatty. Subsequently, he purchased 90 acres adjacent
to his first purchase, which is now owned and occupied by the widow of
his son, John McGregor. He moved to the latter farm, and lived there
till his death, about 1864, at the age of 87 ; Mrs.  McGregor died
about ten years later, aged 97. Six sons and three daughters arrived
at maturity. James, the fourth son, now living with his son Thomas,
has followed the mill wright trade forty-five years in this section,
building and repairing many mills He was married in 1846 to Ellen Hay;
she died i6th April, 1885. Mr. McGregor s first permanent residence,
after marriage, was at Brownsburg, where he bought a saw mill and
carding mill, which he conducted for twelve years. He then, about 1860,
sold them, and purchased So acres of land in Lachute, which he sold to
David Pollock in :89o. He has had three sons and two daughters, who grew
up. His eldest son, Robert J., lives in Kansas; George is employed in
the store of the Hay Brothers; and Thomas, with whom he lives, is on a
farm which belonged to the paternal estate; he was married 2nd January,
1884, to Margaret Parker, of Montreal.

Near this locality is what may be termed a lusus naturae, a singular
change having occurred in the physical features of quite a tract of
territory since the country ivas first settled. A tract two miles or more
in length and many rods in breadth is nothing but a field of drifting
white sand, where, not many decades ago, were culti vated fields. This
strip of worthless land extends across the middle of several farms, on the
south side of the North River. The soil which covered this sand must, of

course, have been very shallow, but still it is said that it once produced
fine crops of The sand, like snow, drifts with the wind, and a fence
crossing it does not long remain visible or effective against cattle. This
stratum, it is claimed, is about twelve feet in thickness, succeeded by
a substratum of blue clay, beneath which is abundance of water.



This parish, as will be seen below, was not erected till long after
Lachute had

come a thriving village. As stated in the history of St. Andrews, it
embraces the

irger part of the Seigniory of Argenteuil, and besides the town of
Lachute, it contains

other districts designated as the East Settlement and Bethany, which
will be noticed

in the proper place.

* That tract or parcel of land, situate in the seigniory of Argenteuil,
in the County of Two Moun-

ns, in that part of the Province of Canada called Lower Canada, bounded
and abutted as follows,

it : on the south by the southern line of lot number fifteen in the west
settlement, the rear of the


PATRICK STRACHAN DUNBAR, Mayor of the Parish of St. Jerusalem
d Argenteuil, was born in Forres, Morayshire, Scotland, yth March,
1824. His father was George Dunbar, who was a Captain in the Inverness
Militia ; his mother was Katherine, daughter of Major Patrick Strachan,
of Drumduen, Morayshire, who, on one or two

occasions, was in active service. Mr. Dunbar came to Canada with his
parents in

1832, and settled in Brownsburg ; the family remained there for two years,
and then came to Jerusalem, where the son has ever since resided. He
was employed on the

first railroad ever built in this County, and helped to run the
first engine that went from Carillon to Grenville in 1854 ; in 1856,
he was first mate on the steamer " Atlas," plying between Lachine and
Carillon. Mr. Dunbar took a most active part in helping to secure the
line of the present C. P. Railway then the Montreal, Ottawa & Occi dental
through this parish, and, in 1872, look-part with the late Thomas C.
Quinn, Provincial Land Surveyor, in running a trial line from Grenville
Bay to St.  Therese.  This line proved to be the shortest and most direct,
and was afterwards adopted by the R. R. Company. Mr. Dunbar has been a
Municipal Councillor in the Parish for

thirty-two years, and has filled the office of Mayor since 1880;
he married, in 1852, Jessie, youngest daughter of the late Walter
McOuat. Mrs. Dunbar is still living, and has three daughters. Mr. Dunbar
has also filled the office of President of the Board of School
Commissioners, here, since 1885. He is now in his seventy-third year,
and has been a resident of this parish for upwards of sixty years.

ROBERT GORDON., from County Down, Ireland, came to the Parish of St. Jeru
salem, in 1824, and bought one hundred acres of land, which is now
owned n.rd occupied by his son Robert. The latter, who is now upward
of eighty years of age, has cleared up much of the paternal estate,
and also another one hundred acres, by which he has augmented it. He
has been one of those industrious, sober men, who

exert a good influence, and whose presence as a neighbor is always
desired. He has

middle settlement or Beech Ridge, the southern part of Duel s purchase,
and the line separaf ng the East Settlement from part of Brown s Gore,
and that rear of lot number thirty- five, on the River Rouge ; on the
east by the seigniory of Two Mountains ; on the north by the township
of Gore ; on the west by the township of Chatham. Beginning on the
line between Chatham and Argenteuil at the distance of three miles and
three-quarters from the shore of the Ottawa River ; thence, along the side
line between lots numbers fourteen and fifteen, in the west settlement,
magnetically south sixty-nine degrees thirty minutes east, one mile,
eight arpents and six perches more or less to an angle ; thence, along
the noitherly rear line of lots numbers five, six, seven, eight, nine
and ten of the middle settle ment or Beech Ridge, north, 86 degrees
east, nineteen arpents more or less, to an angle ; thence, along the
rear line from the noiihwest corner of number eleven, to the north-east
corner of number twenty- two, or the last lot of the middle settlement,
to a point about seven miles and one-quarter from the Ottawa River ;
north 68 degrees, one mile, six arpents and two perches more or less ;
thence, along the line between the ea i t side of the middle settlement
and the tract of land known as Duel s purchase to the southern extremity
of the said tract ; south eleven degrees and ten minutes east, two miles
more or less; thence, along the line between part of Brown s Gore and
Duel s purchase south, eighty-three degrees east, seven arpents and
six perches more or less to an angle ; thence, along the eastern line
of Duel s purchase, to the south-western angle of the East Settlement,
six arpents more or less; thence, along the southern side line of lot
number one in both ranges of the East Settlement, till it meets the
eastern line of the seigniory of Argenteuil, at a point distant about
five miles from the Grand or Ottawa River south, sixty-nine degrees
thirty minutes east, two miles five arpents and five perches, more or
less ; thence, along the line between the seigniories of Argenteuil
and Two- Mountains, to the noiih- eastern angle of the said seigniory
of Argenteuil north, twenty degrees thirty minutes east, seven miles,
eight arperts and seven perches more or less; thence along the rear
line of the seigniory ot Argenteuil, which is also the front line of
the townsh : p of Gore, to the north-western ang e of the seigniory to
a point on the Clear Lake north, sixty-two degrees thirty minutes west,
six miles and fourteen arpents more or less ; thence, along the line
between Chatham and Argenteuil south, twenty degrees thirty minutes west,
eight miles and seven arpents more or less, to the place of beginning.

Approved by Order in Council of the I5th July, 1852, minus; The limits
of the town of Lachute by 48 V., c. 72.


been a Magistrate for a quarter of a century, and has also been a member
of the

Municipal Council of his Parish. Although an octogenarian, he is still
active, and takes much interest in public affairs. One of the latest of
his works was to secure a grant of $50 from Government, to pay for placing
gravel on a low, marshy piece of road in this section a work of much
utility. Mr. Gordon has had ten children, nine of whom are still living.

ROBERT CROZIER was born in County Cavan, Ireland, 6th May, i8r4, and came
to Canada when four years of age. His parents first went to Montreal,
and a year later to Chatham, where the son lived for several years,
three of which he spent in lum bering on the Black River and Oitawa. He
was married 3oth October, 1838, to Margaret, youngest daughter of the late
Andrew Walker, of Lane s Purchase. He pur chased a farm adjoining that of
his father-in-law, remaining there until 1848, when he bought a farm in
this section from Chauncey Davis. He had eight daughters and four sons,
of whom seven daughters and two sons are now living. The daughters are
all married, and Catherine, wife of Simon McGilvray, and John Alexander,
are the only children of the family in this County. Mr. Crozier was at
Grand Brule in 1837, and was a member of the Volunteers and Cavalry for
over twenty years. He was a large land owner in this parish, but in 1894
sold his farm, and soon afterward went to Lachute to live a retired life,
but died there ist June, 1895, after only a week s ill ness. The Montreal
Witness *&\& of him in a lengthy obituary notice : " Mr.  Crozier was a
true husband and kind father, and the loss of his presence to sorrowing re
latives will not be easily or quickly repaired." His wife still survives,
at the age of seventy-nine.

John A., eldest son of Robert Crozier, was born 1845, an ^ always
remained in this section. On 2ist Feb., 1878, he was married to Miss
Ryan, a teacher, daughter of Thomas Ryan, who was a ship carpenter,
living at the time in Mille Isles.  Mr.  Crozier first settled on the
farm now owned by Thomas Black, jun., which he had

bought a few years previous to his marriage, but he afterwards sold
it and returned home to assist his father, who was alone. In July,
1890, he bought his present farm, on which he has since made many
improvements. He was a member of Capt. Bur- wash s troop of Cavalry ten
years, joining it in 1860, after receiving a diploma from the Military
School in Montreal. He was Corporal of his company when he retired.

DAVID THOMAS MORIN was born 8th February, 1820, in Dumfrieshire, Scotland.
His father, who was a guard in Dumfrieshire Jail, was killed while on
duty by the notorious thief and pick-pocket, Davie Hagart. He struck
Mr. Morin on the head with a stone concealed in a siocking, intending
only to stun him, but the blowproved fatal.

The son, David Thomas, who was a carpenter by trade, came to Canada with
his mother, about 1833. In February, 1843, ne was married in Montreal
to Miss Janet

Craik, sister of Dr. Craik, Dean of the Medical Faculty, McGill
University. In 1849, he came to this parish, ar.d bought the farm now
owned by his son David ; he died here 20th May, 1873, and Mrs Morin i7th
April, 1890. They had five sons and five daughters ; three of the latter
are deceased. Thomas, David, John, Jane and Janet, the latter married
to William Davidson, lives in this parisli Robert C.  on Beech Ridge,
and William in Prescott County, Out. Thomas, born 3ist Dec., 184;,

remained at home until twenty-four years of age, when he went to Nevada,
where he remained about five years. On his return, he was married i2th
February, 1873, to Mary, daughter of the late James Gordon, of River
Rouge. He then came to his present farm, adjoining the old homestead ;
he has two daughters and one son, who all live at home. David, born 7th
July, 1850, remained on the homestead;


he married Miss Dunbar, daughter of Patrick Dunbar, Esq. ; they have
one son.  Mr.  Morin has a fine farm, and in 1890 received a bronze medal
and a diploma from the Quebec Government in the competition of that year.

ANDREW WALKER came to Canada from Barrackshire, Scotland, with his family
in 1833, and first settled on Lane s Purchase in Lachute, where he and
Mrs.  Walker both died, on the farm now owned by Henry Drysdale. Tney
had five sons and four

daughters; among those now living are Margaret, widow of the late Robert
Crozier; Alice, widow of William Blow, living in Manitoba ; and George,
living in Ontario.

ANDREW, the fourth son, born 4th May, 1821, was married in 1851 to
Catherine A., daughter of Copt. Dunbav : they had eight children five sons
and three daugh ters, of whom all but one son are now living. Mr. Walker
remained on the home stead until 1895, when his son Andrew bought the
farm of his late uncle, Robert

Crozier, in Jerusalem, and Mr. and Mrs. Walker, retired, are now living
with him.  Mr. Walker has been very active in the affairs of the County,
having been Municipal Councillor of Lachute for twenty-one years ; he
was .also a member of Major Simp son s company of Cavalry, having been
sergeant at ine time they received the Prince of Wales at Carillon. George
Dunbar, the eldest son, lives in Hill Head; Janet I., married to James
Raitt, lives in Lachute; Catherine .A., married to William Cope- land,
lives in Lane s Purchase ; Andrew is on the farm in Jerusalem ; William
B. and John R. L. live in Manitoba ; and Maggie, married to D. McPhail,
lives in Chatham.

HUGH CLELAND, son of James Cleland, was born in the parish of
St. Jerusalem, and lived on the farm now owned by Thomas Black ; he was
married to Mary Ann Cotter. They had five children, of whom two boys
and two girls are now living.  Mr. Cleland bought the farm now owned by
his son, William J., and for the last eighteen years has shipped milk to
Montreal, buying from a good many in this vicinity. Mr. Cleland is now
retired, and, with his wife, remains on the old homestead with their
second son, William. The latter still continues the milk busi ness ;
he was born January, 1867, and 23rd June, 1893, was married to Mary,
daughter of William Brown, of Martintown, Ont. Jane, the eldest, is
married to Malcolm Smith, of Beech Ridge ; Mary E. to Thomas Smith,
lives in Montreal. Robert James, the eldest son, was born 1857, and
always remained at home. In 1887, he was married to Isabella, daughter
of Andrew Bell, Postmaster of Beech Ridge ; the same year he took his
present farm of his father. He has since erected new buildings, and
made many improvements on it ; with his brother, he continues the milk
business commenced by their father.

JAMES LEISHMAN, JUN., eldest son of James Leishman, was born in Upper
Lachute, 26th May, 1864; he remained at home until 1886, and then went
to Cali fornia, where he remained eight years in the lumber business ;
on his return he

bought the farm of John McGilvray, Jerusalem, and is now living here
with his sister Mary.


A Post Office was established here in 187 1, and given the name of
Genoa ; James Gordon was appointed Postmaster, which office he still
holds. Mr. Gordon con ducted a general store here some time, but having
to devote his time to his trade that of carpenter he discontinued the
store, in 1890.

The first school-house was built on the farm now owned by Mrs. Black. In
1841, a log school-house was built on the site of the present brick one,
near the four corners.


A neat wooden church was erected in 1861, on land given to the Wesleyan
Metho dist Conference by Mr. John Bunvash, and it was built by the
Methodists of this

vicinity. Mr. Griffith took an active part in its erection, and has been
a staunch sup porter of it ever since. It is used as a Union church now,
and services are held on alternate Sabbaths by Revs. Clipsham and Mackie,
of Lachute. The Church is always open to any Protestant minister who
wishes to hold service in it.

The first settlers known in this place were Barber, Draper, and Hyatt,
U. E.  Loyalists, who came here about the beginning of the present
century. Barber was

quite a large land owner, having about 700 acres ; he built a three-story,
stone build ing in 1850, on the farm now owned by Mrs. Wm. Black,
intending that his sons should occupy it with him, after being
married. They, however, being dissatisfied, left this p^rt of the
country, and none of the descendants of the above-named men now live in
this section.

A few years ago, considerable business was done in the East Settlement
by govern ment contractors, who bought several acres of land from
Messrs. John Rodger, Arm strong and Todd. A very fine quality of
gravel was discovered here, and a side track was laid from the main
line of the Canadian Pacific Railroad to take away the gravel uug by
ihe large gang of men employed during one summer. About twenty miles of
the C. P. R. were ballasted with the gravel, and a great many carloads
were taken to Montreal. The gravel pit is quite a freak of nature,
being a high ridge with level land on either side. The ridge is about
half a mile long and three acres wide ; the centre, where excavated,
has the appearance of having been under water at one time, there being
towards the bottom several feet of fine gravel, and then a layer of
stone similar to the dry bed of a river. At the bottom is a very fine
quality of build ing sand in which are found springs of pure cold water.

THOMAS MILLER, a cabinetmaker by trade, was born in Scotland, and came
to Canada about 1800 ; he remained about seven years, then returned to
Scotland, and married Miss Anna Murdoch. He then came back to Canada,
and settled at River du

Loup, Que., keeping store there for several years, after which he
removed to River Rouge, remaining several years on the farm of Gregor
McGregor. He then came to this place, and bought the farm now owned
by his son, Thomas G. Mr. and Mrs.  Miller both died here. THOMAS G.,
the eldest son, born in 1816 at River du Loup, was married in 1851 to
Mary E. Green, from County Sligo, Ireland ; they have five daughters and
four sons, all living. Catherine, the eldest daughter, lives in Chicago ;
Mary and Amanda in Montreal ; Martha and Eliza are at home. Of the sons,
Thomas, the eldest, John H. and William, are in California, and James,
the youngest, remains at home.

JOHN GRIFFITH was born in Ireland in 1819, his parents, who were Welsh,
having previously settled there; the family came to Canada about the year
1826, and first settled in St. Canute. When about eighteen years of age,
John went to Ontario, and was employed for two years on the Cornwall
Canal ; he then returned to St.  Canute, and soon afterward joined
the St. Andrew s Volunteers, Capt. Quinn s Company, going with them to
St. Scholastique. He was in this Company when orders were received to
march to St. Eti>tache. Mr. Griffith afterward went to Thomas Gore,
where he was married to Mary, daughter of the late William Hume. Hill
Head.  They had eight sons and four daughters, of whom five sons and
all the daughters are still living. William, the eldest, is a farmer in
Watertown, N.Y.; Henry is mining in

Nevada ; John W. is Professor in a San Francisco College ; Isaac lives
at home ; and Albert L. is in Montreal ; Eleanor, married to Roderick
McDonald, lives in Vide Sac ; Mary J., married to Henry Hadley, lives
in Montreal ; Sarah A. is at home ; and

Grace, married to William Shepherd, lives in East Settlement.


JAMES ARMSTRONG came to Canada in 1824 from County Monaghan, Ireland,
and settled in North Settlement, on the farm now owned by William Walker;
he afterward bought the farm now owned by his son Robert, where he died
;th May, * 8 73, aged seventy-five years. JAMES, the third son, born in
1837, was married 5th September, 1856, to Jane Canton, of Lakefield;
he then settled on the farm now owned by John Graham, Thomas Gore,
and remained there five years, when he sold it, and in 1872 bought his
present one from the late William Todd. He has three

daughters and two sons ; Julia A. is married to John McOuat, and lives
in Lachute ; Mary E., the second daughter, after being a very successful
teacher for four years, is now in the Post Office at Lachute ; Alice J.,
John E., and Albert J. are at home.

WILLIAM BLACK, born 1830, was a son of Handyside Black, who came from
Scot land ; William, who was the third son, bought the farm now occupied
by his widow and children the old Barber place, on which was built the
large stone house men

tioned above. Mr. Black was married in 1872 to Elizabeth, daughter
of William )ickson, of this place ; he died 22nd March, 1891,
aged sixty-one. Mrs. Black sur vives him, and has four children one
daughter and three sons, named respectively Aggi.e, John, William and
David. Mrs. Black, with her children s assistance, has continued to
manage the farm since her husband s death. The eldest son, John, bids
fair to be one of the successful farmers of Argenteuil, having already
begun to purchase thoroughbred stock.

WILLIAM TODD was born in Roxburyshire, Scotland, in 1808, and came to
Canada in 1830, with his wife, Elizabeth Wilson, and two children;
he settled in Beauharnois, where he remained five years, then came
to Lachute, .and bought the farm now occupied by the family of James
Pollock. He remained in Lachute six years, _and afterwards about 1841
came to this place, and bought the farm now occupied by James Armstrong,
and lived here a number of years. Mrs. Todd died in 1860. They had four
sons and one daughter ; the latter is deceased. William,

the eldest son, is in Wisconsin ; Thomas lives in Lachute ; Andrew,
on the Lachute Road ; and Henry in this place. Mr. Todd was married a
second time, in 1865, to

Mary, daughter of Andrew McLean, of Montreal. After selling his farm
to Mr.  Armstrong, Mr. Todd bought the cottage of James Gordon, at
the four-corners, and died there i8th April, 1894, aged eighty-six
years. Mrs. Todd still lives here.

JOSEPH ROGER, whose father also bore the name of Joseph, was born in Scot
land in 1795. He came to Canada in 1833, and the same year bought the farm
in this place now occupied by his children; he purchased this of Isaac
Hyatt, one of the first settlers in this section. In 1836, Mr. Roger was
married to Miss Jean McOuat; they had seven children, of whom three sons
and three daughters Joseph, Janette, Margaret, William, Elizabeth and
John are now living. Mr. Roger died 1870, ageu seventy-five ; Mrs. Roger
in 1888, aged seventy-seven. Margaret, the second daughter, went to
India in 1873 as a missionary for the Presbyterian Church of Canada,
spending eighteen years there, with the exception of one furlough. Miss

Roger has the honor of being the first missionary sent by the
Presbyterians to India from Canada. Mr. Roger s children are all living
on the homestead.

DAVID ROGER came from Glasgow, Scotland, about 1833 ; he bought the farm
now occupied by his son John from L. Barber. Mr. Roger was married to
Miss Jane McOuat in Scotland, and had two children when they came to
Canada. Six- more were born to them after coming here; four sons and
two daughters are now living. Mr. Roger died 241!) May, 1892, aged
ninety-six years, and Mrs. Roger died 1872, aged seventy-six. Joseph,
the eldest son, lives in Lachute. Janet, the


widow of James McClure, and mother of the celebrated missionary,
Dr. McClure, of Honan, China^ lives in Upper Lachute. Margaret, married
to Andrew Todd, and David, live on the Lachute Road. William, and John,
the youngest son, reside in this place. The latter, who was born in 1841,
has always remained on the homestead ; he was married in 1891 to Jemima,
daughter of the late Thomas Bilsland; they have one son.

JAMES WOOD, a blacksmith by trade, came, with his wife, from Scotland
to Canada about 1830 ; he first worked at his trade on the old Carillon
and Grenville Canal, and from this work went to St. Placide, from which
place he was obliged to remove to St! Andrews on the breaking out of
the Rebellion of 1837. This journey, made on the ice, proved a dangerous
one, as the river had but just frozen ; Mr.  Wood was obliged to go on
foot before his horse, testing the ice. He left his wife and children
in St. Andrews and returned with the troops to St. Placide. Some time
later, he came, with his family, to this section, and bought the farm
now owned by his son Robert. Mr. Wood died in 1881, aged seventy-seven,
and Mrs. Wood in December, 1890, aged eighty-three. They had eleven
children, of whom seven sons and two daughters reached maturity.

ROBERT, the fifth son, born 1845, remained at home until twenty-one years
of age, when he went to Nevada, remaining five years altogether in that
State, but making a long visit at home during the time. After his final
return to Canada, he went into partnership with Robert Summerby, and
erected a steam saw mill on the North River at St. Canute. He managed
this for two years, then sold out and bought his present farm from his
father. In 1872, Mr. Wood was married to Miss McGregor, daughter of John
McGregor, of Lachute Road. They have four sons and one daughter living.

Mr. Wood has made many improvements on his farm, and it is now one of
the best equipped in East Settlement.

WILLIAM ROGER, second son of David Roger, was born in this Settlement
in 1833, and has always remained here ; he was married in 1866 to Miss
Ann Robertson, of Montreal, whose father came from Aberdeen, Scotland,
with his wife and children.  Her mother died during the voyage, and
Mr. Robertson died a year after reaching


Mr. Roger bought his present farm, which had previously been owned by
James Draper, from his sister, Mrs. McClure, in 1860, and has since made
many improve

ments on it, besides building his present brick residence. All the
surroundings of the place betoken intelligence and industry. Mr. Roger
has taken an active part in the Agricultural Society, having been Director
for several years ; he has also been Coun cillor of the Parish. Mrs. Roger
died in 1890, leaving a family of nine children ; one son has since died
five daughters and three sons are now living.

JAMES WILSON came from Roxburyshire, Scotland, to Canada, in 1830,
and settled here, being one of the first to arrive in this section.

WILLIAM, his second son, was born in 1842, on the farm where he now
lives; he has always remained at home, with the exception of one year,
which was spent in lumbering in Wisconsin. He was married 6th January,
1891, to Jessie B., daughter of Simon McKimmie, of Lachute. They have
two daughters. In 1892, Mr. Wilson obtained the farm, his father dying
in that year.

WILLIAM TODD, eldest son of Thomas Todd, was born in February, 1858,
in East Settlement ; he has been twice married, first to Margery M.,
daughter of Thomas

Young, of River Rouge, by whom he had three sons and one
daughter. Mrs. Todd died in March, 1889. In l88l > the father of
Mr. Todd, wishing to retire from active business, gave up to his son the
management of his farm, which he purchased about half a century ago from
Milo Barber ; he then went to live in Lachute.


^ Mr. Todd was married the second time, in June, 1891, to Ida Catherine,
daughter of Charles McGregor, of River Rouge ; he has two sons by this

FELIX BIGRAS came to this place in the early years of its history, and
settled on the farm, then entirely covered with bush, which is now owned
by his son Peter.

The latter was born in 1855, and has always remained on the homestead ;
he was married in 1876 to Miss P. Touchette, of Cote St. Louis. They
have two sons living.  Mr. Bigras has made many improvements on his
farm, and, in 1895, was appointed Director of the Agricultural Society
of Argenteuil. He, as was his father, is a mem ber of the Belle Riviere
Presbyterian Church.

The following sketch has been kindly given us by a young friend of
Mrs. Gordon,

it having been written at Mrs. Gordon s dictation :

MR. and MRS. GORDON came out from Scotland about 1835, and settled in
the bush in Genoa. They had to erect a cabin at once, which was square
in shape and

covered with "scoops." Their only stove was tin. They had to clear their
land by first cutting down the trees, and then rooting up the stumps by
means of a pry about ten feet long. This, of course, was very hard work,
and, on one occasion, when Mrs.  Gordon was helping, she pulled so hard
on the pry, that shecould see " stars," and her sight was so injured
that, from that time, she has had to use spectacles.  The first year,
they cleared only two acres, burning the stumps when they were pulled,
then plowing the land and sowing their seed. As their fields became
larger, they pome- times worked in harvesting till eleven o clock at
night, binding their grain and putting it into "stocks" before the rain
came. During the first years of their settlement they had but one child
a little girl whom they carried to the field and home again, when they
were drawing hay or grain, and put her on the mow till the wagon was
unloaded. When they had drawn in all their grain, they threshed it with
a flail, and, after being ground, it was carried on Mr. Gordon s back
to the mill at Lachute.

When returning home, it was sometimes so dark that he was obliged to hang
the bag of flour or meal on a tree and return for it in the morning. The
only place they had to keep their potatoes was a hole in the ground,
well covered over. Their only means of travelling was with a horse and
a little, low, flat-bottomed traineau, with a bundle of pea-straw for
a seat, and -no robes. They had to drive to Montreal with a h jrse and
cart to sell their produce, and often the roads were so bad that the mud
and water came up to the axle. Their load consisted chiefly of pork and
butter; the genera!  price of pork was $4.50 per hundred, and of butter
i2^c. per pound. Whatever money they received had all to go in payments
on their farm.

They lived here at the time of the Rebellion, and were often afraid that
the rebels would come and kill them. Once, while trying to take home some
of his sheep, the rebels took Mr. Gordon prisoner, and his sheep were
killed. The next day, however, he obtained a stick, broke the windows of
his prison, and escaped. Another time!  a wolf came along in the night,
and began fighting with the dog, and they thought it was some of the
rebels trying to set fire to the buildings, and were nearly frightened
to death.

Wolves were very numerous, and used to come in crowds every night, so that
they had to shut up their sheep. One little pet lamb did not want to be
shut up, so it ran away in the bush and across a ditch. It was never seen
alive again; but they found a piece of its leg, where a wolf had killed
and eaten it. For three or four years after they came here, the wolves
used to disturb them very much at night by their howling. Mrs. Gordon
tells of an encounter she once had with a wolf.


She was away from home, and had about twenty miles to walk, so she started
early in the morning, on a bush road, not very well marked out. After
losing her way three times, she at length reached a house where her sister
promised to meet her, and they wa .ked along together until they reached
the North River flowing through Lachute. There was no bridge, but they
got across in a scow with some school girls, and in a short time reached
the home of her friends. They wanted her to remain all night, but she
was anxious to get home, so she went out again, till she came to a bush
where she lost her way, and presently saw a wolf among a lot of sheep. She

was about to strike him with the sickle carried in her hand, but gave a
loud scream instead, which so frightened him that he ran off. She then
went on, reaching home about 12 o clock at night.

In the winter evenings, Mrs. Gordon often sat up while the others were
sleepino-.  sewing and knitting for the children ; she often spun one
hundred pounds of wool m a year. By hard work and industry they cleared
up a good farm, put up comfortable buildings, and took care of a large
family, who are all doing well. When their child ren were all settled in
homes of their own, Mr. and Mrs. Gordon sold their homestead, and built a
pretty little cottage at the four corners, which is surrounded by trees.
They have a small piece of ground which they cultivate themselves, and
live very happily together in their old age, and delight in talking of
the hardships through which they have passed.


This place, so called, it is claimed, because it is "nigh unto Jerusalem,"
bounds Beech Ridge on the east. The ubiquitous John Smith found his way
here, and pitched his tent,, in or about the year 1819, on the lot now
owned by J. W. Webster, of St.  Andrews. A few years later, he purchased
the lot now owned and occupied by his grandson, William Hume. Finding
clay on this, of the right kind for manufacturing brick, he purchased
the necessary machinery and began the work. Many of the dwellings in
this section weie made from the brick purchased at this yard, and Mr.
Hume, who is still engaged in the enterprise, turns out annually from one
hundred and fifty to two hundred thousand of superior quality. Mr. Smith,
evidently, was an industrious man, and learned, in the most difficult way,
the varied hardships incident to the life of a pioneer. He cleared up
the greater part of two lots, and in the early years of his life here,
carried his grain on his back to Lachute three miles distant.

Among the first settlers here were the PAULS, who came from Morayshire,
Scot land. The family consisted of the father, mother, one daughter
and four sons, named respectively, Jane, James, Alexander, John and
David. They first settled in Chatham and, a few years later, came to this
place. James, who married fanet Ker, afterwards returned to Chatham, and
died there, leaving children. Alexand-r, another of the four brothers,
married Margaret Lowe ; and John, Maria Chapman. The latter sur vived
her husband, and now lives on Bethany Road with her family. David,
the only remaining member of the Paul family, married Elizabeth Doig,
and also resides on Bethany Road.

DUNCAN, second son of Alexander Paul, was born Qth April, 1856, on the
farm now owned by Mrs. Jame; Kettyle. He was married 28th June, 1882,
to Isabella, daughter of the late Henry Griffith, of Vide Sac. In 1887,
Mr. Paul went to Water- town, N.Y., where he remained three years. After
returning, he worked on the old homestead until 1893, when he sold it,
and bought his present farm of eighty- live acres, on which he has
erected new buildings and made many improvements.


JAMES R. EARLE, third son of James Earle, was born i4th September,
1819, on the farm where he now lives. In 1883, he was married to Mary,
daughter of the late Alexander Paul. They have had two litte girls,
who are both deceased; the elder

dying at the age of one year and nine months, and the younger at the age
of five years. Mr. Earle is living on the old homestead. He has been a
Councillor of the parish during the last eight years.

THOMAS MORRISON was born in Scotland in 1798, and came to Canada in 1822.
He was married here to Jemima Brown. They had seven children, of whom
four sons are now living. After first remaining some time in Lachute,
Mr. Morrison went to the Hill Settlement, where his youngest son, Robert,
was born in 1841.  In 1870, the latter bought his present farm the old
Sleyberg place in Bethany. He was married the same year to Mary Ann,
daughter of the late Wm. Barron, of Upper Lachute. They have had- five
children. Two sons and two daughters are now living.  The eldest son,
Thomas B., is married to Janet, daughter of John Doig, of Hill Farm,
Upper Lachute. The other children are at home. Mr. Morrison has made many
improvements on his farm. He has been Director of the Agricultural Society

of this County for several years, and also valuator of this parish. The
people o f Bethany and vicinity built a cheese factory, in 1895, on
Mr. Morrison s farm.  It is managed by J. R. Ro^s & Sons, of Hawkesbury.

JAMES K. ERASER, youngest son of William Eraser, was born August 3,
1861, and has always remained here. In 1891, he was married to Kathleen,
daughter of Wm. Henderson, of Arundel, and the same year took his father
s farm, known as " Highland Farm," Bethany Road, on which he hats made
many improvements. Mr.  Eraser has served as School Trustee for several
terms. He has kindly provided for the comfort and instruction of several
orphans, and four have, at different times, found a good home in his
own family. Mr. and Mrs. Eraser have one son and one daughter.


ALEXANDER SMITH, from Ayrshire, came to Canada a short time previous to
the War of 1812, and during that war lived at Lachine, and was employed
in the winter, conveying artillery between Montreal and Kingston. Soon
afterwards, he came to Lachute, and & proces-verbal of the road between
that town and Beech Ridge shows that he was here in 1816, and owned the
lot on which the railroad station and the most populous part of Lachute
is now located. Subsequently, he changed this lot

with Colonel Barron for one near Hill Head, on which he lived till his
death.  He had three sons John, William and Alexander and four daughters,
that grew up.  Alexander left the country, and no tidings of him have
ever been received.  John, the second son, remained on the homestead,
married, and had a large family.

William, the second son, in 1848, settled on a wild lot in Vide Sac a
name signifying Empty Sack, which was given to the place by the Frenchmen
of St.  Hermas, who came here to clear their land, each bringing his
provisions in a small bag or sack, which was pretty sure to be empty
at night. Mr. Smith spent his days here and cleared up a fine farm. He
married Janet Henderson about 1845, ar "d died in 1882, aged 68. They
had five children ; two died in infancy, three sons grew up, but only one
is now living. Alexander, the eldest of the three sons, died, unmarried,
in California, in January, 1874.

William Smith, M.D., another son, of whom a sketch is given in the
histcry of Lachute, died in that place in September, 1895.


Mrs. Smith \vasparticularlydesirous of having their children well
educated, con

sequently, both she and her husband woiked hard to provide the funds
requisite for this purpose, Walter, the youngest son, after leaving
the Montreal Business College, remained on the homestead, with the
exception of two or three years, when he was engaged in teaching in
Alpena, Michigan. He was married, in i88r, to Janet, daughter of John
Nicol, of Lachute. He is one of the influential and respected farmers
in Argenteuil, and takes an interest in whatever affects ner moral,
social or political welfare. He is devoted to farming, and, in 1889. was
awarded a prize on his farm by the County Agricultural Society. He has
been a member of the Parish

Council for several years, twice has made out the Valuation Roll for the
parish, and is President of the County Association and Vice-President of
the Provincial Associa tion of the Patrons of Industry. In Church and
Sabbath School work, he is equally interested and active, being Elder
in the Second Presbyterian Church at Lachute, and Superintendent of the
Sabbath School.

ARCHIBALD BOA, youngest son of Andrew Boa, was born April, 1838, on
the farm now owned by Paul Smith, Upper Lachute; he learned the trade
of carpenter,

and worked. at this in Lachute and other places in the vicinity for
several years. In 1838, he was married to Jessie M. W., daughter of Thomas
Buchanan. In 1867, he bought the farm now occupied by his son Andrew.

Mr. Boa died in 1893, aged 55. Mrs. Boa and the five sons and five
daughters are all living.

Amelia D., the eldest daughter, married to Frank Bickerstaff, and Flora
H., the

second, live in Illinois. Lydia H., the third daughter, married to
William A.  Gordon, lives in East Settlement; and Alice W. and Jessie,
the two younger, remain at home.

ANDREW BOA, the eldest son, after spending r.ome time in Manitoba and
in different parts of the United States, returned home and took the farm
in 1893.  He is an enterprising farmer, and for several years has taken
the first prize at the County plowing matches. Thomas B., the second son,
is married and lives in Montreal ; Robert, the third son, resides in
Atlantic Highland, New Jersey ; and John S., the fourth son. and Paul,
the youngest, are in Illinois.


This locality, which is located about four miles from Lachute, on the
opposite side of the North River, has fine farms and has always sustained
a thrifty and intelli gent population. As shown on a preceding page,
Philander Stephens and his brothers were very early settlers here, and
he is the only one of the early American pioneers now remaining. A Post
office was established here in 1880. Thomas Pollock, who was the first
Postmaster appointed, died in 1892, and Mr. Drew suc

ceeded him as Postmaster. We regret that disappointment in not receiving
the data necessary prevents our giving a biographical sketch of
Mr. Pollock.

A cheese factory was erected here, in 1888, by Frederick Cook, and though
the section is almost wholly an agricultural one, there is a grist and
saw mill here in a romantic little glen. These mills, which were formerly
known as the McOuat Mills, are now owned by Thomas Hammond.

About 1820, WILLIAM DREW, from Sterlingshire, Scotland, came to Montreal,
and two years later he came to this section, where he married Janet,
daughter of James McOuat. He bought 100 acres of Lot 19, 2nd Range, and
afterward pro cured 135 acres more, adjacent to his first purchase. He
was on military duty during the Rebellion of 1837, an( ^ faithfully
performed all his duties as a worthy



citizen till his death, 131)1 October, 1869. He had seven children two
sons and

five daughters that arrived at maturity, but two of the daughters are now
deceased.  James, the elder son, has always remained on th : homestead a
beautiful and productive farm of 235 acres, with commodious, substantial
buildings. Mr. Drew was married lyth April, 1862, to Elizabeth, daughter
of William Muir, of Lachute.  They have but one child, a daughter,
Elizabeth, living. She has a Model School Diploma, and has taught
successfully several years. Another .laughter of Mr.  and Mrs. Drew,
Maggie, died in 1895 a g rea t bereavement to the family and a large
circle of friends. Mr. Drew joined the Troop of the late Col. Simpson,
and remained in it till it was disbanded/

James Drew, the other son of William Drew, the pioneer, married in
April, rS63,

Eliza Pollock. He has a fine farm on Beech Ridge.

Among other valuable farms at Hill Head are those of George Morrison
and Mr. McOuat.

Adjacent to Hill Head is " THOMAS GORE," a section comprising two ranges
of lots, which is also inhabited by an industrious class of farmers. Among
these are James Berry, Thomas Hume, Henry Padgett, John Smith and others.

Tne most, if not all, of these live on the homesteads selected by fheir
fathers, and have brothers and sisters residing here, and in other parts
of the Dominion.


(Erected into a township by Proclamation, 131!! July, 1799.)

This township is bounded on the north by Wentworth, east by the parishes
of St.

Andrews and St. Jerusalem d Argenteuil, south by the Ottawa and west
by Grenville.

At just what time the first settler located in Chatham, or who he was,
are ques

tions we are unable to answer, but from information obtained from
different sources we are led to the conclusion that the advent of the
first pioneer* must have been about the beginning of the present century.

We cannot find a more appropriate introduction to the history of this
township than the following letter of our esteemed friend, Mr. Dewar
of Ottawa.
































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T. A. Stayner and Louisa Sutherland .






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Daniel Sutherland and John Robertson









T. A. Stayner and Louisa Sutherland.



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Malcolm Mclntyre .... 7 9

Donald McPhail 8 9

Peter Dewar, jr .... 9 9

Daniel Dale .... 10 9

Wm. Young .... . .... 1 1 9

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Duncan Me Arthur .... 13 9

John Loggie 14 9

Peter McFarlane .... 15 9

John McArthur .... 1 6 9

Peter Grant .... 17 9

Thomas Duncan .... 18 9

Donald McMartin .... 19 9

Peter Gilmour .... 20 9

Francis Duffy EJ 21 9

Thomas Spencer \V . , 21 9

Geo. Blair . . . f 22 9

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John Morrow W A 24 9

Henry Dixon E .] 24 9

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Frank Connor E . , 26 9

Mathew Connor W . , 26 9

Henry Connor ...." 27 9

James Kennedy .... 28 9

Allen Cameron .... i 10

Duncan McCalluin .... 2 10

Robert Me Naughton .... 3 10

Richard Farren N 4 i o

Hugh Smith S . , 4 10

Peter Jesmin .... 5 10

D. Sinclair .... j o

James Pinkei ton .... 7 10

Walter Kirconnell .... 10

Hugh McCallum .... 9 IQ

Arch. McArthur .... 10 IQ

Alex. McGibbon .... 1 1 10

John McFarlane .... 12 i O

Joseph Sale E i} 10

Duncan McPhail W". 1 , 13 10

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John McGibbon .... 16 i o

Donald McKercher .... 17

Duncan McMartin .... 18

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Thomas Duncan .... 21 io


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John McDougall




" The front of Chatham was largely settled by Americans, in the latter
part of the last century; some of them being refugees, who had left
their country for their country s good, and who were remarkable for
nothing but their hatred of British

institutions and love of Brother Jonathan. This was well exemplified
a few years later on the breaking out of the war of 1812, when all the
loyal inhabitants of the County volunteered as one man, leaving their
families and homes, and, amid much suffering and privation, marched
to headquarters, which was then at Pointe Claire, where they prepared
themselves, as best they could, to repel Ite piratical invaders of the
Prov ince. _ Many of the above mentioned men refused to join the ranks
with the others openly declaring that they were not going to fight
against their own friends Of

course, no action was taken against them, but they were marked for all
time and as their principal employment and means of subsistence was the
clearing of land and

\vgpotash, as the timber began to get scarce, they found it convenient
to leave

for other parts ; and, for years, their names have been almost forgotten
and I

mention only a few, viz., the Bennetts, Bates, Parchers, and Smiths. Their
cant places were soon filled up by a better class of men, many of whose
descend- ; Still occupy the old homesteads, and are a credit and an
honor to any country

among these may be reckoned the Schagels, Fullers, Noyeses, Bradfords,
Ostroms Lasses and many others.

The early settlers were often put to great straits for breadstuff s ;
whenever the

crops failed from any cause, there were no means of supply, except by
the natural

highway ^ Grand River, and nothing but canoes for transport to and from

I he trip was often very much protracted, especially by the boats eettin*


Any scarcity in the matter of cereals was made up by the plenteousness
offish and game. In each year about the first of June, the shad (or,
as they came to be :d, Carillon Beef ) made their appearance, when each
family, in a short time lay m their yearly supply. For many years, the
North River furnished fine >ecimens of salmon, when they regularly
ascended that river to spawn that of

ourse, was before the river was obstructed by dams.

The system of agriculture was, for many years, of a verv primitive

While the country was being cleared, all their dependence was on the
new /,/ crop.

5i -a time, when the land required breaking up, the hog plough was intro-

:ed I ; but that implement did little more than cut and cover, and it
was not until

jcotch plough was introduced, about the year 1825, that anything

ood farming was done. And from that time, the improvement was very
rapid, so

m a few years there were as good ploughmen in the County of Argenteuil
as in

any part of Canada.

Among the early settlers the state of religion was, for many years,
at a very low

>b. A Methodist minister, travelling from place to place, would hold
services occa-

i lly in private houses ^no other place of worship being then available),
and at

times camp meetings were held in the open air, at which all ministers

ionable distance were expected to attend. After a time, a large
building was

ted, which was intended to be used as a place of worship and also as
a school-

l he Methodist denomination had the honor of erecting in the township of

natham the first building dedicated solely to the worship of God ;
this was in 1830,

Wit obviated the necessity of holding camp meetings, the last of which,
I think, was

held m the year 1829.

An Episcopal minister, the Rev. Rich. Bradford (grandfather of the late
Sir B J. U Abbott), resided m Chatham on a farm now occupied by Donald M.
ewar, and supplied occasional services in St. Andrews; this was prior to
the arrival 818, of the Rev. Archibald Henderson. As you will, no doubt,
have the assist-


ance of abler pens than mine, I will not enlarge on this, or the two
following subjects, leaving to them the task of completing what I
have begun,

" There is very little that can be chronicled in reference to Sunday
Schools. A

few pious, earnest men had endeavored to establish one in the front
of Chatham,

but owing to the poveity of the settlers and otKer difficulties in the
way, it was kept open only a few months in summer, each year. It was
different in villages, where they had greater facilities, but, still,
there were many drawbacks.

"The temperance question, as we understand it, was scarcely known by name
until after the year 1820, when a society was formed allowing the use of
wine, beer and cider. After a time, more stringent rules were adopted,
but for many years there was a determined opposition ; those known to-
be favorable to the cause were subjected to all sorts of ridicule,
reproach and contempt ; but the cause gradually increased, many good,
earnest, zealous workers kept up the agitation, holding meet ings,
and disseminating temperance literature, until a very different feeling
was brought about, and many strong opponents silenced. We have not yet
got prohi bition, but we expect it; may the Lord hasten it, in His own
good time.

" I do not know whether it was owing to hostility of race, which always
had been prevalent among the French, and which was the principal element
of discord in the whole of Lower Canada, or from some other cause, but
in the early settlement of the County, there was something remarkable in
the fact that, up to the year 1829, there was not one French Canadian
farmer in the whole of the township of Chatham. In that year, PIERRE
ROBERT took up land in the second Concession, and about the same time,
or perhaps a few years prior, one by the name of MALLETTE settled on a
farm in the River Rouge settlement, and in my early days was noted as the
only farmer that held the original deed of concession. It was somewhat
different in what is now known as the County of Two Mountains, as many
old country farmers settled down among the French ; but it was not until
after the Rebellion of 1837 that the French settled among the English.

" The causes which led up to the troubles of 1837 are > of c o urse
, matters of his tory ; but whatever feeling the Liberal party had in
common with them, was essentially different, because of their loyalty
to the British Constitution.

" The Carillon canal was opened for traffic in 1834, when small vessels
could go through to Kingston ; prior to that date all goods and supplies
were brought from Lachine at first by bateaux and Durham boats, and
afterward by steamer landed at Carillon, and carted by teams of horses
and oxen to Grenville, and thence shipped to By town.

" I will close this rambling sketch by relating an incident which will
show the

past and present modes of transit, and also record an item of history.

" It was on his visit to the Maritime Provinces in the summer of 1840,
that the

Governor General of Canada, Charles Poulett Thompson, Esq., afterward
Lord Syden- ham, left Kingston via the Rideau Canal to Bytown, thence
by steamer to Grenville ; and as the roads over the intervening link
between Grenville and Carillon were too rough for a delicate man like
Lord Syddnham, he was taken in a carriage along the banks of the c..nal
to Greece s Point, where he embarked on the steamer St.  Andrews (\v,.. .1
was used as a tug for barges between that place and the upper

locks), commanded by Captain Lighthall, of Chute au Blondeau fame, and
was taken through Carillon Canal, at the rate of about three miles an
hour. Think of this, ye votaries of rapid transit, who cannot travel
without a parlor, Pullman and dining car attached, and bounding along
at the rate of fifty miles an hour,

while the Governor General of Canada was carried along on the deck of
a tug steamboat, at the rate of about three miles an hour. Truly the
lines have fallen to us in pleasant places. " Yours truly,



As the DEWARS were as early settlers in this part of Chatham as any of
whom we have heard, we insert with pleasure the following letter :

" OTTAWA, December 27th, 1893.

il As you request me to give a sketch of my ancestors, who were early
settlers in the front of Chatham, I will endeavor to do so, but will
first give the origin of the name Dewar, which simply means, in plain
English, custodian or keeper.

" The name is sometimes spelt Deor (which is presumably the Gaelic form)
as well as Deweer, and is invested with quite a romantic and historic
interest on account of its origin, which was, that one family of the Clan
Macnab was selected or appointed to be the custodians of the Quigrich
or pastoral staff of St. Fillan, the Abbott, who lived about the year
of Our Lord 720, and held his yearly festival on tiie 7th January.

" His principal Church or Priory in Scotland, and which was most closely
con nected with his memory, was in the upper part of Glendochart, in
Perthshire, and which takes from him the name otStrathfillan. There are
well authenticated records which establish the fact, that the Quigrich
has been in possession of the Dewar

family since the time of King Robert Bruce, and in 1487 the charter was
again con firmed by King James III to Malise Dewar and his successors. The
precious relic of a bye-gone age has thus come down through successive
generations, until about the year 1860, the Society of Antiquaries
of Scotland, having traced it to Canada, found it in posjession of
Alexander Dewar, of Plympton, Ont, who, being then in his 87th year,
was induced by them to execute a deed, transferring the custody of the
relic he had brought from his native land to that Society, thus disposing
of the trust so long and faithfully discharged by this Highland family,
and of which I am proud to bear the name.

" Hrving said this much in reference to the name, I will now give a short
sketch of the family. In the month of July, 1804, my grandfather, Peter
Dewar, his wife and family, consisting of six sons and three daughters,
also his brother Duncan, his wife and O ie child, together with some two
or three hundred other emigrants, embarked at Greenock on a vessel bound
for the port of Quebec. A few days after leaving port, the vessel was
captured by a French Privateer, who, after examining the ship s papers,
and finding there was no valuable cargo on board, and being satisfied that
it was only an emigrant vessel, allowed them to proceed on their voyage
; the captain first treating the Privateer s men to a liberal supply of
Highland whiskey. The passengers experienced the truth of the proverb that
blood is thicker than water, as the lieu tenant in charge of the boarding
party was a Highlander of the name of McDonald, who generously took pity
on his countrymen and let them go. A short time after the departure of
the French vessel, another was sighted bearing down upon them, and

when the captain saw the Union Jack flying at the peak, he cursed his
unlucky stars, as a British man-of-war was more to be dreaded than a
French, on account of that abominable system, the Press Gang, which
was then in full swing. However, as soon as they came within speaking
distance, they demanded of the captain whether he had seen a strange
vessel, and in what latitude. Having received the desired in formation,
they crowded all sail and were soon out of sight. On the arrival of the
emigrants at Quebec, in the early part of the month of September, they
learned that the Privateer had been captured, and great sorrow was felt
for the fate of Lieutenant McDonald. On leaving the vessel at Quebec,
the passengers separated, going to different parts of the country. The
two families of Dewar, with six or seven other families of the name of
Cameron, were in due time landed at St. Andrews, whence the Camerons
went to the township of Chatham and settled on farms there.


" My grandfather lived for a time on the farm that is now called Bellevue,
afterwards removing to the front of Chatham, on a property purchased
from Colonel Daniel Robertson, and which is still in possession of his
grandchildren, while he and all his family have long since passed over
to the silent majority.

" The history of the Dewar family might very properly close here, were it
not that you particularly desire a further sketch of my father s family.

" On the first day of March, 1807, he was married to Margaret McCallum,
of Caldwell s Manor, and settled on what is known as Lot_Nq. 4, front
of Chatham, - which is now in possession of Mr. Fitzgerald. His family
of five daughters and four sons, and of which I am the youngest, were
born there. My mother died on the nth October, 1826, aged 45 years. My
father died on the 4th September, 1869, in the

94th year of his age. I am the only surviving member of his family
the last leaf on the family tree, all the others having long since
passed away.

" Of my grandfather s six sons, John, the eldest, was the educated man of
the family. He graduated from Edinburgh University, and was for some time
tutor in a gentleman s family in Scotland. A short time after he came
to Canada, he received from the Government the appointment of teacher
in the public school at Chatham,

and held that position for over twenty years, being the only teacher
receiving full salary ever appointed by the Government. He was a man
of superior abilities, well read in all the literature of the day, of
a reflective and cultured mind ; but, owing to a retiring disposition,
would take no part in the struggles of public affairs. In person he was
of slight build and delicate constitution, in singular contrast to the
rest of his brothers, who were all strong and rugged. He married Myra
Noyes, and settled on

lots Nos. i, 2 and 3, his house standing a little in rear of
Mr. Fitzgerald s house. He had a family of two sons and one daughter, and
after the death of his wife in August, 1827, he and his family resided
with his brothers until his death, July i6th, 1839.  As he did not have
to depend upon the proceeds of his farm for a living, nearly

the whole of his large farm was let out in pasture. His eldest son, John,
left home when quite a young man, taking up his residence in New York,
where he married, and died in 1855. His son Peter married Ann Gordon in
1849, an ^ died in 1851; His daughter Eliza Jane married Wm. Douglas in
1846, and after a few years residence in Chatham removed to the State
of New York.

" Of the rest of my grandfather s sons, Donald and Peter never married,
living together on the old homestead with their sister Margaret as
housekeeper, until her death in 1857. Donald died in June, tS54, and
Peter in 1872.

" Alexander, married Agnes Dodd, and settled on a farm, and did a
flourishing busi ness with an oatmeal and grist mill for many years,
until it was rendered useless by the improvements made to the Grenville
Canal. He had a large family of sons and

daughters, who are, for the most part, living in the immediate vicinity
of their old home. He died in May, 1876, being over 90 years of age at
the time of his death.

"Colin, the youngest son, married Jane Mclntyre in April, 1840, and
settled on the farm, where his son Donald still resides. He died in
September, 1866, in the 66th year of his age.

"As already narrated, Duncan, my father, married Margaret McCallum, a
descendant of one of those families who left their homes in the valley
of the Mohawk, at the breaking out of the troubles which led to the
separation from Great Britain.  After their marriage, they settled on Lot
No. 4 (next to my Uncle John), which was then, like most of the other
farms at that time, an almost unbroken wilderness.  True, the potash
makers had been over a good part of the front of Chatham at that time,
but they had only cut down what suited their purpose for making ashes,
leaving the rest as it was.


" Whether it was law, or custom only, that gave to the Indians the
right to all the Islands in the river, it was from an Indian Chief at
the Lake of Two Mountains that my father obtained, for a yearly rental,
the privilege of occupying and cultivating the large island in front of
his property, and which was afterward called after his name.  The produce
from that island was sufficient for the support of his family, year after
year, as he raised good crops of fall wheat, potatoes, corn, hay, etc.,
besides apples, plums and other small fruit in abundance, which seemed
to be indigenous to the place.  Having this island to depend on for the
support of his family, gave him quite an ad vantage over some of his
neighbors, and, also, an opportunity to get his farm cleared up. He was
what would be called in those days a stock fancier ; he was not satisfied
without having the best breed of cattle and horses that could be obtained,
and no expense or trouble was spared in order to get them. He brought
home, at one time, a small herd of cattle and horses which he bought in
the State of Vermont and Eastern Townships, and their descendants graced
both his own and his brother s barn yards for many years.

" When my parents began life together, there was only a small log
house and barn on the farm, and not sufficient accommodation for the
stock. Shortly after, a stable of sided cedar was built, and which, a
few years ago, seemed to be as sound as ever ; this is merely mentioned
to show the durability of cedar. In that old log house, nearly all their
family were born, as it was not until the year 1819 that he had finished
a snug, comfortable, two-storey stone house, where my youngest sister
Kate and myself first saw the light of day, and where my dear mother
breathed her last nth October, 1826.

The face of the country is very much changed since then. At that time, the
main road ran along the bank of the river from Carillon to our place. The
view from our house was splendid ; away to the west, the river and farm
houses were in full view ; down the river could be seen the rapids and
part of the village of Point Fortune ; nearly in front of the house was
a most magnificent elm tree, whose wide- spreading branches made a very
inviting shade on a hot day.

" My mother was a woman of a strong and indomitable will, with much
native energy and ambition, blended with great mildness and gentleness
of character ; cool and collected in the time of danger, as the following
little incident will show :

While engaged in her domestic duties, it was customary for the eldest
child to take charge of the younger ones ; and one day, as usual, she
had taken them out, and was amusing them for a time under the shade of
the elm tree, whence she got them into the canoe, that was always moored
at the landing place. In their fun and play, the boat was soon loosed
from shore, and floating out into dangerous water. My sister, seeing her
danger, made a great outcry,, which not only brought my mother to the
scene, but was also creating a panic among the younger ones. My mother
seeing the peril, at once, spoke to them in a soothing, gentle way, and,
by her cool and collected manner, quieted the little ones ; while she,
with the aid of a pole, and by wading into the deep water, managed to
bring them safely to shore. It was in the same place where my youngest
brother, Daniel, was drowned a few years afterward.  My three brothers
were in bathing, and he, not knowing the danger, climbed on a

sunken rock, and slipped off into deep water, and was never after seen
alive.  The body was recovered in a few days in an eddy, near Carillon.

When the Government expropriated the land required for the canal and
high way, and which included his dwelling house, my father sold the
remainder of his

farm to \Vm. Cook, a contractor on the canal, and removed in the spring
of 1830

to a rented farm, a short distance away, where he resided until 25th
June, 1835.  He then removed to the property he had purchased on the
Lachute Road, which


was then almost in a state of nature, so that, for the second time, he
began clearing up a new farm ; and although he was pretty well advanced
in life, he lived to see it brought to a high state of cultivation, with
large and commodious farm buildings, comfortable dwelling, etc. When
the farm was sold in 1862, he retired from active life, and spent the
remainder of his days on the old homestead in Chatham, where he died
4th September, 1869, in the 94th year of his age.  Of his family of five
daughters, the eldest, Christian, born 6th October, 1809, married James
Frasei, 26th October, 18-54; died roth July, 1858. Mary, born i4th April,

1811, married James Thomson, 3oth December, 1834, and died 28th
September, 1872.  Helena, born i4th November, 1813, married Robert
Thomson (no relation of Mary s husband), 2nd January, 1838, and died
26th November, 1887, leaving a family of two sons and two daughters,
who reside in Ottawa and vicinity.  Margaret, born 2nd January, 1815,
died February, 1883; Catharine, born 3rd January, 1821,

died igth May, 1883.

" Of his four sons, John, born 26th April, 18 1 7, was accidentally
killed in my father s barn, by falling from the top of the hay mow,
and was impaled on a sharp stake ; he lived about twenty-four hours,
and died i4th August, 1841. He was a young man of great promise, of
agreeable and gentle disposition, quiet and unassuming manner; he had a
splendid voice and was fond of music; heavy, muscular build and splendid
physique, standing over six feet in height, and weighing 220 Ibs. His
sudden, untimely and dreadful death was a terrible shock to his father
and all his family ; and I cannot recall the sad circumstances, even now,
without a shudder. Peace to his ashes.  Honour to his memory. Peter,
his twin brother, lived on the farm with his father until his death,
22nd November, 1847. Daniel, born 28th March, 1819, was drowned in July,
1827, as previously narrated.

" 1 was the youngest of the family, and was born i2th September, 1823,
at the old homestead in Chatham, where my uncle John laid the foundation
of what little education I possess, as I never had the advantage of a
classical or college education, but had to put up with what was taught
in the common schools (and some of them were com

mon enough), our text-books being the Bible and Mavor s
spelling-book. Those who were fond of poetry had the Scottish version
of the Psalms to revel in, and when the English Reader was added 10 the
list of school books, it was thought we were very extravagant. At that
time, the greatest part of the ink used in country schools was made by
boiling the bark of the soft maple ; we used goose or turkey quills to
write with. As my father had not the means to pay help in clearing up and
doing the work on the farm, each one of his sons had to turn in and help,
and, in consequence, I was taken from school before I was thirteen years
of age, and never returned.

" As I did not relish a farmer s life, I left home, and served in
a store three years ; but on the death of my brother John, in 1841,
thinking it was my duty to help my father, I went back to the farm, and
after a few years took entire charge of it, and relieved him from all
responsibility. He deeded one-half of the property for my own personal
benefit; on the land thus obtained I built a house, and on the i3th
Sept ember, 1854, was married to Elizabeth, the youngest daughter of
Charles Benedict of St. Andrews, who was born nth August, 1823. We went
home, and lived thereuntil the spring of 1863, when, having sold the
farm in the fall of 1862 to Charles Albright, we remained two years in
St. Andrews, and then removed, in 1865, to St. Eugene, in the township
of Hawkesbury. My wife died there nth October, 1866, leaving to my

care four sons, our third son, James, having died previous to his mother,
of scarlet fever, 24th January, 1865. During my residence at St. Eugene,
I received the appoint ment of Commissioner for taking affidavits in the
Queen s Bench, and was also appointed local superintendent of schools,
which office I held for two years until I left the place in 1868.


" In the spring of 1869,, I came to Ottawa, and having obtained a
situation in the office of Captain Young, lumber manufacturer, sent for
my family in November of the same year, was married to Esther, the second
daughter of Charles Benedict of St.  Andrews, who was born ist January,
1819, and died 22nd April, 1892.

" I remained in the employ of Captain Young for seventeen years,
the greater part of the time as cashier and confidential clerk, nnd
remained with his successors for over two years after he sold out ;
and am row and have been for five years in the Water Works department
in the City Hall. I never aspired to municipal honors, but represented
Victoria ward, as public school trustee, for a period of nine years.
In politics. I am a Liberal, but not slavishly bound to either party ;
would support an honest government, r.o matter by what name it was called,
if the men at the head of it were men of honor, who could not be bought
with the spoils, nor contaminated

with the lust of office, who have in them that righteousness which
alone exalteth a nation. In religion, I can worship with any who love
the Lord Jesus Christ in sincerity, but nm identified more closely with
the Presbyterian denomination, and have endea vored, although with much
feebleness and faltering, to do my duty in that state of life in which
it has pleased God to call me. My family of four sons are all married,
and living in Ottawa. John, the eldest, born ist November, 1855, served
his time as a machinist, afterward taking a course of mechanical drawing
in Richmond College, and received an appointment from the Government as
machinist and draughtsman in the Intercolonial shops at River-du-Loup. He
left that place for a situation as locomotive foreman at Ottawa, which he
resigned to open an office as Insurance Agent and Real Estate Broker. He
married, June, 1880, Catharine Isabella, daughter ot Aid. Masson of

" George, born 28th July, 1857, is now Agent for the Export Lumber
Co. of New York and Boston. He was married loth December, 1891, to Mary,
youngest daughter of Mr. Wm. Robertson, of Ottawa.

Charles, born i3th February, 1862, for the past eight years has been local
man ager of the Bell Telephone Co. at Ottawa, and is one of the Directors
of the Ottawa Electric Railway. He married Annie, youngest daughter of
Mr. Arch. Acheson of Westmeath, g\h June, 1886; they have three children.

"Colin, the youngest, born 2yth October, 1863. is a graduate of McGill
Medical College, and has been a practising physician and surgeon in
the city for the last six years. He married, ist January, 1890, Laura,
daughter of Rufus Filer of Montreal, and they have two children.

"Yours truly,


We think the mill referred to in the above letter of Mr. Dewar de
erves further

notice, inasmuch as it performed a most important function in its day,
and proved a great blessing to the inhabitants. Only a vestige of it
remains, and the date of its erection could not be learned, till it
was discovered in the diary of the late Captain Pridham of Grenville,
who refers to it in speaking of the masons who were employed in the
construction of his own house; it is thus learned that the mill was built
i> 1835. Its location was near the Ottawa, not far above Stonefield,
on a small strean vhich was then much larger thin at present. It was famed
for the excellence of the oatmeal it manufactured, and was patronized
by farmers even from Glengarry. A a

aged citizen in the vicinity remembers that many teams were often waiting
at the mill, in the days of its usefulness.

Colin Dewar, the youngest of the sons of Peter Dewar, and who is briefly
men tioned in the above sketch of the Dewar family, was three years old
when his parents came to Canada. His father had lived on the Duke of
Argyle s estate in Scotland,


and the aged Duchess sometimes called at the house. She took great
interest in the wee bairn Colin from his birth, and expressed a hope
that his hair would be red. She presented him with a suit of kilts when
the family was about leaving, and he was in the full enjoyment of this
Highland costume when the vessel was stopped by the Privateer.

The kilts were long preserved by the family, and we believe that portions
are still in existence. Mr. Dewar (the happy recipient of this suit) was
lieutenant in the company of Captain Ostrom, in the Rebellion of 1837,
an ^ was an active, esteemed member of this community, serving it for
some time as School Commissioner.  Mrs. Dewar died in 1895; they had four
sons Peter, James, Duncan and Donald, and four daughters Annie, Christina,
Mary and Margaret : Peter lives in this sec tion, James in Minnesota, and
Duncan is deceased. Annie, the widow of Wm.  Scott, lives in California;
Christina, widow of Geo. Noyes, in this locality ; Mary died in infancy ;
Margaret, married to James Hawring, Hves in British Columbia.

Donald Dewar resides on the homestead a fine farm with an attractive brick
residence which commands a beautiful view of the Ottawa. Mr. Dewar was
appointed commissioner for the trial of small causes in 1892, and soon
afterward was appointed Justice of the Peace; he married Eliza J. Mullen,
of St. Andrews parish.

Mr. Dewar in a later letter says :

" I believe I did not mention the fact of a saw mill having been built on
lot No.  3, a short distance up the river from Mr. Chisholm s distillery,
and a little below my father s house ; it was the first mill erected in
that part of Lower Canada.  There is no documentary evidence to show when
or by whom it was built, or the length of time it was in existence, how
or by what means it was destroyed, which was, most likely, by the ice in
the spring. It must have been destroyed in the closing years of the last
century, as there was not a vestige of the mill to be seen (except a part
of the mill dam) when my father settled on his farm in 1807. Mr. Duncan
Dewar remembers seeing the remains of the dam when he was a boy, and is of
the opinion that it was built by Ebenezer Clarke, a well-known millwright
in those days, whose family resided in the township of Chatham. I also
frequently saw the remains of the dam in my younger days."

Great changes have occurred in the appearance of this locality since
the days when Mr. Dewar lived here; the large elm to which he refers
has disappeared, as

well as many other of the old landmarks.

On the farm of Mr. James Edward Fitzgerald, at a little distance from
the high way, on the left, are the ruins of a house, which, judging
from its interior finish and the grounds around it, was the home of some
person of taste and means. At the time of its erection the road passed
between it and the river, so that the neat fence and shrubbery, of which
vestiges may still be seen, that were then in front of the dwelling,
are now in the rear of its ruins. This house was erected about 1830.
by William Cook, a Scotchman, who had been a contractor in his native
land. On coming to Chatham he took a large contract in the construction
of the Canal, made money, with which he purchased 500 acres of land,
that was formerly owned by John Dewar, in this section, and erected the
dwelling referred to above. He afterward lost heavily on a contract he
had taken for the construction of the locks at Chute au Blondeau.

THOMAS FITZGERALD, one of the pioneers of Beech Ridge, in the Parish
of St.  Andrews, received a classical education, preparatory to entrance
to the priesthood; but, for some reason, he gave up the design of
following this vocation. He was a nephew of Lord Edward Fitzgerald,
who was executed for complicity in the Irish Rebellion of 1798, and was
himself an exile for nine years in France, for his connection with the
same Rebellion. But, being pardoned by the British Government, he



returned to his native land, and, in 1836, came to Canada and settled
at Beech Ridge. His son, JOHN FITZGERALD, came to Chatham, and, in 1868,
bought three lots of land, on which his sons now live. He was married in
1848 to Elizabeth Delaney, and had three sons and two daughters. James,
married to Joanna O Con nor, June loth, 1879 , : John, who was married
to Martha Dixon, of Little Rideau, in September, 1881 ; and Edward,
married in 1880, to Mary Ellen Barren, of East Hawkesbury, all live
in Chatham. Margaret, the widow of John Lennon, also resides in this
place; Elizabeth, the other daughter, is the wife of Richard Funcheon,
of St. Columba. Their father, Mr. John Fitzgerald, after buying his farm,
about 1872 went, with one of his sons, to California, where he earned
money to pay for his land, returning in 1874. He was an intelligent man,
a great reader, and possessed a very retentive memory ; he was also a
man of much energy and industry. The land he purchased at this place
he divided among his sons, giving to each a good farm.  He died very
suddenly, 6th May, 1894 ; Mrs. Fitzgera d died 2gth January, 1896.

JAMES MILLER came, in 1831, with his family, from the County of Monaghan,
Ireland, to Carleton County, Ont. Four years later, his son, James Miller,
jun., moved to Pembroke, where he remained till 1870, successfully engaged
in lumbering and farming. He then came to Gushing, Que., and bought the
Mair property, which

he sold in 1888, and, in the spring of the next year, moved to another
part of Chatham, where he bought 90 acres, known as the " Feeder Farm,"
on which he still lives.

Mr. Miller has always taken an interest in schools, and was a member of a
School Board fifteen years. He was married in 1858 to Susannah O Brien,
who has since died. They had ten children, of whom only one James Henry
grew up. The latter was married, 28th February, 1894, to Miss Christina
McMartin, of River Rouge, and is now employed in Montreal, in the office
of the Traveler s Insurance Company.

PHILABERT F. FILION, a very successful business man of this section,
is a son of Martin Filion, and was born near Rigaud, Que., and came to
Chatham in 1865.  Previous to this, he attended college in St. Andrews,
and worked some time for McLaughlin & Son, lumbermen, on the Ottawa,
being wiih them, altogether, as clerk and foreman, twenty-one years ;
he was also foreman on the Carillon Dam, the Lachine Piers, and in the
stone quarry three years at Port Arthur. He has been twice married:
the first time in 1866 to Mary Robert, who died about a year after her

marriage. His second marriage was in 1871 to Miss Dinah Sauvie,
of Montebello.

Mr. Filion, for a number of years, has been engaged in the lumber
business with his brother Joseph, his fine farm, meanwhile, being to a
great extent managed by Mrs. Filion.

ANTOINE ROBERT, who has lived here for nearly thirty years, has the
honor of being the son of a centenarian. His grandfather, Joseph
Robert, came from France, and was one of the very early settlers at
St. Andrews. Joseph, the eldest of his children, who had lived for
nearly fifty years on the River Rouge, St. Andrews, died there in 1885,
upward of 100 years old. He was twice married, and had one son and seven
daughters. Antoine is the only son by the last marriage.

EDWARD BARRON is one of the respected farmers of this section ; he is
a grand son of the Mrs. Barren mentioned in the history of Chute au
Blondeau, who performed the feat of riding on horseback, through the
wilderness, to Toronto, to obtain the patent for their farm. It is but
just to say, that the industry and perseverance of Mr.  Barren emulate
those of his maternal relative. His father, Joseph Barren, lived on the
old homestead at Chute au Blondeau, and died there a few years since. He
had six sons and three daughters ; three, only, of the sons James, John
and Edward live in this section. James conducts an hotel in Grenville ;
John is a farmer in the


same township. Edward Bnrron, in 1882, married the widow of John Thompson,
daughter of the late John Mason, lockmaster, and settled in Chatham. Mrs.
Barren, by her first marriage, had five children, of whom two sons and
one daughter are now living. By the second marriage, Mr. and Mrs. Barren
have one son and one daughter.  Mr. Barren s present farm was foimerly
owned by Dr. Jameson, one of the successful and prominent physicians of
Waterloo, Shefford County, Que.

CAPT. JOHN STEPHENS, whose early career was singularly eventful, and who,
as his various promotions proved, did honorable service in fighting for
his country, was bom in Wexford County, Ireland, in 1789. He joined the
army at the age of 17, entering the 87111 Regt. Foot, in 1806; he was
transferred, in 1808, to 4th

G. B., and, in 1810, to the 66th Foot, commanded by his second cousin,
General Sir Oliver Nicolls. He was promoted to the rank of Senior
Quarter Master, while under service at Calcutta, 14111 September,
1815. His length of service in the regular army was twenty-six years,
four of which were spent in India. From India, he went to the Island
of St. Helena, where he acted as one of the Guards of Napoleon I. His
family had in their possession for years a ring presented to him by the
ill-starred Emperor. He left St. Helena in 1821, retired from the 66th
Regiment, came to Canada in 1827, and in 1830 settled in Chatham. At
his own request, he was retired on half-pay o.th December, 1831., In
1833, he received a grant of land in Litchfield, County of Pontiac, for
military service, but did not remove his residence from Chatham. In 1837,
at tne request of Sir John Colborne, he raised a company

of volunteers, and served as Regiment Adjutant in 1838. It was at
this time he won his title of Captain. He became connected with the
Presbyterian Church, under the Rev. William Mair, in 1839, and was
appointed Deacon of the same in the following year ; he was approved by
the session of the Church as Eider, but seems to have

declined appointment to that office. His death took place gth October,

The REV. RICHARD BRADFORD was one of the most prominent of the early
settlers in Chatham, chiefly because he was the first to plant the Church
of England in the valley of the Ottawa, and was the first clergyman
resident in the County. These two facts alone entitle him to a long
biographical sketch ; but, notwithstanding the efforts that were made
to obtain more facts with regard to him, we simply learned that he came
from England to New York about 1782, and was there engaged in a business
partnership with a Mr- Smith. A few years later he came to Canada,
and was Chaplain in the 49th Regiment. We do not know just when he came
to Chatham, but that he was here in 1811-12 is evident from the Church
Records at St. Andrews. He pur chased from Col. Robertson his estates
on the Ottawa and North River, the first

comprising 5,000, the latter 1,000 acres. He left two sons in the States
; the remain der of his children, four sons, Richard, George, Charles,
and William, and two daughters, afterwards Mrs. Abbott and Mrs. Fisk,
came with him to Canada.

George, his eldest son, married Martha Smith, daughter of a neighbor,
Captain Johnson Smith, and he first settled on the homestead near
his father ; but, not long afterward, he removed to Upper Canada,
and there bought a farm. Three years later, in 1820, his father died,
and he returned to Chatham to obtain his share of the

patrimony. His brothers, at that time, had all left this section, and his
brother-in- law, Rev. Joseph Abbott, who was executor of the estate of
the deceased, prevailed on George to take the 1,000 acres of land on the
North River, instead of money, for his share of the paternal estate. In
consequence of so doing, he had to give up his farm in Upper Canada,
on which he had paid ^75, and he then returned and settled on his new
one, his house being located not far from the site of Earle s Mills, in
Lachute. Here he lived, till near the close of his life. His children,
who arrived at


mature age, were George M., Henry, now living in Brandon, Man.; Charles
who was accidentally killed on the railway a few years since ; and John,
now livin- in Lachute, where he has a lime kiln. The daughters were Eliza
and Martha Jane ; the former was married to Henry Hammond, the latter to
the late Andrew McCorinell.  In 1838, George married Matilda Stephens,
a daughter of Capt. John Stephens, and Henry Bradford married Mary Ann,
her sister. These two brothers were members of Captain Stephens Volunteer
Company, and went with it to Grande Brule.  George, the elder brother,
purchased a lot on the Ottawa, formerly belonging to

his grandfather s estate, and built a house contiguous to that of his
father- in-law.  About 1846, he opened a store here in a part of the
house where his grandsire lived and, in company with his brother Henry,
did a large business. George, who is still alive, though upward of eighty,
engaged in lumbering and piloting at an early age, and followed this many
years. He employed many men, and, at times, had as many as seventy-five in
his employ. After opening the store, he still followed his old vocation
while his brother Henry managed the store. A few years afterward, George
built a saw mill, a few miles away from his home, on a stream called
Muddy Branch. The brothers then dissolved partnership Henry and his nephew
John (a son of Geore Bradford) taking the saw mill, and George prepared
to build a large steam mill near h;s own dwelling. This he erected on
a small bay on the Ottawa in 1871-72, and for a few years did a large
business manufacturing laih, shingle, and all kinds of lumber, which he
sold to dealers and others. These mills were destroyed by fire in 1877,
when they were owned by the Owens Brothers, of Stonefield. At one time,
Mr. Bradford owned eighty-six square miles of timber in Ottawa County,
which after reserving a strip nine rods wide, he sold for $13,000.

Mr. Bradford has been an ardent disciple of Nimrod,and during his
lifetime has killed over five hundred deer, about a dozen bears and
three or four lynxes.  Sports men from the cities have often employed
him as a guide and companion in their hunting tours, and many times he
has spent weeks alone in the forest.

He lias five sons now living John, George, William R., Edmund* and
Frederick Norman. Thiee of these live in Hawksbury, one in Lcichute and
one on the home stead. Of the three daughters, Edith married to James
McAllister, Postmaster at

ThuteauBlondeau ; Gertrude to Jas. Cook, farmer,"of A rundel ; and Martha
to Joseph Thompson, a farmer of Portland, Que. The Noyeses have always
been active citizens of Chatham.

THOMAS NOYES was a U. E. Loyalist, and before coming to Chatham lived
in New Hampshire. On removing to this place, accompanied by his wife,
three sons and three daughters, he bought two lots of land. John,
his eldest son, took part of the homestead, on which he lived till his
death. Clark and William, his brothers built the large brick house now
owned by Edward Barron. This they sold to Mont-

marquet, and he sold to Dr. Jameson. Both these brothers also died
in Chatham.

John, the eldest son, mentioned above, was married to Lydia Dexter,
of Vermont and had six sons and two daughters.

Of the sons, Thomas, the eldest, married Mary Ann Ostrom, and lives in
a pleasant brick residence on a fine farm, about half a mile from the
homestead. They have

five sons and three daughters. John, their eldest son, who has spent
much of his life on the Ottawa, and is regarded as a skillful engineer,
is engineer on the steamer " Hall " which plies between Montreal and
Ottawa, and is much esteemed by the Company by

which he is employed. His wife was Miss Fanny Roe, of Montreal. Benjamin,
his youngest brother, and Ida, his youngest sister, remain with their
parents on the home stead.

* Killed in a mill in 1895.



John, the second son, and Charles, fourth son of John Noyes, sen.,
live in Butte City Montana, the former being one of the pioneers of
that place. William, their brother, lives in Muskegon, Mich. Benjamin,
their youngest brother, when last heard

from was in Africa.

George, sixth son of the same family, was married in 1868 to C linstina,
daughter of the late Colin Dewar, of Chatham, and moved to Minnesota,
where he died in 1870 His widow, with her two children, returned,
and bought a part of her family (Dewar) homestead, on which she still
resides with her son John and daughter

Of the two daughters of John Noyes, sen., Frances, the eldest, unmarried,

with her brother Thomas. Lydia, the second daughter, married Mr. Williams,
of Burlington, Vt., and died at that place. When but a young child,
Frances was one day playing on the bank of the river, not far from the
house, and a band of Indians ascending the Ottawa enticed her into a
canoe and carried her away. By good fortune the Indians at Grenville met
Mr. Noyes and Mr. McPhie, his partner in the lumber business, coming
down the river. The child, recognizing her father, gave a joyful cry,
and was thus rescued from captivity.

About a mile on the road leading from Mr. George Bradford s, on the
)ttawa, to St. Philippe, the traveller comes to a good farmhouse and
commodious barns.  Descending a small hill, he crosses a bridge over
a creek and, at his right, lies a small picturesque pond, in a tract
of level ground, encircled by gentle hills, and at a point where these
hills so nearly meet as to leave only a narrow outlet for the stream
is a mill for sawing wood. Farther off, at some little distance beyond
the hills the upper part of a wind mill frame looms in sight. The whole
surroundings, the creek, the pond, the well-tilled fields, good fences
and sleek herds, afford a picture and suggest a phase of happy farm life
on which the traveller delights to linger.

This was the home of EPHRAIM FULLER, a pensioner of the United States
Govern ment for service in the Revolution, and here he subsequently
settled, the earliest pioneer it is believed, in this immediate
section. On the spot where now his grand son has his mill for sawing
wood, he also had a saw mill for transforming the pines, spruce hemlock,
etc., into lumber a single instance of the enterprise of which he was
possessed. He had thirteen children eight sons and five daughters;
three of

the former, Rinaldo, Ivory and Calvin, were the only ones who remained
in th section. Rinaldo lived on the homestead, and had two sons and one
daughter, latter, Marion, married to Daniel, a son of their neighbor,
John Cass.

Albert, the son, who married Minnie Douglass, lives on the homestead,
and is engaged in farming on improved plans. He has a silo, cuts his
ensilage anc all his feed by water power, and the same motor is employed
to thresh his grai:

He keeps a large stock of cattle, and under his able management his farm
will soon be in condition to sustain more. Mr. Fuller is a young man
of great energy,, and his enterprise is a worthy example to the other
farmers of Chatham.

At a little distance farther west where we saw the wind mill, which
is used hydraulic purposes on a fine farm, resides the widow of Ivory
Fuller and her son Frank. Her maiden name was Marietta Schagel. She is a
daughter of Captain Schagel, and her married life has been spent on this
farm. Mr. Fuller died in bep- tember, 1887. They had eleven children,
two sons and nine daughters.

Albert, the eldest son, is in Carievale, Assiniboia. Frank, the younger,
and the only one of the children unmarried, remains on the homestead.

Calvin the third son of Ephraim Fuller, who remained in the vicinity of
his early home, married, and raised a large family, but was accidentally
killed engaged in lumbering. His family afterward sold their homestead
and went t the West.



Passing onward toward St. Philippe, through a low lying belt of thick,
second growth forest, we arrive at another fine level farm, attractive
from its intensely rural aspect and quiet seclusion. This is the home
of Mr. John Cass.

JOSIAH CASS, his grandfather, was one of the U. E, Loyalists who left
the Genesee Valley at the breaking out of the Revolution, and he first
made his home at the Baie des Chaleurs. There his wife died, leaving
four sons and two daughters. He again mar ried, and some years later,
yet previous to 1800, came to Hawksbury, Ont., and took up 400 acres of
land at the head of the Rapids. By his second marriage, he had one son
and three daughters, to whom he bequeathed the bulk of his property,
at which his children by the first marriage, being displeased, left
home. Two settled in Treadwell s Seigniory, and Daniel, the youngest,
came to the second concession in Chatham, and took up 160 acres of
land, now owned and occupied by his son, John. Another man had made a
small beginning here, but the great amount of pioneer work remained for
Mr. Cass. For twenty years he prosecuted his labors without the help
and companionship of a wife, but about 1821 he married a widow named
Eleanor Brundage, who had five children. In 1837-38 he and his stepson,
Levi Brundage, served as volunteers in the Company of Capt. Schagel.

This locality seems to have been a favorite resort for wolves in early
days, as, besides the loss of sheep by Leavitt, mentioned elsewhere,
they continued to make raids on the flocks of Messrs. Cass, Fuller
and others, the former having lost ten, and the latter twenty, sheep,
at different times, in one night.

Mr. Cass had, of his own children, three sons and one daughter. Jacob,
the youngest of the former, now lives in Illinois. John, another of
the sons, who re mained on the homestead, married in August, 1845,
to Elizabeth Ramsey, and has had nine children, of whom three sons and
four daughters are still living. The two youngest, Johiel and Amelia,
still live with their parents on the homestead.

Several years ago Mr. Cass sustained a heavy loss by fire, his buildings,
hay, grain, farming implements, wagons, five hors.es and five cattle
all being burned, without insurance. He has the respect of his
fellow-citizens, and has been a School Com

missioner a number of years, and Assessor fifteen.

It should be stated that the road on which the above mentioned families
have settled, and which is known as the " Fuller Road," was settled at
a very early period ; the proces-vcrbal, which is dated 1821, being the
oldest known in this part of the township.


No one, who travels the road from Carillon to Grenville will fail to
admire the

section of country through which he passes. The stately trees by the
way-side, good buildings, well -tilled farms, the neat stone church with
its pretty manse, are objects that will attract one s attention. But
he will soon arrive at a spot which, not only from the beauty of the
scenery, but from the elegance of the buildings, though few in number,
will enhance his interest and arouse his curiosity. An air of profound
quiet pervades the place, but it is evident, that it was once a locality
of business and activity. This is Gushing, a name which belonged to its
founder, who, for half a century, was a leading spirit in the County
of Argenteuil. We cannot give a more complete biographical sketch of
Mr. Gushing, than will be found in the following obituary, copied from
the Montreal Herald of May 2ot u, 1875 :

" MR. LEMUEL GUSHING, whose death we announced yesterday, was one of the
early settlers of the Ottawa Valley. He was born at Three Rivers in 1806,
educated at Peacham, Vermont, and commenced business for himself in the
then lumbering district of Chatham, County of Argenteuil, at the early
age of seventeen. Like all




the pioneers and settlers of a new country, he had to struggle hard,
and to overcome difficulties which appeared almost insurmountable ; but,
by active and persevering industry and energy, he soon earned for himself
a place and position among the people of that section of the county, and,
for many years, he filled successively the offices of Councillor and Mayor
of the Township, and Warden of the County. For more than fifty years,
he acted as Justice of the Peace; his jurisdiction at one time extending
to, and including the city of Montreal. He took an active part, on the
breaking out of the troubles of 1837, in collecting and furnishing arms
for the use of the Militia. Enrolling himself as a volunteer, he marched
with his fellow settlers to St. Eustache, where he was instrumental in
checking pillage and devastation, and, with shrewd foresight, preserved
the records and documents which would otherwise have been destroyed in
the sacking of the Registrar s Office at St. Benoit. As a business man,
he was eminently successful. Three times he became owner of the celebrated
Caledonia Springs, and, about fifteen years ago, purchased the property
now known as Gushing Island, in Portland Harbor, Me., which soon became
a fashionable summer resort, and which remained in his possession up to
the time of his death. He was married in the Spring of 1836 to Catherine,
daughter of the late John S. Hutchins, of Lachute, by whom he had thirteen
children, and he lived to see "all his sons- eight in number established
in business. For several years past, he has himself taken no active part
in business. Respected and esteemed by all who

knew him, his death has snapped another link of the chain which unites
us with the early history of the country.

The following extract from his funeral sermon is copied from the ArgenteuU

Advertiser, of Qth June, 1875 :

The solemn funeral service was conducted in St. Mungo s Church, Chatham,
by the Rev. Donald Ross, B.D., who, after discoursing on the Resurrection,
paid the following well-merited tribute to his deceased parishioner and
friend :-

" In the providence of God, we have come together to-day to pay the
last token

of respect to one whose name has been more closely identified with this
district, for

upwards of half a century, than that of any other one man, who formed
a link between

the present generation and the early settlement of the Ottawa Valley. 1
hough he had

not quite attained to the allotted threescore and ten years, he really
lived longer

than many who fill up the term of fourscore years, for his was a life
of mtenses

activity. He lived in deeds, not years in thoughts, not breaths in
feelings, not

in figures on a dial. If we count time by heart throbs, he longest lives
who thinks

most, feels the noblest, acts the best. A man of strong individuality
of chaiacter, he

made his influence felt throughout the community, whose development
and progres:

he strove to advance His unwearied industry, his indomitable perseverance,

shrewd speculative turn, crowned him with great success in the sphere
of effort which

he had chosen for himself. He was fearless in the expression of his
opinion, when

occasion demanded its expression ; inflexibly just, scorning anything
mean, always

setting before himself a high ideal of manhood ; recognizing and
appreciating honor,

and justness, and uprightness in anyone who exhibited these virtues. As
a citizen,

he occupied positions of public trust; and how conscientiously he
discharged the

duties which these entailed on him you all know. To him this church
and pansr

are deeply indebted. From facts which have come to my own knowledge,
and on the

authority of those who are competent to speak upon the matter, it is
due to him U

say, that this church would, in all probability, not have an existence
but for his active

efforts, his wise counsel, and his generous aid.

" Throughout its history of forty years, in critical and trying days,
he has always been its staunch supporter, always willing to assist in
promoting its advancemen


and prosperity, and, so long as these walls stand, they will bear witness
to the interest which he took in the welfare of the congregation. In him,
both my predecessors and myself had a warm friend, who, ia reason of his
large and varied experience \v is capable of advising us in matters of
difficulty. Into his private and domestic relations I would not presume
to intrude, though, on these points, I could also speak.  But it is no
breach of propriety to say what you all know that he was a faithful and
lovina husband, and a kind and affectionate father.

;( He is now gone ; quietly he fell asleep, having finished his work,
and the place that so long knew him shall know him no more ; but his
memory will live, his influence will still be felt. Though dead, he
will yet speak to us. May his example of diligence and devotion to duty
stimulate us all to do with our might whatsoever our hand findeth to do,
for there is no device, nor work, nor wisdom, in the grave/ to which we
are so rapidly hastening."

It is but just to say that, in his marriage, Mr. Gushing obtained
a companion in every respect worthy of the position a woman, kind,
intelligent, pious, active and letermmed; there was no situation in
which they were placed during their conjugal relations in which she
did not act her part with true womanly spirit and devotion She is a
daughter of John S. Hutchins, prominent in the history of Lachute. and
the qualities she inherited from intelligent ancestors, combined with
her early Christian training, eminently fitted her for the station she
has been called to fill.  Mrs. Gushing for some time, has resided in
Montreal, where she has a fine residence on Metcalfe street. She has
been a devoted worker in the cause of temperance, and her benevo lence
has given many a poor orphan and widow cause to bless her.

- Of the children of Mr. and Mrs. Gushing, seven sons and two daughters
are now


James Brock (Col.) Gushing, the eldest, has been more closely identified
with the history of this County than any of the other children as
they went to Montreal i engaged in business quite early in life. James
B. entered his father s store as cm 1856; about five years subsequently,
Mr. Gushing, with his two sons, James Thomas, formed a copartnership in
mercantile business ; but, a few years later Ihomas withdrew, and, not
long afterward, the father, entering political life, removed Montreal,
and James continued the business alone till 1891, when he also removed
Montreal. He was very active and influential while he lived here,
and the fine stone store at Gushing is but a single instance of his
enterprise. In 1866, he organized Company of Volunteers, of which he
became Captain, and, on the retirement of the Hon. J. J. C. Abbott from
military life, the officers of the Battalion unanimously ose Mr. Gushing
for their Lieut.-Colonel. When his father removed to Montreal resigned
his local offices that of Postmaster, Municipal Councillor, J. P., etc.
Col. Gushing became his successor, and, during the last few years of his
residence he was Mayor of the Township. He was married 3 ist March, 1869,
to Elizabeth 1. Hill, daughter of the late Francis M. Hill, Barrister,
of Kingston ; he is now in il estate business in Montreal.

Lemuel, second son of the late Lemuel Gushing, was long a Barrister in Mon
treal, and represented Argenteuil County in the Dominion Parliament. He
died about 1880.

Thomas, the third son, is proprietor of the Montreal Brewing Company ;
Francis fourth son, is manager of the Gushing estate, including Gushing
Island, Me. ; Charles ie fifth son, has long been a leading and popular
notary in Montreal, and is the senior member of the firm Gushing, Dunton
& Barron, which does a large business ; I red., sixth son, is a brush
manufacturer, and lives at 143 Metcalfe street, Montreal William M.,
seventh son, is a merchant, notary and J. P., in Elkhorn, Man. ; George


the youngest, is proprietor of a gold and silver mine in Mexico, where
he has just erected a crushing mill. Of the two daughters of Mr. and
Mrs. Gushing, one is mar ried to the Rev. Donald Ross, Professor in
Queen s College, Kingston ; the other to Mr. Cochran, and lives in
Denver, Colorado.

A factory for the manufacture of edge tools was erected at Gushing about
the vear i8<;o by a man named Forsythe. Oil of smoke was also made
here, and sent to England to be used in the printing of calico. The
business was conducted for some time with considerable success by
different parties, but after a period of about fifteen years the factory
was burnt, supposed to be the work of an incendiary.

" Col Tames Gushing also erected a saw mill and grist mill here ; the
former is still in successful operation, but the latter, being out of
repair, has fallen into disuse.

DERRICK OSTROM frpm Utica, N.Y., settled here in the early part of this
century, on -i lot adjacent to that on which his grandson, John Ostrom,
now dwells. As there was no road, he came up the Ottawa on the ice,
bringing his family and household effects on a sled drawn by oxen. His
first dwelling a rude shanty was built very near the river; in this he
lived until the present road was established farther back on the shore
An incident occurred while the family remained in the cabin, which the
children and grandchildren of Mrs. Ostrom never wearied of asking her
to relate.

One evening, Mr. Ostrom returned to his humble cabin with a fine string
of fish, and threw them down outside, with the intention of soon dressing
them. Soon after wards one of the family discovered the glaring eyes of
a wolf not many yards distant, which tempted by the scent of the fish,
was evidently in anticipation of a dainty meal Mr Ostrom got his gun,
and by the light of the lantern held by his better-

lalf soon had his wolfship lying beside the fish he had so foolishly

After the road was established and opened, Mr. Ostrom built a large,
three- story house a few rods from his less pretentious abode, and in this
opened a public house and general store, in which he accumulated property
to an amount which won for him the appelation of" rich." Before his death,
which occurred in 1823, he had added three lots to his estate. He left
three sons and three daughters, but John, the eldest, was the only son
who remained here ; and he received, as his part of the real estate,
the lot on which his own son, John, now resides. The two remaining sons,
William and Derrick, each received a lot, but they soon sold them and
removed to Alumette Island, where William is still living.

The following sketch from the pen of Mr. Colin Dewar gives a more comple

history of this family :

" The old Militia Act of Lower Canada, which was in force in 1837, gave
to the Captains the power of ordering out and compelling all able-bodied
men, be tween the ages of 18 and 45, to attend muster, and perform active
duty. In many

instances, these officers had not been appointed on account of their
knowledge of military tactics, but fiom being in favor with the officer
commanding the talion As a result of such a course, a great deal of
dissatisfaction was manifested, on the breaking out of the troubles of
1837, when they were called out for active service; the men not hankering
after a military experience under

mand of such officers.

" The Government, knowing well the axiom that one Volunteer is worth moi
than ten pressed men, got over the difficulty, by allowing all enrolled
companies o volunteers the privilege of choosing their own officers,
and all such companies t be under the control of the chief officer of
the District. Two companies in the town ship of Chatham were quickly
formed on these lines : the first, under the command of Captain John
Ostrom and Lieut. John Noyes ; the second, under Captain John



Schagel, and Lieut. Levi Brundage ; besides, one company of sixty men,
under the command of Captain John Stephens and Lieut. George M. Bradford,
designed for active service, being stationed in Barracks, and thoroughly
drilled. The barracks was the house now owned by Mr. Fitzgerald.

The Government supplied all Volunteers with arms, ammunition and clothing
; the latter consisting of white blanket overcoats, heavy dark cloth
trousers, with reJ stripe down the seam, beefskin moccasins, bearskin
caps, and buckskin mittens.  Thesecompanies, when on parade or march,
made a very creditable appearance, their dress and uniform showing off
their fine stalwart figures to perfection.

It may here be stated, that Mr. Geo. M. Bradford is the only officer of
these three companies living at the present time, the others having long
since passed away.

When the company in the front of Chatham was organized, JOHN OSTROM,
a young man of great promise, active and intelligent, and in every
way well qualified for the position, was unanimously chosen captain, a
brief sketch of whose life will here be given. The Ostrom family are of
Dutch descent; they settled in the United States, but left their homes,
and came to Canada with other U. E. Loyalists, at the breaking out of
the Revolutionary War. On their arrival in Canada, one son settled in
Hastings County, near Belleville ; the others were separated, going to
different parts of the country, and they have long since lost trace of
each other. The father of the subject of this sketch was Derrick Ostrom,
who arrived in the township of Chatham, early in the first decade of this
century, and purchased a block of six hundred acres of land in what was
then the "Col. Robertson grant," and on which he built a residence for
himself, which, for many years, was the finest in the township, and far
ahead of Col.  Robertson s, which, up to that time, had taken the lead. It
stood on rising ground in a commanding position, on the top of the hill,
in a beautiful situation, and 3 was a well-known landmark, until it was
burnt down a few years after the family removed from Chatham. It may
here be mentioned, in reference to Col. Robertson s house,

that when it was built, many years previously, sawn lumber was a scarce
article, and one peculiar feature in its construction was, that it
was shingled all over, from top to bottom, and fastened with small
flat-headed, hand-made nails.

Mr. Ostrorn not only carried on the business of farming, but also kept
a general country store for many years, in a house afterward sold to
Mr. John Mullan. He died in 1823, leaving a widow, three sons and three
daughters, viz., foiin, William and Derrick, Jennie, Christie and Elsie.

On the settlement of the estate, John, the eldest son, received one of
the farms, on which he had built a house and suitable farm buildings,
and on 51)1 September, 1829, was married to Miss Dorcas, daughter of
Dennis Parsons, Esq., who had recently come from the United States
and settled in Chatham. At this time, Captain Dstrom was engaged in
the square timber business, and was, for many years, one of the most
successful pilots on the Grand River, that industry being then neatly at
the zenith of its prosperity. Mention has been made in a previous article
of the quantities of shad ascending the river in the spring of the year,
and, at that season, it was the custom for all well-to-do farmers to
take advantage of this circumstance, and provide their families with a
supply of this excellent fish, which was always a treat, either fresh
or salted. It was while attending to this important duty that Captain
O.strom lost his life on the 2nd June, 1840, at what was known as the "
Fishing Ground " \ plat forms, or, as they were called, stagings, which
were erected at different spaces along the bank, which, at that place,
was a perpendicular rock, along the face of which These stagings had
to be built and secured, and were thus hanging over the river, and near
the surface of it.

Owing to the formation of the new canal and dam at that place, the
whole face



of the river is changed, and it is only those who remember it as it was
before these improvements were commenced, that can form any idea of the
dangerous place it then was. On the morning of lhat eventful day, Captain
Ostrom had left home very early, as usual, and had taken his turn with
the others of his gang (as, owing to the heavy work of scooping, they
required frequently to change). It was pretty well on in the forenoon,
when, no doubt, being fatigued with the arduous labor of the morning,
as well as weak from exhaustion, he was either struck by his scoop in
swinging it round, or the breaking of part of the staging caused him to
be thrown off, and into the surging, seething swells, as they rushed
furiously down those angry rapids.  The cry was at once raised that
Captain Ostrom had fallen in, when those on the

bank ran down to try to assist him ; but he must have been stunned in
the fall, or perhaps was paralyzed by the action of the cold water on
his heated body, as he never tried to help himself, and sank in a few
moments. His comrades ran down to the foot of the locks, and had a boat
round the point in a few minutes, hoping he would be found floating on
the surface. But, alas ! he had sunk long before reaching them.

After long and anxious searching and watching, the body was recovered,
and the news was conveyed to the family, that they would arrive with it
in a short time. As arrangements had been made for a military funeral,
no time was lost in sending out notices, and on the day appointed, a
firing party was selected from his own company.  A large concourse of
people assembled to pay the last tribute of respect to one who was held
in the highest estimation. The religious services were conducted by the
Rev. Wm Mair, Presbyterian minister of Chatham, after which the body was
con veyed to the family burial plot, where the usual three volleys were
discharged over the grave, and all that was mortal of a beloved husband
and father was consigned to the tomb. Mr. Ostrom left one son and three
daughters; the eldest daughter, Mary Ann, was married to Thomas Noyes ;
the other two, Jane and Dorcas, live on the homestead with their mother
and brother. The latter, John Ostrom, has a fine pro perty here, and is
an active man ; he has been Clerk of the Commissioners Court a third of
a century, Secretary-Treasurer of the Municipal Council sixteen years,
and of the Board of School Commissioners twenty.

ROBERT TAIT, son of a " Nor- Wester " of some celebrity, was a neighbor
and -warm friend of the late Captain John Ostrom, and both were active in
1837 in encour aging and drilling the militia to resist the rebels. At
the burning of Grande Brule, learning that a child was lying in its
coffin in a church which was on fire, with much risk to their own lives
they rushed into the building and snatched the coffin, with its burden,
from the flames.


St. Mungo s Church (Presbyterian), a solid stone structure, built after
the fashion of the old style Scotch country-parish churches, stands in a
fine position on the bank of the Ottawa River, about midway between the
villages of Grenville and Carillon.  Internally, it is neat, harmonious
in all its parts, comfortable and commodious, seating easily about three
hundred persons. Its large side windows, Gothic in style, are of rolled
cathedral-stained glass in leaded quarries, with pretty patterns of sash,
and harmonizing schemes of color. The end windows, each panel having
a beautiful floral design and text of Scripture burned in, on a ground
graduated from deep yellow to white, are exceedingly pretty. Though much
has been done of late years, in the way of improvement, as to beauty and
comfort, the old-fashioned characteristics of the edifice have been but
little interfered with. The old-style gallery around three sides of the
church, the old-style pew-ends, and the old-style pulpit, lowered a little


from its former towering height, are as a link binding the present to the
past a past the hallowed remembrance of the self-denying labors, energy,
perseverance piety, and realized hopes of worthy forefathers, in providing
for themselves and suc ceeding generations a fitting house for the worship
of Almighty God The church was erected during the year 1836, but though,
as soon as possible, used for service it was some time before it was
all finished, and some few years later, before the cost was all paid.

The first pastor of this church was the Rev. William Main, an alumnus
of Glasgow University, and for some six years after his Licensure,
Sabbath Lecturer in his college ommg to Canada, he was ordained and
inducted to this charge on the 2 6th July 833. At the time of his advent
to Chatham, a scho >l-house, fitted up to serve both for school and
preaching, stood beside the highway, somewhere near where No i School
now stands. Here the first congregations gathered to hear the Gospel
proclaimed by their own settled pastor, and who had come to cast in his
lot with them _ The charge was a large one. Grenville and Havvkesbury
villages were regular preaching stations. Eighteen miles in front, and
as far back as I can win " was the vay in which he usually described his
parish. That he did win, far back, is manifest :rom the church records,
for, besides the Klders in Chatham, Grenville and Hawkes- mry, two,
Messrs. John Crawford and Archibald McCallum, were ordained to this ce,
in the Augmentation of Grenville, on the loth August, 1834 : and other two
Messrs. Archibald Kelso in 1837, and John Doig in 18^8, both living in the
vicinity Lachute, were appointed as coadjutors in the same office. The
first Elders of the charge were Messrs. Neil Stuart, Peter Stirling,
Farquhar Robertson, and Archibald Campbell. To follow out minutely the
whole history is not within our present scope, the difficulties overcome,
the hardships endured, the discouragements suffered,

we in the present, have but little conception of. Suffice it to say, that
the long and faithful work of the Rev. Mr. Mair, carried on at so great
cost to himself, have con- taued to exert an influence on the religious
life of the townships in which he labored that cannot be estimated.

A mural tablet, with the following inscription, occupies a place in the
church to the right of the pulpit :




Born on the 291)1 of March, 1793.

Died on the 17111 of October, 1860.

A man of childlike simplicity, unaffected modesty, sincere piety, and

high intellectual attainments.

He was the first minister of this charge, and for 27 years faithfully
preached the Our Lord Jesus Christ to an attached congregation ; and
with untiring zeal endeavored to imbue their minds with the heavenly
spirit of his Divine Master

In gratitude for his faithful services, they have erected this memorial
of his worth, within the walls of this church, for the building of which,
they are indebted to his generous efforts.

Behold an Israelite indeed, The memory of the

in whom there is no guile." just is blessed."

J NO - 47- Pitov. x. 7.

The Rev. James Black, an M. A., of Glasgow University, was the next
minister of

charge. He was inducted on the 4 th September, i86 t . During his


the present Manse, a large house of true ecclesiastical design, was
built. It is near the church, in a fine situation, commanding an extensive
view both up and down the river. Mr. Black, after a short pastorate of
three years, resigned the charge and

returned to Scotland. . .

The Rev Donald Ross, D.U., at present one of the professors in the
theological department o f Queen s College, Kingston, was the next
minister. His education both in Arts and Theology was taken in Queen
s College, Kingston, of which college he was the first " Fellow" ever
appointed. A sad remembrance of the loss of his

wife, a lady beloved by all the congregation, lies in a mural tablet to
the left of the



wife of

REV. DONALD ROSS, B.D., Minister of this Congregation.  Died 26th March,

set- 35.  " Blessed are the dead that die in the Lord." REV. xiv. 13.

Ordained and inducted to the pastorate of the congregation on the 3rd
October, 1865 he labored with great success for a period of eleven
years. A beautiful little stone church at Point Fortune, called
St. Columba, was erected during his incumbency, by the part of the
congregation there. Hawkesbury village had been detached from this
congregation, and joined to L Orignal by an Act of the Synod of 1860. In
1876, Mr. Ross demitted the charge. For several years thereafter, he
was pastor of St.  Andrew s Church, Lachine, whence he was called to
exercise the duties of professor

in Queen s College.

The present pastor of this congregation is the RiV. JAMES FRASER,
B.A. In Arts,

he studied at Queen s College, Kingston ; in Theology, at Morrin College,

Called from Litchfield in the Presbytery of Ottawa, he was inducted to
the charge of

Chatham and Grenville in October, 1877.

His ministrations have now continued almost twenty years, during which

he has steadily gained the affection of his people and the esteem of
the public. Mr.

Eraser s sermons are always prepared with scholarly care. He married
Miss Tredwell

a daughter of the hte C. P. Tredwell, Esq., of L Orignal a lady who
vies with

her husband in self-denying, devoted labor in the Master s vineyard.

The Methodists erected a stone church at Gushing in 1830, size 35 by
50 feet,

and two stories in height. It was used for service something over thirty
years, when

it was sold to Mr. Gushing, who built another church at a short distance
from the


ROBERT NICHOLS, who has a pleasant brick residence and good property here,
came from the County Antrim, Ireland, to Canada in 1844, and three years
subse quently, bought the lot where he now lives. In his younger days he
followed the trade of blacksmith, and a shop stands by the roadside in
which he has done many a hard day s work. His industry and probity have
gained for him much influence in t locality. About 1846, he was married
to F.sther Gascon ; they had seven children.  of whom six two sons and
four daughters are now living. The eldest son, James who lives in the
neighborhood, is Sergeant in the St. Andrews Troop. One of the

daughters is married to Mr. Davison of St. Philippe, another to Robert
Dobbie Lachute. Mr. Nichol has been School Commissioner, and for many
years Sergeant o



SAMUEL WEBSTER, one of the aged citizens of Gushing, is a son of Samuel
Webster, one of the heroes who survived the battle of Waterloo. Not long
after that famous victory of Wellington, Mr. Webster came to Canada, and
that he remained for a while in Quebec is inferred from the fact that
he joined a Masonic lodge there.  From that city he went to Montreal,
where he was married to Euphemia, a daughter of Dr. Spink. In 18^4,
he came to Greece s Point, and as the canal was then in pro cess of
construction, he opened a grocery and boarding house, but died about six
years subsequently. He had four children two of each sex; but all, save
Samuel, died young. In his youth, he was clerk in the store of his uncle,
Peter Spink, at St. Denis.  In 1850, he was married to Amelia Gardner,
and the same year he bought the lot at Gushing where he now lives ;
several years of his life have been spent as pilot on the Ottawa. He
has seven children, one son and six daughters,

In 1883, Nellie Webster, one of his daughters, wrote the following family
sketch as dictated by her aunt, Mrs. R. Le Roy, not long prior to Mrs. Le
Roy s death :

" My father, Dr. William Spink, who had a wooden leg, kept a grocery
and drug store at our home, on Perth Road, near Dundee, Scotland ; he
was an Elder in the Methodist Church at Dundee for thirty years. He had
a brother unmarried, who died in the East Indies, where he was surgeon
in a British regiment He also had a sister, Grace, who was married to
Mr. Patrick, and another sister, whose name I have forgotten, that became
insane. Mother s maiden name was Euphemia Watt ; their children born at
our home on Perth Road, Scotland, were : Andrew, John, Ellen, Euphemia,
Peter, Jane, William, Thomas and Catherine. Ail these, save Andrew, who
remained with his uncle, Mr. Patrick, sailed from Dundee in the brig
Todds in 1817. In nine weeks and four days, we came to Quebec. Uncle
Thomas Wise Spink wanted to keep my brother Thomas and myself, when the
family were about to sail for America, but mother would not listen to
it, as she thought leaving one of her children was enough. Father had a
letter of introduction and recommendation to a Mr. Miller, book-binder,
in Upper Town, Quebec. We spent a day with Mr.  Miller, and then sailed
to Montreal in the Lady Sherbrooke, Andrew, who was left with his uncle,
Capt. Patrick, while bringing a cargo of whe~t from France to Dundee,
on the captain s own boat, was lost ; their boat being struck by another
vessel in the night, sank, and all on board perished. Father and his
wife are interred at St.

Andrews, Quebec; the only ones of my brother s children now living are
Peter, Thomas, Margaret and myself."

Near the store of Mr. Gushing, on the left, is " Burnside Cottage,"
with its beau tiful grounds and shrubbery the home of EDMUND NEVE. This
property formerly belonged to the late Wm. Forbes, Canal Superintendent,
and the cottage was a work of his own design and erection.

Mr. Neve is a son of the Rev. Frederick S. Neve, who for some time
had charge of the Anglican Church in Grenville. He came to Canada
from Kent, Kng., about the year 1840, and first was assistant of
the Rev. Mr. Whitwell at Philiosburg, Que. ; he then was stationed at
Clarendon, Huniington County, and thence, in 1859, came to Grenville. He
was superannuated in 1871, and subsequently resided six years in St.
Andrews ; he died in 1878, in Montreal. He had three sons and five
daughters ; his second son is a merchant in L Orignal. Mr. Edmund Neve
purchased this property,

consisting, besides the buildings, of about seventy acres of land,
and has since been engaged in farming.

Adjacent to this place is the post office in charge of THOMAS WEIR.

Mr. Weir, who is by trade a machinist, came to this country from Glasgow
in 1872, in charge of the material for two iron bridges at Ottawa. After
the comple tion of those bridges, he came to Grenville in the employ of
Vlr. Goodwin, who had the roniract for the construction of the bridges,
and worked on the canal.


He was married to Miss Davison, daughter of Joseph Davison, of Grenville.
In 1881, he came to Cashing, where he has had charge of the post office
for the

past seven years, though he was not appointed Postmaster till 1893;
he is also telegraph operator here, and has a small grocery.

HORATIO E. HARTLEY, who has been quite an extensive dealer in cattle and
horses, came to this section with his father, Christopher Hartley, who
had served his time, and obtained his discharge from the Royal Artillery,
in which he was color ser geant. After his discharge he was Lockmaster
for a while on the Rideau Canal at

Ottawa, and was then appointed Lockmaster at Stonefield, but, after a
few years

service, was superannuated, and was succeeded in his position of
Lockmaster by his son, Horatio E., who served twenty-two years, when he,
also, was superannuated.

The fatiier died 4th August, 1877. Horatio was married in 1876 to Mary M.

At the time the factory was erected at Gushing, a Scotchman named JAMES
WATSON, a brass finisher by trade, who had been a soldier in the 93rd
Regiment, was employed to set up the machinery. After the factory was
completed, he returned to Montreal, leaving his two young children at
Cashing with a neighbor, Mr.  John O Brien. Not long afterward his wife
died, and he never returned or sent for his children, nor has anyone
in this section since heard of him. William, the younger of the two
children, died when four years old; James, the elder boy, lived with
Mr. O Brien till old enough to earn his own living. He was married in
1876 to a daughter of

Samuel Webster of Gushing, and jives in a pleasant cottage near the
Presbyterian Manse.

Among the faithful employees of the Canal is ROBERT PINKERTON, who
was appointed lockman on the Upper Locks at Carillon, in 1889 ; his
home is in Gushing.  He is son of John Pinkerton, of Chatham ; he was
married ist January, 1887, to Mary J. Sittlington, also of this place,
and has three children, all daughters.  Mr.  Pinkerton s residence here
is situated opposite the pretty vilhge of Chute au Blon- deau.

JAMES ROY GASTON came to Canada from County Antrim, Ireland, in 1843 ; he
soon settled in Chatham, buying the farm on which his widow and children
now live.  He was married 22nd June, 1858, to Margaret McFarlane, of
Perth, Out.

That he was a valued and trustworthy Government employee is proved by
the fact that, for thirty-eight years, he was employed on the Canal; and,
in connection with this work, he managed his farm. He also had charge of
the Chute au Blondeau lighthouse, and it was while attending to this that
the sad accident occurred by which he lost his life. On the evening of
24th September, 1884, accompanied by some of his children, he proceeded
to the lighthouse, near the river, intending to make ready the customary
signal ; and, preceded by his son, Alexander, started to mount the ladder,
which is 36 feet in height. The son was lighting the lamp, when he felt
the ladder shake,, and, looking down, saw his father lying on ihe ground
at its foot. He imme diately descended, finding that several rungs had
been broken ; but, when he reached his father s side, life was extinct.

Mr. and Mrs. Gaston had eleven children, eight sons and three daughters;
two of the latter died after reaching womanhood.

John, the eldest son, is lockman at Greece s Point ; James R. is employed
by the Hawkesbury Lumber Company ; George has charge of the lighthouses
here ; William

is in Chicago ; Alexander, after spending five years in the same city,
returned home in 1895. Leonard M. and Andrew E. live at home, also the
daughter, Eliza L.

On a toad leading north from the Ottawa, and about a mile distant from
it, live a few thriving fanners, one of whom, Jacob Schagel, has been
noticed in the history of


Carillon ; of the others, two brothers, ANDREW and WILLIAM GRAHAM,
are grand sons of an early pioneer.

Andrew Graham came from Scotland to Chatham, about the year 1816, and
bought 1 20 acres of land, which is now owned by his grandson, Andrew
Graham : two sons and two daughters accompanied him. With the help of
the former, he cleared up the greater part of his land. Tne youngest
daughter, Jennie, married

Andrew Grey, of Hawkesbury. The sons, Richard and Archibald, were both

in Capt. Schagel s company during the Rebellion. Archibald, in 1841,
was married to Jennie Black, and remained on the homestead. They had ten
children, five of each sex that grew up. The father died in 1863. There
are but two sons and one daughter now living in this section. Andrew,
one of the former, lives on the home stead, which, though stoney, has
been made, through Scotch perseverance and in dustry, to yield abundant
crops a fact attested by a fine herd of eighteen cows, a good number of
other animals, and commodious buildings. Mr. Graham was married in 1865
to Mary Smith. He and one of his sons, William Archibald, have lately
purchased another farm, which they work together.

William, a brother of Andrew Graham, also a thriving farmer, lives
adjacent ; his mother and siVter, Christina Elizabeth, live with him.

In this neighborhood also dwell descendants of DANIEL BRYNE, who came from
Kilkenny, Ireland, to Richmond, Ont., and in 1816, three years later,
he came to Chatham, and bought the land now owned and occupied by his
son William and grandson, Daniel J. Byrne. He was married loth October,
1822, to Bridget Roach.

They had but one son, who has always remained on the homestead. Mr. Byrne
belonged to Capt. Schagel s company during the Rebellion. He died 3rd
May, 1879.  Mrs. Byrne died 3rd April, 1852.

William Byrne, the son, was married 28th April, 1851,10 Catherine,
daughter of the late John Byrne, of Grenville ; they had four sons
and three daughters ; of these only three sons and one daughter are
now living. Two of the former, Edward and John, reside in Michigan. The
remaining son, Daniel J., and his sister Bridget, live with their father
in a pleasant stone cottage amid trees and shrubbery, on the homestead.


Greece s Point, which though but a scattered hamlet, eight miles west
of Carillon, is at the western terminus of the Grenville Canal, hence,
a place of considerable business importance. A line of railway, specially
for the use of lumbermen, also connects the place with Grenville. It is
vested with much historic interest, as it is supposed by many to be the
spot, or very near the spot, where Daulac made his heroic siand. The
scenery about is very pretty, an attractive feature being the

elevated farms across the Ottawa at Little Rideau and Chute aa Blondeau.

Greece s Point, from the earliest settlement of the country, has become
an important part in its history.

On the 3ist December, 1788, a location ticket, signed by the Surveyor
General of this Province, was granted to Brig.-General Allan McLean,
841!) Regiment, author izing him " to improve and settle certain lots
of land, comprising 5,000 (five thousand) acres, located in Chatham,
County of York." On the 2Qth May, 1790, this land was conveyed by deed of
sale to Major Lachlan McLean, First Major of His Majesty s 6oth Regiment
of Foot, who, i6th September, 1803, conveyed the same to JOHX WILLIAM
GREECE for the sum of ^"1,250, or $1.00 per acre.

Portions of this land, from time to time, have been sold, until there
now remains


but about i, coo acres, which are leased to occupants by the agent
employed by Mr.  Greece, grandson of the early purchaser. It would be
gratifying to know more of the history of one who was so large a land
holder in the township for many years; but the following story, which
is true, will show that he had a penchant for land purchasing, whatever
may have been his other characteristics . He lived in England, and, one
day, when strolling about, he, from curiosity, entered an auction shop ;
the auctioneer was expatiating on the beauty, fertility and great value
of a piece of land he had just put up. There were very few present,
and the bidding, at first, was confined chiefly to the auctioneer
himself. Becoming interested, however, Mr. Greece began to bid, and the
competition was lively for a lime between the auctioneer and himself,
until, most unexpectedly to Mr. Greece, it was struck off to him at $600.

A few days after this he set out to view his newly acquired property,
which was

located some distance from the place where he resided. Just at nightfall,
he reached an inn in a rural hamlet, and made some enquiries of the
landlord respecting his property. Without giving him the required
information, the landlord quietly advised him to wait till morning,
when he could see it and judge of its value himself.  He accepted the
advice, and early the next morning, in high spirits, walked out to
view his purchase. Some little time after his return the landlord asked
him how he liked the property, and his only reply was, that he wished
he could blow it and all recollec tion of it into oblivion. This same
property, however, developing its hidden treasures cf Fuller s earth,
in the short period of four years paid the owner ,2,300; and, in 1862,
it sold at public auction for ; 10,050.

CHAS. CLAUDE GREECE, a son of the first proprietor of this estate, lived
here many years, on the lot now owned by his grandson Thomas Welden, and
died here.  He was appointed Justice of the Peace, and on this account
soon received the title of "Squire," by which title he was always spoken
of and addressed throughout the County. He was much respected both for
his integrity and sound judgment. At

his suggestion, the Post-office here was established with the name of
Stonefield, and he also named one in Grenville, Eden Dale ; the position
of which, and the name also, were subsequently changed to Calumet. That
Mr. Greece was a well educated, clever man, is evident from letters
he wrote, which are still preserved among the records of the Anglican
Church at Grenville.

REUBEN WELDKN is the present agent of this estate for Mr. Greece.
Thomas Welden, his father, came from England to Chatham in October, 1842.
The winter after his arrival he spent on the North River, above the
Isle aux Chats, where the antics of wolves must have given him rather
an unfavorable impression

of the new country.

His son says, that a neighbor of theirs named Wilson, on returning home
one evening with a span of horses from St. Andrews, wa? followed by a
pack of these

marauders. His horses were good ones, and he urged them to their utmost
speed, but they and Wilson himself were saved only by his two dogs, which
fell vie i ns to the rapacity of these brutes. In the quarrel which ensued
among the wolves over their feast, Wilson fortunately escaped. The same
winter, wolves broke open the door of a stable in which Wilson s sheep
were enclosed, and killed several of them.

Mr. Welden, from the North River, moved a few miles farther west in
Chatham, to what is now known as the Noyes neighborhood. Here, on land
owned by the late John Noyes, and now occupied by Philabert Filion,
he found good clay for making brick, and as that had been his business
in England, he, in company with Mr.  Noyes, opened a brick yard. Their
brick were of superior quality, and most of the many

brick buildings found in this section of country were made from bricks
of their




About 1846 Mr. Welden moved to Grenville, and for a number of years
follow ing, took charge of the farm of the late Joseph Abbott. He died
in 1872. His last years, as well as those of Mrs. Welden, were spent in
the family of their son Reuben in Chatham. They left four sons, James,
Reuben, William and Fred. C. Three of these, intelligent and respected
farmers, live in this County. William is Harbour Master at New York.

Reuben married Rowena, a daughter of the late C. W. Greece, Esq. She died,
and he then married Maria Louise, a sister of the deceased.

By his first marriage he had two sons, Thomas and Henry ; the former,
as stated

above, is now proprietor of the maternal homestead, and the latter is
in business with his father.

ALEXANDER CAMERON, from Lochaber, Argyleshire, Scotland, was the first
settler at what is now Greece s Point. He came here in 1808, and built a
house on the site of the present hotel of J. Duchesne. A year afterward,
however, he moved to the place now occupied by his grandson, Allan
Cameron, His nearest neighbour was Major Macmillan, nearly five miles
distant, in Grenville ; but Indians frequently came here on their trips
up and down the river.

He did considerable lumbering, taking his rafts of timber to the Quebec

He sometimes went to mill at St. Ann s, and sometimes to Lachute. It was
no uncom mon thing for him to take a bushel of grain on his back to the
latter place, and, after it was ground, return home with it in the same
manner. Mr. Cameron died in May,

1838. His son Allan remained on the homestead, but was also employed
on the river, acting as pilot several years for the Hamilton Bros., as
well as for others. On account of his stature, he was generally called "
Big Allan." He died in May, 1882, at the age of 82. His widow, who was
born on St. Patrick s day, 1805, and is, there fore, 91 years of age,
still survives. She usually converses with her son Allan in the Gaelic
tongue. Mr. and Mrs. Cameron had five sons and two daughters Allan, John,
Hugh, Daniel, Charles, Mary and Flora. Daniel died recently. Flora married
Thomas Johnson, of Calumet, who died suddenly two or three years ago. Mary
married Donald McVean, and both she and her husband are deceased. Hugh
died by accident in Montreal. Charles, the youngest, has the homestead,

Allan Cameron, jun., like his father, has spent his time between the
homestead farm and the river, having followed the latter as pilot for
fifty years. It is a pleasant reflection to him that he has been so long
a pilot, not only on the Ottawa, but on the Gatineau and other streams,
in the spring, when swollen and boisterous, without ever having lost a
man. Many of his winters have been spent in lumbering, and, years

ago, when the vast wilderness along the tributaries of the Ottawa was
first invaded by lumbermen, a life in their camps must have combined
much of romance, as well as

hardship and toil.

Mr. Cameron says that of the many animals he has seen in the forest,
no sight was more beautiful or interesting to him than the following :

He and an Indian, one day, had strolled a long distance from camp, when
they unexpectedly came to a yard containing nine elk. The snow was very
deep and quite hard, so that the poor animals had no means of escape. They
reared their expansive antlers, and with their large lustrous eyes, gazed
in wonderment at the in truders. The Indian raised his gun, but Cameron
forbade him to fire on the defence less herd, and hurriedly passed on,
leaving them unmolested.

STONEFIELD is a small village, little more than a mile east of Greece
s Point, but the fine Canal Locks contribute much toward the business
activity of the place,

besides forming a most attractive feature in the landscape. The large
and imposing brick store of Thomas Owens, Esq., is also an object which
attracts the attention of visitors.


About 1819, OWEN OWENS, of Denbigh, Wales, came to Montreal, and a year or
two later to Chatham, settling at what is now Stonefield, on land still
owned and occupied by his son Thomas Owens. Like all the settlers of
that period, in the absence of roads, he made his way here by the river,
everything he possessed being conveyed by batteaux. The canal was then
in process of construction, and the pros pect for business appearing
favourable, he opened a store and hotel, both of which he carried on in
connection with farming, for many years. His house was burnt about 1847,
an d he then built the brick one, in which his son Thomas now resides.
In 1858, a post-office was established here, and Mr. Owens was appointed
Post master; he died in 1870. He had six sons and two daughters. One of
the former was drowned in the canal at nine years of age. Another son,
many years ago, went to California, since which no tidings have been heard
of him. Three sons George, William and Owen have always remained in this
section. The former resides on his farm, about one mile from Stonefield.

William and Thomas remained on the homestead, and, in company, engaged
largely in mercantile affairs. A few years since, they purchased the
Papineau Seigniory in Ottawa County, consisting of 80,000 acres, and
engaged extensively in the lumber business. They also opened a store
at Montebello, in that Seigniory. In 1884, Thomas Owens built the store
mentioned above at Stonefield, in which he now trades, doing an extensive
business He succeeded his father as Postmaster, and has also, for some
years, been Commissioner for the trial of small causes. He has been
twice married ; the last time to a widow, daughter of Theodore Davis,
of St.  Andrews.

The firm, which was long known under the name of " T. & W. Owens,"
is now designated as that of "T.Owens & Sons," John F., the second son
of Thomas Owens, now being in the store with his father at this place,
and Thomas, his elder son, in the store at Montebello. H. A. Villeneuve,
the proficient and genial book keeper of Mr. Owens, has been in the
employ of the firm twenty-five years.

William Owens always took much interest in the affairs of the township,
and for

a time held the position of Mayor. At the time of the Fenian raids,
he was active in organizing a company of Volunteers, of which he became
Lieutenant and J.  Gushing Captain. In 1881, he entered more actively
into the political arena, as is shown by the following paragraph, copied
from a Montreal paper of 1893 :

"A large and influential portion of the Conservatives are hoping that Mr.
William Owens, ex-M.P.P. for Aigenteuil, will receive the appointment to
the vacant seat for Inkerman in the Senate. Mr. Owens, in 1881, redeemed
the County for the Quebec Conservative party in the Quebec Legislature. In
1886 he was re-elected by acclamation, and in 1890 carried the county
by 700 majority. Mr. Owens was one of the most trusted leaders in the
Quebec House. He was true to his party and true to his promises, on all
occasions and under every circumstance. In all probability, Mr. Owens
will not press forward for the appointment, as some are doing ; but
the best friends of the Conservative party hope his claims will not,
on this account, be overlooked."

In the fall of 1895, Mr. Owens was appointed to theSenatorship, rendered

by the death of the Hon. J. J. C. Abbott.

MICHAEL DERRICK, from the County of Sligo, Ireland, came to Chatham
in June, 1820, and was first in the employ of Angus McPhie, who, in
company with Noyes & Schagel, had a contract for transporting all the
supplies for the canal laborers- provisions, implements, money, etc.,
from Carillon to Grenville. McPhie lived in a log house located between
the present house of the late John Fitzgerald and the

river; he afterward built the stone house now occupied by Mrs. Lennon.

In 1824, Mr. Derrick took up 100 acres of Lot u, Range i ; in 1827, he was


married to Alice Shields ; they had six children two sons and one
daughter grow

up. Mr. Derrick belonged to Capt. Ostrom s Company during the Rebellion
of 1837

he died in December, 1877; Mrs. Derrick died November, 1874. Joseph,
the third son, was married in September, 1872, to Mary McAndiew, and has"
remained on the

homestead. He is one of the well-to-do farmers of Chatham ; he has added
i oo acres to the homestead, and bought 168 acres in East Hawkesbury. He
has been Municipal Councillor since 1872, four years of which time he
has served as Ma\or of the town- ship. He was also appointed Justice of
the Peace, but has always declined to serve.

THOMAS FOREMAN, a member of the Royal Staff Corps, was the first
Lockmaster appointed at Greece s Point, and held the position till his
death a period of about 25 years. He married Elizabeth Garret, daughter
of a British soldier; they had three sons and one daughter that grew
up. The sons John, Thomas and George are active, intelligent men, who,
nearly all their lives, have been employed on the canal.

John, the eldest, succeeded his father as Lockmaster, but a few years
after ward was appointed Superintendent of the Canal Works at St. Ann ;
this position

he left some years ago, and went to British Columbia.

Thomas, the second son, succeeded his brother John in 1867 as Lockmaster
at Greece s Point, and still holds the position ; he is also Commissioner
for the trial of small causes. He was married in October, 1875, to
Caroline Douglass; they have four children two of each sex.

GEORGE FOREMAN, the youngest son, was married September 2nd, 1874, to
Annie Dinsmore ; they have three sons and two daughters living. Lillian
Edna, their eldest daughter, is teaching the Carillon Dissentient
School. It should be said to the credit of the two brothers, Thomas and
George Foreman, that, like their father, they take much pains to educate
their children. Mr. George Foreman has spent many years of his life in
the towing business, keeping a number of horses for this purpose, which
in winter are usually employed in the lumber woods. A few years since he
purchased the stone house and 50 acres of land in Grenville, which was
formerly the home and property of the Rev. Joseph Abbott. Mrs. Foreman s
maternal grandfather, Archi bald Canning, came to Canada about 1825. He
was a stone-mason, and followed his

trade many years in Chatham and vicinity. He died in Stonefield
in i8Si. His widow, 92 years of age, is still living, and, what is
remarkable, she has never used spectacles. Two of her sons, William and
John Canning, farmers, reside near Stone- field. Elizabeth Foreman,
sister of the brothers noticed above, married John Cameron, who is
engaged in the lumber business. They reside at Stonefield.

GEO. LINDLEY, a young man from Leeds, Yorkshire, England, came to Chatham
about 1830, and bought too acres of Lot 10, ist Range, and soon afterward
sent for his father s family. His father had been a cloth manufacturer
in England, employed many hands, and when he came to this country, he
brought quite a quantity of fine broad cloths with him to sell. It is
said he was a man of very prepossessing appear ance. Not long after the
arrival of the family, George, who was the eldest of the ten children
seven sons and three daughters started with a quantity of wheat to be
ground, across the river. By some means not well understood, the boat
was upset, and he was drowned. The occurrence gave a great shock to the
little community, and especially to his parents, as on him they mainly
depended, although, as regards property, they were in comparatively good
circumstances. Only four sons and two

daughters settled in this country. Michael, the youngest son, married
Jane Dowd, and settled on the homestead ; he belonged to Capt. Schagel s
company during the Rebellion of 1837. He died about 1874. He had three
sons and four daughters.  David, the second son, lives with his mother
on the homestead. He belongs to the Rangers, and is one of the athletic
young men who, in 1894, won the victory in the " tug-of-war " contest
between the Argenteuil boys and those of Glengarry.



EDWARD WHELEHAN came from King s County, Ireland, to this part of Chatham
in 1844. He first worked for Mr. Gushing several years, and, in 1855,
bought of him 100 acres of Lot n, ist Range. The first settler on this
land and the one who cut the first tree was John Bowring. Finding a
quantity of lime on this lot, he opened a lime-kiln, and burned the lime
with which, about 1815, he built his stone-house

the same that is now occupied by Mrs. Whelehan. When he sold his land
to Mr.  Gushing, he reserved a small piece, and on it built another
house, in which he died in February, 1856. His wife died in November,
1859. Mr. Whelehan was married in 1849 to Mary Dunn. He lived here till
his death, 24th March, 1894, in the Soth year of his age. He had nine
children, of whom three sons and four daughters are now living.

Mrs. Whelehan s father, Andrew Dunn, came to Canada in 1826. He lived
in Quebec till 1830, when he came to St. Andrews, where his wife died
with cholera in 1832. He then, in 1836, married Ellen, the only child
of John Kelly, who had been a soldier in the British service, and now
lived in the nth Range of Chatham.  Mr.  Dunn, after his last marriage,
settled on the farm of his father-in-law, where he lived till 1845, w hen
he removed to Brownsburg and worked at his trade shoemaking till 1863,
when he went to Montreal, where he died in 1867. Mrs. Whelehan s youngest

son, Edward, and daughter, Margaret, live with her on the homestead.

CHARLES H. WADE is one of the respected farmers of this section. His
father, who owned a farm in Hawkesbury, sold it about 1857, an ^ came
to Greece s Poiru, where, for several years, he kept a public house. He
afterwards removed to Gren

ville, where he died. He had eight sons and three daughters. Two of
his daughters marred respectively to William Kirby and William Cook
live in the township of Grenville, Que. One of his sons is a merchant
in Grenville village. Charles H.  Wade, in his younger days, served as
pilot on the Ottawa ; but the greater portion of his life, thus far,
has been spent in farming. The maiden name of Mrs. Wade was Elizabeth
McFarlane. They have three sons and one daughter. William, the eldest

of the former, is one of the trusted employees in the Dominion Cartridge
Factory at Brownsburg, Que.

ROBERT SITTLINGTON, Lockmaster at this place, came here from the County of
Antrim, Ireland, in 1857. He was employed on the locks for twenty-three
years, and in 1882 was appointed to the charge of Lock No. 5, which
position he has ever since held. He has one son and three daughters now
living. His eldest son, Capt. John

Sittlington, died in Stonefield in 1888, aged 28. He held the Captaincy
of Company No. 8, of the Argenteuil Rangers, and was keeper of the
lighthouse at Carillon.  His early death was deeply deplored, not only
by the Rangers, with whom he was deservedly popular, and his relatives,
but by a large circle of friends and acquaintances.  He was buried at
Stonefield with military honours. His brother, WILLIAM SITTLING TON,
who had been an employee on the locks, succeeded him as lighthouse keeper,

and is still in the position. His wife was Miss Pinkerton. Robert
Sittlington s

eldest daughter, Mary Jane, was married ist January, 1887, to Robert
Pinkerton, an employee on the locks.

EDWARD DAWSON, who has for many years been a faithful employee on the
Soulanges Canal, was born in Mille Isles, soon after that place was
first settled, and remembers when it was principally forest. His father,
William Dawson, one of the early pioneers of Mille Isles, lived near
the lake, which was usually designated as "Lake Dawson." Mrs. Dawson
(mother of Edward) died loth December, 1857, at the age of 36 ; and
Mr. Dawson was again married in 1860 to a widow, Mrs. Ryan,

who survived him. Mr. Dawson s death took place about 1890, in the 68th
yeai of his age, and that of Mrs. Dawson in March, 1895.


Edward Dawson left Mille Isles at the age of 21 and came to Stonefield,
Chatham, where he engaged on the Canal works with the contractor, James
Goodwin, Esq.  This was in 1873, and Mr. Dawson remained in Mr. Goodwin
s employ till the work

was completed, being married in the meantime to Miss Lizzie Canning in
July, 1875.  In 1876 he bought a farm in Block C., front of Chatham,
where he still resides, being engaged in connection with his farming on
the Public Works. Mr. and Mrs. Dawson

have six sons and two daughters living.

About five miles north of Stonefield, in Chatham, is a settlement known as
Ogdensburg a name derived from an early settler named Ogden, a relative
of Capt.  Ogden of Vankleek Hill. Other early settlers there were the
Mullins, Strongs, Fos ter, Hatley, McPhadden and Blair, but they have
all left.

JAMES HEATLIE and his son WILLIAM, Scotchmen, located there several years
ago. Both are much respected men of Chatham, and the son is a municipal
coun cillor. He now has the management of the homestead a fine farm
with all the modern improvements. He married a daughter of the late
John Calder.

A family named TOWNSEND has also lived in Ogdensburg many years, and is
numbered with its intelligent citizens. JAMES TOWNSEND, a good farmer,
was appointed Justice of the Peace, and has held municipal offices.


This Parish, which embraces quite a portion of the Township of Chatham,
was erected in 1856. The small village which bears the same name is
located in the south eastern part, in one of the finest farming sections
in the County. The land around is level, free from stone, and some of it,
which was formerly marshy, has been transformed by thorough drainage,
so that the entire section now possesses dry,

beautiful and productive farms. It will be recollected that Colonel
Robertson pur chased a large tract of land in the front of Chatham ;
Thomas A. Stayner, Deputy Postmaster General, married a daughter of the
Colonel, and thus became possessed of much of the land in the vicinity
of St. Philippe.

The earliest settler who remained here any length of time, of whom we
have any record, was a man named LEVI LEVITT. He came from Dunham,
in the Eastern Townships, about the year 1820, and built a house on
the site of the present Roman Catholic presbytery. He was a single man,
and brought with him only his axe, some biscuits, and half a quintal of
codfish. There was no road at the time, consequently these articles were
brought on his back, and, for a long time after this, his supplies were
all brought to his home in the same manner. He afterward married, reared a

family, cleared up a farm, and died here many years ago. Wolves caused
him great annoyance, and, about the time of the Rebellion of 1837,
tne 7 killed thirty- five of his sheep in one night. After his death,
his family sold the farm and left the country.

ROBERT ALLEN, whose father lived in Thomas Gore, was one of the quite
early settlers here, and he remained and raised a large family of
children, but they have long since departed.

One of the oldest settlers still living in this section is MICHAEL
BREARTON, a native of the County of Kilkenny, Ireland. He landed in
Quebec, rath June, 1845, and came directly to Carillon, where he remained
with his uncle, Patrick Murphy, four years. On the apth April, 1852,
he was married to Mary Robert, and the next day settled on the farm
where he now lives, which contains seventy-two acres, and on which, at
that time, there were but ten acres cleared. This is now all cleared up,
and neatly and conveniently fenced off into three and five acre lots. He
has comfortable



buildings, and, at different times, has taken a prize on his farm,
at the County Agri cultural Fair. Other land which he has purchased,
located not far from the home

stead, makes him now a farm of two hundred and ten acres. Mr. Brearton,
in 1838, before leaving Ireland, took the temperance pledge from Father
Matthew, and has

faithfully kept it to this day ; and, though his frosted hair and whiskers
bespeak advanced age, his fresh complexion, erect form and elastic
step give evidence of youthful vigor, and health well preserved. He is
a man much respected, and has held the position of School Commissioner
eighteen years. He has five sons, but only one of them Peter, who lives
on the homestead remains in this section.

Many years ago, a boy. son of a man named Hately, living in the front of
Chatham, was lost, and, after wandering eight days, he was found in the
woods, not far from the house of Mr. Lcavitt. He claimed to have had no
nourishment in all

that time, save water and a dozen beech nuts all he could find.

The next settler after Leavitt was James Smith, a man from the States,
between whom and Mr. Stayner a law-suit arose, for non-pa) ment of the
money due on his

land. Others encouraged and aided Smith, and it was some time before he
was dis

possessed, and his farm, which was then of considerable value, was sold
by Stayner to ROBERT COCHRAN.

Mr. Cochran came, with his family, from Brussels, Belgium, where he had
been foreman in a factory, and it was one of his duties to pay the weavers
there employed.  He married there a Scotch girl named Amelia Mitchell,
sister of Archie Mitchell who was a Commissary in the British service
at the time the battle of Waterloo was fought. The two sons, Columbus
and Sidney, and two daughters, Jane and Emma, of

Mr. Cochran, received a good education in Brussels before coming to this
country, so that they were regarded by their less fortunate neighbors
in Chatham with a certain degree of awe and respect. They arrived at
Chatham about 1824. One of the sons,

Columbus Cochran, was a man of great enterprise, and he erected a brewery
and dis tillery here, bought a large tract of land, and was about carrying
out other plans when he was accidentally drowned in the Ottawa. Jane,
one of the daughters of Robert Cochran, was married to James Fatten.

Some years after the death of Columtus Cochran, the remaining members of
his father s family sold the homestead, and it is now owned by WILLIAM
DAVIDSON, one of the prominent and respected farmers of St. Philippe. His
method of farming is quite in advance of the old style. He has all the
improved farming implements : kteps

only good stock, swine, etc., and the care that he devotes to feeding
them makes a visit to his premises pleasant to those interested in such
matters. Before coining here, Mr. Davidson had considerable experience
in market gardening at Cote St.  Paul, and still gives some attention
to this industry. While at Cote St. Paul, he was

married to an intelligent Christian lady, the widow of William Broml.y.

John Davidson, his father, who lives in this vicinity, may be classed
among those settlers who came after the migration of the squatters or
potash makers. He airived in Canada from Yorkshire, England, in 1833,
and remained at Cote St. Paul a few years, where he married Hannah
Bromby. He seived in one of the Volunteer companies of Montreal in
1837-38, and afterward came to Chatham. He first took up but one lot ;
but has since added two or three more the last being purchased in 1848.
He now has a large farm well stocked, which is managed by his son Robert,
who is mar ried to a daughter of Robert Nichols, of Cushing. One of his
daughters is also married to Mr. James Nichols, brother to Mrs. Robert
Davidson. Mr. Davidson has had eleven children eight sons and three
daughters but, besides the children above mentioned, George, one of the
sons living in Lachine, is the only one now residing in this section
of Canada.


JAMKS PATTON, from St. Andrews, in Scotland, came to this country
about 18^ After staying with his brother Robert at Van s Corner a
year, and working in different places till 1837, he bought the land at
St. Philippe now owned and occupied bv his son, Robert C. Patton. He
was married about this time to Jane Cochran but the Rebellion soon
called him from the peaceful pursuits of an early settler to those of a
Volunteer. There was a log-house and barn, but only a smal. clearing on
the land when Mr. Patton purchased it, so that the work of clearing up
a farm of one hundred and fifty acres furnished himself, with the aid
of his boys, a life-long work He was appointed a Justice of the Peace,
but always declined to exercise the duties of his office, that of School
Commissioner being the only one in which he served, and that he held for
many years. He had four children sons ; one of these died in childhood,
another at the age of twenty-eight. His youngest son Charles F who is
a physician, lives in San Francisco, California. Mr. Patton died 2 6th
MiY 1877; Mrs. Patton i6th September, 1853. Robert C, the only son in
this section has always remained on the homestead, and is one of the
respected and substantial farmers of Chatham. He has been Municipal
Councillor seven or eH, t years and a School Commissioner three or
four. He was married to Agnes Dobbie in is6-

Besides a small shop or two, there is one good-sized general store at
St Philio

which is the property of PIERRE CARRIERE & SON. Mr. Carriere came from St
Scholastique to this place in 1855, took his uncle s farm at Staynerville
Diving him a lif lease Five years afterward he went to California to
earn money to pay for additional land he had bought. After an absence
of nearly five years he returned and paid for is land, and once more
devoted himself to farming. Believing, however that he could make money
faster in other business, in 1868 he sold his personal property renl

his farm, and went to the region bordering on Lake Superior. There at
his trade of carpenter and by taking boarders, he cleared $2,200 in
eighteen months.  Returning he worked his farm till March, 1890, when
he sold it and bought the store in wh

he is still engaged. The first wife of Mr. Carriere, Bridget 6 Reillv,
died in T S<7 avmg one daughter, who is now married. In 1865 he
married Marie Cyr bv which image he has four sons and one daughter. His
eldest son, Arthur, who is with im in the store received a good academic
education at St. Scholastique and Lachute He : was marned in January,
1893, to Lia Foucault. Mr. Pierre Carriere is a member of the Dissentient
School Board, Board of Health, is Assessor, a Director of t

tian Granite Quarry, and has been Municipal Councillor several years.
TAYLOR LAFRAMBOISE came to St. Philippe from St. Scholastique in 1870
and led a small carriage shop on his arrival, but his business has
so prospered that he enlarged his premises, and now usually employs a
dozen men. He has a paint lop harness and blacksmith shop, so that he
is prepared to make all kinds of vehicle and he annually sells a number
of fine buggies of the most improved and latest style 3 an undertaker,
and agent for all kinds of agricultural implements besides :ing Manager
and Secretary of the Laurentian Granite Quarry Company Jterpnse of Mr. L*
framboise has brought him success, and he has erected a neat

a attractive residence here.

f a mile west from the village of st - Philippe on a good

His father, James Boyd Chambers, came from the County of Tyrone, Ireland
to UK tham m 1841, and settled on the farm now owned and occupied by his
son Thomas ? was only a rude hut on it and a small clearing at the time,
and he soon erected

e comfortable house, which is still standing, and he also, with the
assistance of >ns, cleared up the farm. Mr. Chambers had received a
pretty fair education in

riy days, which was of good service to him in this country. He was
a School


Commissioner for some time ; but his principal business was buying and
selling cattle and sheep a pursuit he followed for thirty-five years. He
died in January, 1893, in the goih year of his age. He had six sons and
four daughters; one of the latter is now dead. Four of the sons live in
Chatham and two are in Montana.

James B. Chambers, one of the sons, in his younger days was employed
in the lumber business, and thus earned money, with which, in 1868, he
purchased of his father the farm of i oo acres on which he now lives. He
has erected fine commodious barns, keeps a good stock of cattle, horses
and sheep, and everything about his

premises gives evidence of thrift and prosperity Mr. Chambers was married
in September, 1873, to Margaret Scarborough. He has been a member of
the School Board a number of years.

John Chambers, another son of the late James B. Chambers, is proprietor
of a good farm adjacent to that of his brother named above, though on
another road leading from St. Philippe to the front of Chatham. He was
married loth September, 1875, to Nancy Smith, daughter of the late John
Smith, of Chatham.




The following few notes have been gathered, for the greater part,
from the mouths of several of the most ancient Catholic parishioners of
St. Philippe still living. Any one of my successors may, if he wills it,
give them a literary form, and complete them.

The beginning and developments of the Roman Catholic parish of
St. Philippe, County of Argenteuil, Province of Quebec, would be very
interesting to be traced up in an historical point of view, the much
more interesting, as they would show us how were formed through time
most of the Roman Catholic parishes situated on the two banks of the
Ottawa River, in the Counties of Argenteuil, Ottawa, Prescott and


The parish of St. Philippe is situated in the centre of the County of
Argenteuil, 48 miles from Montreal, and 72 miles from Ottawa, reckoning
from Staynerville station. It contains thus nearly the whole of the
township of Chatham, from the

township of Wentworth to the north, to the Ottawa River to the south. Its
territory, consequently, as it is shown by the local geographical map, is
found half in the valley of the Ottawa River, and half in the Laurentide

It is exclusively in the south part of the township of Chatham, from
the foot of the mountains, that is to say, in the valley of the Ottawa
River, that Catholic people have gathered up to the present time, where
they find themselves mixed with an English and Protestant population ;
but they have managed to live always in harmony with them, owing to
their remarkable spirit of liberality, peace and charity.

The parish of St. Philippe is generally known under the name of
St. Philippe of

Argenteuil, from the name of the county, or of St. Philippe of Chatham,
from the name of the township, or of Muddy Branch (La Branche), from the
name of a small brook on the Stayner road, to the north of the present
village, which brook discharges its whitish and muddy waters into the
North River, at Lachute, thus forming a branch of that much more important
stream. Whence follows, that saying that you go to St. Philippe, or to
Chatham, or to " La Branche," comes to the same thing, and you will be
understood by everyone in the neighborhood, and even far away.


The Roman Catholic population of the parish of St. Philippe, numbering 230
families and 1,400 souls, are nearly all of French-Canadian race. There

only about a score of Irish families, living, the most of them, in
the southern part of the parish. The first Roman Catholic families who
came to settle in the township of Chatham do not trace up the origin of
the parish of St. Philippe farther back than about threescore years,
from the most accurate relations of the old people of the afore said
place. The French-Canadian families, for the greater part, came hither
from the various parishes of the county of Two Mountains, where they were
already too crowd ed, to form settlements, and they fixed themselves, in
preference, at the foot of the mountain, and in the west of the township,
where the land seemed to them better and easier to be cultivated. French
colonists, generally speaking, are not so very well off, although steady,
as the English-speaking settlers, because they are not such good farmers,
and spend more money for their table, clothes and carriages. Let that
be said in passant as a piece of good advice, to be fair and impartial,
and to furnish them with a good opportunity of improving their morals
and methods.

Among the French-Canadian families who came successively and settled in
the township of Chatham, we may name, specially, the families Trudeau,
Sarrazin, Leclaire, Saintonge, Poireur, Bellefeuille, Raymond, Labrosse,
Bricot, Lamarche, Lacasse, Desjardins, Lalande, Latreille, Leblanc,
Laurin, Blais, iVIauricette, Laurence, Pilon, Foucault, Rochon,
Giroux, Ouellet, Carriere, Cleroux, Robert, Morin, Lapoime, etc. Some
of those families, in the course of time, left the place, but others are
represented there now by a good many members. The most ancient Irish or
Scotch Catholic families established in the township of Chatham are :
the families Byrne, Brearton, Cameron, Lennon, Derrick, McCoy, Farrell,
Wellingham, Baxter, Hart, Kelly, etc. The last three have left the place,
or are extinguished at the present time. There, as elsewhere, in general,
they have not kept the naive and strong faith of their mother-country. In
that point of view, the free soil of America was some what harmful
to them.

Whence and how were those first colonists attended to in the first years
of their settlement? According to the testimony of the old people of
St. Philippe, quite

unanimous on that point, during the interval from 1835 to I 836, tne y-
were obliged to- go to Saint Andre most of the time, to get religious
assistance. In fact, the first mass was said to them by one of the
former missionaries of the latter parish, possibly and probably, the
Rev. L. D. Charland, parish priest of Rigaud, in the house of Joseph
Larose, in the row of " La Branche," a house rebuilt by Charles Raymond
Labrosse.  There, also, Bishop Guigues put up, when he came to fix the
place of the first Roman Catholic chapel of the township of Chatham. The
Roman Catholic colonists of the

township of Chatham, during that same interval, from 1835 to X 836, were
also attended to by the missionaries while passing through Grenville,
and holding service in the old wooden chapel of that mission, situated
about a mile below the present village,

between the Queen s Road and the Ottawa River. You may see still the ruins
of that old chapel which was burned later on. The records of baptisms,
marriages and burials, for the mission of the township of Chatham, up
to 1856, must be found both in the parochial registries of St. Andre
and Grenville, according to the case.

The Canonicil erection of the parish of St. Philippe, which had been
till then a simple mission, took place on the 24th of January, 1856,
through a decree of Bishop J. E. B. Guigues, first bishop of Bytown,
and the civil erection, on the 6th of August, 1861, through the means of
Mr. Justice Lafontaine. Those proceedings gave it a regular and legal
existence, and contributed a great deal to its spiritual, moral and
material progress. One could guess already what it was to become later on.
Accord ing to the contents of the decree, that parish contains that part
of the township of


Chatham which is limited to the south by the Ottawa River, to cue east
by the line that separates the township of Chatham from the Seigniory of
Argenteuil, includ ing that patt of 1 Isle aux Chats" which is situated in
Chatham, to the north by the township of Wentwoith, and to the west by the
hill which is called Broon s Hill, a territory of about 27 square miles.

The first election of wardens, under the curacy of Rev. E, H. Ebrard,
curate to that parish (the reverend gentleman was drowned some years
later in taking a

bath at Masham Mills), was held on the 25th of May, 1856 ; that document,
as well as the certificate of marriage between Jos. Lacombe and Olive
Leclair, dated 2ist of July, 1856, are the two first parochial documents
of St. Philippe. The three first wardens elected were : Martin Sarrazin,
Amable Trudeau and Wm. Byrne. The warden in charge for the balance of
the aforesaid year was Martin Sarrazin. The

fourth warden elected was Leon Bricot-Lamarche, on the 6th of January,
1837, etc -

The Rev. Arthur Mignault, a French-Canadian, was the first parish priest
of St.

Philippe. Appointed in July, 1856, he did not fix his residence in that
place before October, 1837. He occupied at first, till the following
spting, the wooden house at the corner of the street, belonging now to
Joseph Corbeil, merchant, then the present priest-house, which became his
property for about two months, at the end of which he left the parish
in May, 1*58. He left behind him the name of a great preacher of the
Roman Catholic faith dead at the present time.

The second paiish priest of St. Philippe was the Rev. Laurent Jouvent,
a French

man by biith, afterwards a vicar-general of the diocese of Bytown. He
came hither in the first days of June, 1858, and left the parish at, the
end of March or at the beginning of April, 1862. He returned to France,
in the diocese of Paris, where he is still living at the present time.

The third parish priest of the same parish was Rev. P. S. Mancip, a
Frenchman, who came here in the last days of March or the first days
of April, 1862, and left the parish on the 2oth November, 1873. He was
afterwards appoin;ed parish priest at L Orignal, where he died and was
buried. The parishioners of St. Philippe, who were acquainted with him,
have the best remembrance of him, and are unanimous in their praise. His
departure was deplored by everybody, and people speak still of him
with emotion.

The fourth parish priest was the Rev. J. C. Comminges, a Frenchman,
who arrived here on the 17111 of November, 1873, and left at Michaelmas,
1877. He died suddenly in Manitoba some years ago.

The fifth parish priest was Rev. Gabriel Joseph Motte, a Frenchman,
who came here at Michaelmas, 1877, and left the parish at the end of
October, 1880, now September, 1894 a professor at Bourget College,
Rigaud. (See reg. fol. 46, p.  92.)

The sixth parish priest was Rev. Charles Larose, a French-Canadian,
who was appointed at the end of October, 1880, and left the parish at
Michaelmas, 1886, to go to the parish of Wendover, to-day parish priest
of " The Brook." He succeeded among a lot of difficulties to fix the
legal repartition for the construction of the present stone church. He
was esteemed by his people, specially on account of his sympathy for
sick people.

The seventh parish priest was the Rev. Peter Godin Chatillon, a
French-Cana dian, who arrived here at Michaelmas, 1886. He returned to
the diocese of Montreal on the 3rd of October, 1894, to become a chaplain
of the Monastery of the Good Shepherd, Sherbrooke street.

The parish of St. Philippe, which had grown pretty populous, resolved
to build a chapel for their own use. A generous citizen of the place,
Joseph Leclair, made a gift, at first verbally, of an acre of land for
that object ; the deed of the gift was not


signed till the loth of May, 1859. The contractor of the building was
Rinaldo fuller, a farmer of the neighborhood. The pews were made by
J. B. Beauchamp.  The brick chapel, 45 \3i outside, built in 1877, and
converted into a store by P.  Carriere & Son, was used as a parochial
church up to the 6th of January, 1889, exclusively. The land where it was
erected was sold, in part, in 1889 to Telesphore Desvoyaux-Laframbroise,
carter, and, in part, in 1890, with the chapel itself, to Joseph Mathias
Dorion, a merchant of the place, for the sum of $1,000, out of which sum
the Trustees Board of St. Philippe was obliged to pay a hundred dollars
to Joseph Leclair. The ground where were erected the present church,
presbytery and cemetery, to the east of the town, containing 35 acres,
was bought from the Rev. Arlhur Reignault by the trustees, on the 3rd of
February, 1859. The little steel bell, bought by Rev. F. 1. Mancip for the
Church Corporation, was sold in 1892 to the mission of Eardly, connected
with Aylmer. The wrought iron cross of the steeple is kept as a relic
in the smalt cemetery established in the vault of the present church.

The mission of Grenviile, from July, 1856, up to the appointment of the
first parish priest, Rev. D. I. Foley, in 1871, was attended to by the
parish priest of St.  Philippe, who used to say mass there once or twice
a month. The mission of Wentworth was also in charge, from July, 1856,
to October, 1884, of the parish priests of St. Philippe, at first without
any curate, and afterwaids from Michaelmas, 1892, through the means
of a curate, Mr. Dieudonne Belanger, who went to say mass there once a
month. The records of baptisms, marriages and burials of that mission,
during those two intervals, were then kept in the parochial registers
of St.  Philippe.  The mission of S r .. Joachim, Chute a Blondeau,
was attended to by the parish priests of St. Philippe up to ist January,
1887. The records of baptisms, marriages and burials of the said mission
were also kept, during that period of time, in the parochial registers
of St. Philippe.

Up to the present time, according to the testimony of the old people and
the registers of St. Philippe, there have been twelve episcopal visits:
the first in June, 1857, by Bishop Guigues, who put up that time at
Joseph Leclair s, whose stone house at the entrance of the village is
still in existence. It is in that same house that the missionaries of
Grenville put up and said mass for several years before the con struction
of the chapel. The second visit took place on the loth of June, 1861,
by Bishop Guigues; the third on the 2nd of June, 1864; the fourth on
the 6th of June, 1866 ; the fifth on the ist of July, 1872, always by
Bishop Guigues ; the sixth on the 3rd of June, 1875, by Bishop Duhamel ;
the seventn on the gth of July, 1879; the eighth on the 231x1 of June,
1881 ; the ninth on the 3rd of July, 1884 ; the tenth on the 24th of
July, 1887 ; the eleventh on the 28th of June, 1890 ; and the twelfth
on the 23rd of July all of them by Bishop Duhamel.

Meanwhile, the chapel, that had become too small, called for a new
temple worthy of the Divine Majesty, and large enough to contain, for
a long period of time, the Roman Catholic people of St. Philippe. The
diocesan Bishop, on the 23rd of June, 1 88 1, gave to the parishioners the
order, to get themselves ready to construct the new church in the near
future. The five wardens elected to put the said decree into execution
were: Gedeon Sarrazin, chairman ; John Robert, Leon Bruot

Lamarche, Joseph Dowick, and Toussaint Lacroix. Later on, Ge"deon
Sarrazin left

the place, and was replaced by Philibert Filion, and John Robert was
elected chair man. The outside plan, in Roman style, was made by Perrault
& Mesnard, architects of Montreal, according to which, the church was
to be 115 x 50 feet outside, and the vestry 36 x 26 feet inside. The
contract was given to Athanase Lauzon, of Bizard Island, for the amount
of $11, 800 cash, and the work began on the 251)1


of April, 1888. The said contractor did not give satisfaction in many
parts of the building. The blessing of the first stone took place on the 1
5th of the next May, under the direction of Bishop Duhamel, Archbishop of
Ottawa. The building Was completed the next fall, apart from the steeple,
which was not built till the following spring. The first mass was said
in the new church on the 6th of January, 1889 > three bells of the
foundry of Mears & Stainbank, London, giving the notes fa sol la, and
weighing 2466 pounds, were bought at the same time, by the Fabrique of
the church, through the means of a bazaar, and cost $1,170.52. Let us
praise the generosity of the parishioners of St. Philippe and of their
friends, on that occasion.  The solemn blessing of the church and the
bells took place on the 1 5th of June, 1889, and was presided over by
Bishop Duhamel. The big bell, weighing 992 pounds, was

given the names of Mary, John the Baptist, Joseph, Anne, Joachim,
Victoria ; the next one, weighing 809 pounds, the names of Elizabeth,
Elzear, Alexandre, Theresa, Bruno, Thomas; and the little one, weighing
665 pounds, the names of Rose, Philip, Patrick, Pierre, Agnes. Everyone
of them bears a Latin inscription, adapted to the occasion. The sermon
in French was given by Rev. J. Rouleau, a professor at the

Little Seminary of St. Teresa, and the sermon in English, by the
Rev. Wm.  Whelan, parish priest of St. Patrick, Ottawa. The sponsors
were Messrs. Simon Labrosse,

N.P., of St. Eugene, and lady ; W. Owens, M.P.P., of Lachute, and
Mrs. John Lennon, of St. Philippe; H. Berthelot, N.P., of Lachute, and
Miss Sauve ; Phineas Lane and Mrs. Philibert Filion of St. Philippe ;
John Kelly, of Carillon, and Mrs.  Kelly; Michael Dwyer, of Carillon,
and lady; Hugh Robert, of St. Philippe, and lady; Joseph Mathias Dorion,
of St. Philippe, and widow Honore Desjardins, of St.  Philippe ; Cyrille
Perier and widow Isidore Legault, St. Philippe ; John Fitzgerald, sen.,
and lady, Chatham ; John Fitzgerald and lady ; John Robert and lady ;
Augustin Prevost and lady ; Toussaint Lacroix and lady ; Celestin Leclair
and lady. A fine number of the neighboring priests were also present. The
collection amounted to $229.

The inside of the church and the vestry were completed in 1891, according
to the plan of Messrs. Perreault, Mesnard & Venne, three eminent
architects of Montreal.  The joiner s work by Ph. Boileau & Brothers,
of Bizard Island, cost the sum of $4000, and the decorative painting
by F. E. Meloche, a painter of Montreal, cost the same amount. Those
gentlemen gave full and entire satisfaction to their employers. On the
occasion of the inauguration of those final works, a pontifical mass
was celebrated by Bishop Duhamel, Archbishop of Ottawa, on the i2th of
November, 1891, in presence of agreat number of priests belonging to the
archdioceses of Montreal and Ottawa. The fourteen stations of the Way of
the Cross, which were also blessed on the same occasion, were generously
given by the parishioners of St.  Philippe. Each station cost $1500. The
stained glass windows, which cost in all

$362, were generous gifts. They were made by Castle & Son, of Montreal,
accord ing to the plans of E. Meloche. and cost $20 each, except the
one of the front gate, that cost $35.00. The Church of St. Philippe has
not yet been consecrated, but everything is ready to that end. The said
consecration, we may hope, will take place in the near future.

The school question did not fail early to attract the attention of
the Catholic

people of the township of Chatham. For that very reason, as soon as
the ist of July, 1861, the school municipality of the dissidents of
Chatham was established, and the three first wardens elected were
Leon Bricot-Lamarche, chairman ; Etienne Maheux and Moise Clement,
with Fernandez Naubert as secretary-treasurer. The first school- house
was built on f the land of Nap. Pilon, near to the village on the " La
Branche " row, and the first emale teacher was Adeline Cote, the wife
of Cyrille Perier, of St.


Philippe. Six schools were in full working in 1894. French and English
are taught simultaneously in one school. The three present wardens are :
Al. Morin, chairman ; Pierre Carriere and Ambroise Blais, with Hyacinthe
Paquin as secretary- treasurer.  All the Catholic people to-day are

The village of St. Philippe, all French and Roman Catholic, numbered,
in 1894, 28 houses, one of which is unoccupied, and 29 families, three
stores, one flour

merchant, a post office, one currier, two shoemakers, three
blacksmiths, two joiners, one hotelkeeper, one baker, one tailor and
two dressmakers. Several private and

public improvements have been made during the last few years.

In fine, let us say it appears that to the parish of St. Philippe is
connected a glorious record in the annals of the French domination
in Canada. It would appear that it was at the foot of " Long Sault "
at Greece s Point, or in the neighborhood on either bank of the Ottawa
River, that took place the heroic struggle of Doilard and his twenty-six
companions, with forty-six Hurons and Algonquins against eight hun dred
Iroquois, in May, 1660. According to my humble opinion, the Provincial
Government of Quebec should not delay ordering thorough explorings in
the said place, in order to try to discover the very spot where was
acted that heroic deed of our national history.


The locality in which the pioneers next mentioned spent their last days
is about two miles west of St. Philippe,

CAPTAIN JOHNSON SMITH, who had been a soldier in the American Revolution,
came from New Hampshire to Stanstead, Que., about 1799, and in 1805,
to the front of Chatham, and bought 100 acres of land, which is now
owned and occupied

by Geo. M. Bradford. In the war of 1812, he became Lieutenant of Militia,
and after the war, he was promoted to the rank of Captain a title by
which, subse quently, he was always known and addressed. He had five
sons and five daughters.  His two eldest sons, Walter and Johnson, were
also soldiers during the war of 1812, and the former was wounded at the
Battle of Lacolle Mill. Captain Johnson Smith

died 30th November; 1857 ; his wife died igth February, 1850. Three of
their sons, Johnson, Daniel and David, all remained in Chatham till death,
and reared large families.

Daniel, the third son, at the age of eighteen, bought a lot in the
2nd Concession, on which he spent his life, and which is now owned and
occupied by his own son,

Johnson Smith. About 1828, he married Esther Dale, daughter of Daniel
Dale, of Dalesville, who built the first mills there. Mr. Smith was an
industrious, thrifty farmer, and erected a good stone house with tin
roof, in which his son still resides.  He died 23rd April, 1889, aged
88 years and n months ; Mrs. Smith died i6th December, 1884, aged 72
years and 6 months. They had twelve children, nine of whom seven sons
and two daughters grew up. Johnson, the son living on the homestead,
married 2oth April, 1881, Elizabeth McArthur ; John, his brother, lives
with him. He has a fine farm of 140 acres, well stocked, and all the
agricultural implements employed by a thrifty, intelligent farmer.

Daniel, another brother, married in November, 1882, a widow, Mrs. H. A.
Hooper. In 1880, he built a powder mill at Brownsburg, which has since
become the property of the Dominion Cartridge Company, and Mr. Smith
for several years

has been their agent. He lives at Brownsburg, and is widely known as a
public- spirited, energetic gentleman.

Jacob, another son of Captain Smith, married 24th November, 1862,
Elizabeth Chambers; he settled near the homestead, and died there nth
September, 1891.


His widow still resides there with her children, of whom they had seven
four sons and three daughters. Millie, one of their daughters, in 1890,
at the age of 13,

received a medal from the Montreal Witness, for a story she wrote for
the paper, concerning her grand-father Smith s life as a pioneer.

ROBERT MARTIN, from or near Bury, St. Edmunds, England, came to Chatham
in 1845, an d i fi I 85 settled on the farm now owned and occupied
by his son, George B. Martin. He had been married in England, but his
wife died, and he left his two children a son and daughter there, when
he came to this country. In 1849, ne married Mary Bothwell; they had
three children two sons and one daughter but one of the former died
in infancy. Mr. Martin died in July, 1859; Mrs. Martin in January,
1891. Their only remaining son, George Broke, received his second name

after Captain Broke, who commanded the British vessel " Shannon,"
which captured the United States ship " Chesapeake," near Boston, in
the American War; Captain

Broke being an old and esteemed friend of Mr. Martin.

George B. Martin, the son, has always remained on the homestead with
his sister, Mary Jane. He has a good-sized farm, as well as a good
library. In 1867, lie joined the Argenieuil Rangers, and has passed
through the different grades of pro motion, till he now holds the rank
of Major. In 1891, he was appointed Secretary- Treasurer of the Cha
ham Council, and two years later, Secretary- Treasurer of the School
Commissioners of Municipality No. i, comprising the first six ranges of
lots in Chatham. The rural abode of Mr. Martin and his sister, and the
possession of a library, hive enabled them, without the distractions
incident to a less secluded life, to profit by extensive reading a fact
pleasurably apparent to those who meet them.


A little more than a mile from St. Philippe, and at the railway station,
a post office has been established with the above name, a name of a former
Post-master General, who once owned a large tract of land here.
 There is no village
here, the station and an hotel comprising all the buildings, except
farmers houses scattered at various distances along the highway. At a
short distance from the Station, running through a narrow valley with
steep, sloping sides, is a small stream known as Muddy Branch, on account
of the turbid water caused by clay soil. On the opposite bank of the
stream from the station stand the buildings of two comparatively early
settlers, on different sides of the highway ; their names are WILLIAM

The father of the former, who was a tailor, came to Canada about 1830,
and first lived in the front of Chatham on the farm of Colin Dewar,
but about two years later he was engaged by the Rev. Joseph Abbott,
who then owned the Bradford estate in

that section, to go to St. Andrews, and act as sexton for his church. A
year subse quently, he was induced to obtain a piece of land that he
could call his own, and on which his children could do something toward
the support of the family, while he could still follow his trade. With
this object in view, he took a lot on Muddy Branch, so marshy at the
time, that the proprietor, Mr. Stayner. had great difficulty in finding
anyone who would purchase it. At the time of the Rebellion, Mr. Parish,
merchant of St. Andrews, took a contract for supplying the Volunteers
with clothing, and Mr.  Scarborough was employed in cutting and making
it, and from that time forward obtained all the work he desired.

William, his son, who now owns the homestead, when a boy worked some
years for his neighbors, Levi Leavitt and Robert Allen. He was employed
by the latter


during the Rebellion, and as Mr. Allen belonged to the Cavalry, and
was stationed, sometimes at the " Barracks" in Carillon, and sometimes
at St. Andrews, it was a part of young Scarborough s work to bring to
Allen, every week, one of the farm horses, and take back the charger
used in service the week previous. Mr. Scarborough says he was kept
pretty busy at that time, and during the days when the fight occurred
at St. Eustache, and the Volunteers marched to Grand Brule, he had to
look after the stock and chores of a number of the Volunteers who lived
in proximity to Mr.  Allen.

Subsequently, he worked a good deal with lumber men, and on one occasion,
when in a camp with a few men, back from the river on the Upper Ottawa,
he was left entirely alone for ten days. One of the men cut his knee,
and from want of proper treatment the knee swelled, and the man was in
danger of his life, so that some

of his companions had to convey him on a stretcher to the river, thence
by boat to a pkce where he could receive proper medical aid. In the
meantime, Scarborough was left in charge of the camp, and he found the
first night or two rather trying to his nerves, as wolves surrounded and
seemed determined to attack him, but were pre vented by the bright fire,
which he kept burning continuously all night.

At another time, when carrying the mail from Grenville to Hull, he was
in danger of being drowned. Bridges had been carried away, and the land
was overflowed during a spring freshet, so that he had to use a canoe in
making his trip. While thus jour neying near the mouth of the Gatineau,
his boat was suddenly entangled in a great mass of floodwood, swept down
by the breaking of a dam above. After much diffi culty, he succeeded in
gaining an island, from which he was rescued. But Mr.  Scar borough seems
to have borne the hardships and surmounted the difficulties of pioneer
life successfully, as he is still active, and performs much hard labor.
His farm the same which his father obtained from Stayner is no longer
a morass, but

all cleared and drained, and produces fine crops. He has four children
one son and three daughters; the latter, all married, live in distant
parts ; John, the son, with his family resides here on the homestead.

RICHARD DAVIS came to Chatham from Gloucester, England, about 1832, and
for some time found employment on the canal, which was then in process
of construc tion. One method then employed to procure rum afforded him
some amusement, and was an incident in his early experience in this
country he used subsequently to re late.

A few of the horses of the canal laborers, tempted by the fresh feed
in the road or fields adjacent, often broke out of their enclosure. A
certain foreman of a gang watched for such opportunities, put the horses
in pound, and with the poundage thus secured bought rum for his men.

Subsequently, Mr. Davis bought the lot adjoining Mr. Scarborough s,
which is now owned and occupied by his nephew, William Davis. These two
men began work on their land, and built houses about the same time. So
marshy was the ground at that time, that they were obliged to quit work
while it was quite light, otherwise they would find it necessary to remain
over night in the woods, not being able to pick their paths through the
morass in the darkness. On one occasion, Mr. Davis, having prolonged
his work till it was quite late, was overtaken by night, in attempting
to reach the house of Mr. Allen, which he made his temporary residence ;
he then kindled a fire, and lay down on a log beside it to sleep. He was
prevented, however, by three wolves which kept him company the entire
night, often venturing so near, snapping and howl ing, that he was in
constant fear of becoming their prey. For several years, these animals
and lynxes were very destructive to the sheep of these two pioneers the

latter, on account of the stealth with which they carried off lambs,
being more dreaded than wolves.



The children of Mr. Davis all died in infancy, and a few years after
the death of his wife, he went to England, where he also died.

Previous to this, in September, 1853, his nephew, WILLIAM DAVIS, came
to this country, and lived with him eight years. He then worked out a
few years, married to Ann Chambers, and returned, obtaining his uncle
s farm by means of a life lease.  He is one of the substantial farmers
of this section, and has two children a son and daughter who both live
with him. Mrs. Davis died in 1894.

In this neighborhood, on the 6th Range, is also the fine farm of David,
the fourth son of DAVID McOuAT.

In 1879, he purchased 120 acres here, the greater part of which he has
cleared and brought to a good state of cultivation ; his level and well
tilled fields and good buildings indicating the presence and management
of a thrifty farmer. He has within a few years purchased 150 acres more
in the adjoining Range. He was married 4th

November, iSyr, to Ellen Kern


This pleasant little village or hamlet, which has recently sprung into
some pro

minence on account of being the site of the Cartridge Factory, and near
the lately discovered granite quarry, was, in early years, made a place
of no little importance by the erection of Brown s mills.

GEORGE BROWN came from England to Lachute, and was for several years
employed as miller in the old seigniorial mill at that place. The
exact time of his advent is uncertain, but the fact that, in 1818,
he received a grant of land at what is now known as Brownsburg, shows
that he was here at that date. He was a man of enterprise, and very soon
after locating his land, he began the erection of mills, which were of
priceless benefit to the early settlers of this section a benefit which
their descendants still enjoy, after the lapse of threescore years.

There is good evidence that his dwelling house, which is now occupied by
his grandson, D. D. McGibbon, was entered by his family, as a residence,
in 1829.  Much of the lumber which was used in its construction was
floated up the stream on which the. mills were built, from Lachute,

Mr. Brown became a man of great influence here ; he was a Magistrate and
Captain of Militia, from which, on the 2istMay, 1857, he was promoted to
the rank of Major.  Much credit is due him for his perseverance under the
most discouraging circum stances, it being authentically stated that,
when the family reached St.  Andrews, on coming from England, they had
only money enough left to purchase a single loaf bread. Before closing
his career, however, he surrounded his family with all the com forts of
affluence, and was able to relieve the necessities of many others. He
left bit two daughters, one of whom married Alexander McGibbon, the
other married James Duddridge.

ALEXANDER McGiBBON was a distant relative of John McGibbon, the second
settler at Dalesville, and he came to that place very soon after the
arrival of John.  The latter was a carpenter by trade, and Alexander
worked with him. and learned

the trade, before they left Scotland.

Alexander had a fine, melodious voice, and was an excellent singer
a talent that was often exercised atreligiois meetings and social
gatherings, after he came


Dalesville. Possessing considerable skill, also, in treating and nursing
the sick ; his services were highly estimated by the community around,
the members of which he

vomited and bled according to the pathological views of those days to
their heart s content. A much loved man was Alex. McGibbon. His wife died
soon after he came to this country a bereavement he felt very keenly. He
determined never to marry again, and finally moved, with most of his
family, to Ontario, where he died.

Mrs. McGibbon was the first woman buried in the cemetery at Dalesville ;
they had four sons John and Duncan, twins, Alexander, Daniel, and one
daughter, Cathe rine, or " Kitty," as she was always called.

Alexander, their third son, married Jane, daughter of George Brown, Esq.,
nth June, 1845, an d came into possession of his father-in-law s estate,
.consisting of the mills and about 1000 acres of land. He rebuilt the
mills, and his enterprise and influ ence for many years showed him a
worthy successor of the one whose place he had

assumed. In 1855, loth February, he was appointed Postmaster the
Post-office being then established, with the name Brownsburg ; and
besides other local positions, he held that of School Commissioner many
years. He died 25th June, 1883, aged 62 years, n months ; Mrs. McGibbon
died, lothMay, 1889, aged 70 years, 2 months.

They had ten children five of each sex. The homestead was divided between
the two sons, Alexander and Duncan D. McGibbon. The former has 300 acres
of land, much of which is valuable and in a good state of cultivation, and
the saw mill ; the latter has 325 acres, and the grist mill. Alexander was
married, 3oth June, 1886, to Mary Jane Warwick ; she died 2;th July, 1891.

Duncan McGibbon was married to Annie, daughter of William Buchan of
Geneva, 2oth June, 1888. Alexander has been a member of the Board
of School Commissioners for the past five or six years ; and both the
brothers, who are admirable types of physical form and vigor, are esteemed
for their genial qualities and public spirit.

George Brown McGibbon, another son of Alexander McGibbon, died at Butte
City, Montana, i5th April, 1887 ; and James W. McGibbon, another of his
sons, died i6th March, 1892, at Victoria, B.C. Catherine, a daughter
of Alexander McGibbon, who was married to Archie McArthur, died 23rd
October, 1882.

The scenery in the vicinity of the Brownsburg mills is romantic in
the extreme ; the river on which they are located, and which provides
admirable water power, rushing over its rocky bed through deep chasms
and woodland bowers, is not the least attractive feature of the landscape.

JOHN MACDONALD from Sutherland, Scotland, not far from 1812, engaged as
clerk to the Hudson Bay Company, and was thus employed for some years
in the North west. He came to Lachute about 1821, engaged in mercantile
business, and acted as land agent for Colin Robertson, whose wife s
sister he had married. In 1835 ne took up at Brownsburg 200 acres Lot 9,
Range 7, which is still owned and occupied by his children. His selection
of land was a good one, as the farm is now a beautiful one, and has
been awarded the first prize more than once by the County Agricultural
Society. At present, it sustains 32 head of cattle and 8 horses.  Mr.
Macdonald took an active part in quelling the Rebellion of 1837, an( ^
at tnat t me \vasCaptainofaCompanyof Militia; he died nth July, 1879;
his wife died 15111 January, 1890. They had thirteen children, of whom
twelve grew up. Two sons, George and James, and two daughters, Mary, and
a widow, Mrs. James Thornton, live on the homestead. James, for some time,
belonged to the Argenteuil Rangers, and George, to the St. Andrews Troop.

Mills or manufactories usually form the nucleus of a village ; but the
little village


of Brownsburg, instead of following this time- honored rule, has shown
a preference for four " Corners," and grown up at some distance from
the mills.

There are two stores here, owned respectively by Mr. McArthur. who
is the Postmaster of the place, and H. E. THOMPSON; the store of the
latter being an imposing brick structure that would do credit to a
city. Mr. Thompson was born in Hochelaga, his grandfather, who did a
large business, being an early trader in that place. His father was
a grocer ; and, after living with him till he was thirteen years of
age, he learned telegraphy, and for a few years was employed by the
Dominion, Montreal and G. N. W. Telegraph Companies, and, afterwards,
was on the Quebec, Montreal & Occidental Railway. Subsequently, he was
for ten years station agent and telegraph operator at St. Philippe. He
left this in 1890, to engage in trade at St. Philippe, receiving on his
resignation a flattering recommendation from the assistant Superintendent,
H. B. Spencer. Two and a half years later, having

bought his present store and 160 acres of land at Brownsburg, he removed
hither in February, 1892. He was married iQth September, 1893, to Eliza
Nichols of Stayner- ville, Que.

Among the few dwellings here is the neat brick one of Daniel Johnson,
who is mentioned in the sketch of St. Philippe.

There is a Methodist church here, in which service is held regularly by
the minister at Lachute. The land for this church was given by George
Brown, Esq., " to the Rev. Francis Coleman and others, on behalf of the
Wesleyan Methodist Church," in 1852.

JOHN McLEOD, the village blacksmith at this place, descends from one
of the pioneers of Harrington. His grandfather, Hugh McLeod, also a
blacksmith, Came from Sutherlandshire, Scotland, to that township among
the early settlers, and worked at his trade there till his death, about
ten years ago. He had four sons and an equal number of daughters who
grew up. Donald McLeod, his youngest son, married Bella Dewar, bought 150
acres of land near his home, and still lives on it, engaged in farming. He
has five daughters and four sons. John, second son, married Mary McLeod,
26th June, 188;, and for the last five years has plied his

trade with ample encouragement at Brownsburg.


Traveling westward from Brownsburg, one first climbs quite an ascent,
and then, after passing through a strip of pleasant woodland, descends a
short dis tance, when a scene abruptly meets his eye, which, if he is a
stranger in the locality, will both please and surprise him ; this scene
comprises the grounds and buildings of the DOMINION CARTRIDGE COMPANY. All
the buildings neatly painted, and the main ones imposing in size, located
in a romantic dell, on a stream abounding in scenery the most picturesque
the picture is one to which the memory in after days will often revert.

In 1886, a joint stock company was formed, with Hon. J. J. C. Abbott as
pr sident ; capital $10,000. The erection of the buildings wa.s completed
in 1887,

and work commenced.

Mr. Abbott held the presidency two years, when he resigned, and Thomas C.
Brainard, president of the Hamilton Powder Co., became his successor.

Capt. A. L. Howard, famous for his connection with the Gatling Gun,
was instrumental in forming the Company, and had charge of the works
four years, when he was succeeded by F. G. VERITY, who for ten years
had been connected with the

Hamilton Powder Company ; he is now General Agent for the Cartridge


Mr. Verity is a gentleman of high intelligence, and his activity,
forethought, and care of the men and works in his charge, contribute
largely to the prosperity of the C( mpany. They were fortunate, too,
in securing the services of a cartridge

expert, E. W. Kelly of Lowell, Mass , in whose charge are ths details
of the whole manufacturing department.

I here are 23 buildings connected with this manufactory, besides the
factory and office ; the former is 50 ft. by 140 ft. in size, and four
stories in height. The boarding house is TOO ft. by 30 ft., three stories,
and contains forty bedrooms ; it is heated by steam, and is supplied
with all the modern conveniences. The factory and office are lighted
by electric light. Employment is given to a good number of both sexes,
and the pay-roll averages about $2,800 a month.

This is the only factory of its kind in the Dominion ; all kinds
of cartridges for small arms and all kinds of military and sporting
cartridges are manufactured here.  Extreme care to guard against accident
is exercised throughout the establishment.

The plan of erecting tenements for their employees is now under
consideration by the Company, and, no doubt, will be carried into effect.

The fine boarding house at Brownsburg is under the able management
of MRS.  R. HARDIE, who belongs to a family deserving special notice in
these pages.

JAMES CARPENTER, her paternal grandfather, was a soldier in the British

21 years. He served in the war of 1812, was taken prisoner, and escaped
; he was on a vessel with his Company, sailing to join the force of
Wellington, but before their arrival the victory of Waterloo had been
won. On receiving his discharge, he was awarded a pension and a grant of
Lot 27, nth Range, in the rear of Chatham. On this land he settled in
1832, and for a number of years often had his early military ardor and
courage rekindled in the war he was obliged to wage against the bears
of Chatham.  He died in the house of his son George, with whom he lived,
in December, 1878.  He had a large family of children, but only six of
them three sons and three daughters settled in this ^ection. Thomas and
Robert, the eldest sons, were twins ; George, the third and youngest
son, remained on the homestead, and increased it by 200 acres, which he
purchased in the loth Range; he also erected a saw mill.  He was for a
time member of the School Board of this Municipality; he died in August,
1882. In 1850, he married Sarah Haney; they had three sons and seven
daughters who grew up.

Letitia Annie, the eldest, was married to Richard Hardie, gth November,
1870.  Mr. Hardie, who had previously followed farming, has been
in the employ of the Cartridge Company about seven years. During the
greater portion of this time Mrs. Hardie has had charge of the boarding

James Carpenter, the eldest brother of Mrs. Hardie, learned the millwright
trade, at which he is regarded as an expert; he has followed it in this
section for the past twelve years. Ten of these he has spent in the
employ of J. C. Wilson, with whom he still remains at Lachute. He was
married 22nd June, 1880, to Elizabeth Robinson.

Thomas Carpenter, one of the twin sons of James Carpenter, the pioneer,
married Margery Sweeney, and bought Lot 24, toth Range of Chatham, on
which he lived a few years till the death of his wife. He then rented
his farm, married